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2 and 3. While it is natural that no person would be engaged

as an instructor who was not an experienced and
practical man, evidenced perhaps by his winning
prizes at local and other competitions, only one county,
Dorset, appears to insist on a would-be instructor first
obtaining a certificate from the County Council in a class
at a competition specially organised for those who desire

to be teachers in any particular subject.
4. In the majority of cases instruction is given for at least

two hours a day, and for six or more days, but some
counties give less than this, one especially relying on
competitions as most valuable, though indirect, methods

of conveying instruction.
5. The number of pupils taken at a time appears as a rule to

be more or less limited to such as the teacher can
properly supervise. But this

But this does not appear to be the
case in every instance. It is obvious that the smaller the
number of pupils, the greater the attention that the
instructor can bestow upon each, and this is a point
which should be borne very carefully in mind by those

responsible for the instruction given.
6, 7, and 8. The holding of competitions at the end of a

course, or season, and the giving of prizes seem to be
general ; while the arrangements for their conduct, the
necessary work to be accomplished, and the engagement
of farmers as practical judges, are points which in most

cases seem to be carefully considered and arranged for.
9. In the majority of cases the answers to this question are

in the negative, but, as already mentioned, in the case of
Dorset, the obtaining of a certificate in the senior com-

petitions is a necessary qualification.
10. In about half the counties making returns, some allowance

is made to pupils in respect of their loss of time, usually
in the form of special small prizes to those who have

attended the classes in a satisfactory manner.
11. This question had reference only to the subject of hedging.

In the returns from all counties except one, the pupils
are reported as working singly. In the case of that
county (Staffordshire) the pupils work in pairs, and
inspection of the work done there shows that the system

is well worthy of imitation.
12. The answers to this question show, generally, that the

instruction given has been of much value, farmers being
satisfied with it, and men able, as a result, to obtain work
when they would otherwise, presumably, have been

without it.
While the above information shows that, in many particulars,
counties are working on fairly similar lines, it may yet be of some
value to make certain suggestions, both from a consideration of
the returns received, and also from actual inspections of work
while carried out.

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PROCESSES OF AGRICULTURE.

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In order that the work may have definite attention paid to it,
and be in complete touch with the farmers in a county, it would
seem desirable that in each county a special committee should be
formed to organise and exercise supervision over the work.
Where there is a local agricultural college, this would naturally
be represented on the committee, and be the centre from which
the work should be organised, but it is essential that the farmers of
the county should be in the closest touch with the work, and to
the county agricultural society, with kindred local societies if
they exist, might be safely entrusted the duty of nominating the
greater number of the members of this committee.

As regards teachers, two courses are open. It is possible, in a
number of subjects, such as ploughing, hedging and ditching,
stacking, and thatching, to have one teacher who is skilled in all
these processes, and to carry out the instruction by means of his
services only. There is considerable advantage in this plan, as
the work in a county is thus rendered uniform. At the same
time it is often more convenient to have a number of local
teachers for each district, into which, for these purposes, the
county would, of course, be divided. While in the first instance
such men must naturally be selected by personal recommendation
on the part of those who know their work, it is highly desirable
to endeavour to build up in each county a body of men whu have
satisfactorily passed a special examination qualifying them, so far
as their skill is concerned, to act as local instructors. How far
each would be capable of imparting instruction to others is a
matter which could only be ascertained by personal observation.

The length of instruction given in each subject is one on which
great stress should be laid, and the number of persons admitted
to each class. It is far better to train a few men properly, than
to give inadequate instruction to double or treble the number.
When possible it is well to devote the whole of the day to in-
struction in such subjects as hedging and ditching, stacking,
thatching, &c., but this is not always convenient, and in that case
instruction should be confined to the morning or afternoon on
certain days in the week at each centre; but five whole days or
ten half days may certainly be taken as a minimum.

It is usual in giving instruction to get a class of, say, six persons or pupils together at one centre, but this is not essential. In ploughing, at any rate, good work is done by the instructor going from farm to farm and remaining with a pupil or two there for a couple of hours at a time. It would be quite possible to extend this system to instruction in other subjects.

As regards hedging, it is not at all a bad plan to let the pupils work in pairs, one preparing the fence and the other laying it and finishing it off. After a certain time, the two should be changed about as regards the work they are doing.

At the end of a course, or a series of courses, in a district, it is most important that there should be a competition, with classes for both young labourers and older ones, and with a class also for young farmers. It might be possible to have one special

competition at a later date, for those 1st and 2nd or even 3rd prize winners who wished to qualify as teachers.

As regards the giving of prizes, the amount necessary should be raised as far as possible locally, through agricultural societies or from private individuals, but to those labourers who have given up time for which they have not been paid by any employer it is well that some remuneration should be given, and this may fitly take the form of scholarships of a low grade payable by the county, provided that the pupil has properly conducted himself in the class.

In the replies to question 1, two counties have mentioned shepherding as having engaged attention. This can hardly be classed as a manual process, but mention was made in the Board's Education Report for 1904-5 of the way in which this instruction is provided in Dorset, and this may be worthy of repetition here. The owners of flocks, who wish so to do, enter them for the sake of their shepherds, who are, during the season, examined in a very thorough and practical manner. The examiner for the year is a local farmer who is associated in this work with the county staff instructor in agriculture. The two visit each flock two or three times during the season, carefully examine its condition, take note of the percentage of lambs reared, put searching, but informal, questions to the shepherd as to his management of the flock in health, and also particularly in disease, and finally examine his pupil. According to the answers of this last, not only are marks awarded to him for the competition in which he takes part, but reward or the reverse is accorded to the shepherd who has him under training. This work has now been in progress for several years, and the good results accruing from it are becoming increasingly apparent, especially in getting the men to manage their flocks in an intelligent and open manner, and not, so far as disease is concerned, by means of secret and mysterious prescriptions handed down to them from past generations.

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SCHEDULE I.

1.-In what subjects is instruction provided ?

2

County.

Reply.

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Cornwall ...
Devon

Ploughing, sheep-shearing, hedging and ditching,

thatching, rope and spar-making. Dorset

*Thatching, hurdle-making, sheep-shearing, grass

mowing, hedging.
Essex

Ploughing.
Hereford ...

Ploughing, hedging, sheep-shearing, and basket

making. Hertford ..

Harvesting, setting up sheaves, setting out roots,

stacking and thatching, ploughing, hedging and

ditching, land draining, milking. Lincoln, Parts of Kesteven Plougbing, hedging, sheep-shearing. Lincoln, Parts of Lindsey +Hedging, stacking, under-draining, sheep-shearing.

Other subjects provided for in scheme are plough.

ing and thatching. Monmouth

Shearing, hedging, basket-making, fruit-packing. Norfolk

Drilling, hedging and ditching, ploughing, sheep

shearing, stacking, thatching.
Rutland

Sheep-shearing.
Somerset (N.E. Farmers' Hedging and ditching.

Club).
Somerset (Frome District Thatching, hedging and ditching.

Agricultural Society).
Somerset (Mid-Somerset $Thatching, hedging and ditching.

Agricultural Society).
Stafford

Hedge-layering.
Wilts

|| Hedging, ditching, thatching, and ploughing; skilled

farm labour.

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