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School or College. The county unites with Cumberland in maintaining the Farm School at Newton Rigg, Penrith.
Agriculture.—A course of four lectures was given at one centre to an average attendance of 46. The winter agricultural course for farmers' sons at the Farm School was attended by pupils from this county.
Field Experiments.-These were carried out through the Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. They were manurial in character upon root crops, and were conducted upon three farms.
Experimental Farm.-The experimental work carried out on the farm at Newton Rigg is for the benefit of this county together with Cumberland.
Dairying. During the year three courses of eight weeks each were held for females at the Farm School, and these were attended by pupils from this county.
An itinerant school also serves the above two counties. Instruction is given in butter-making, milk-testing, and in the raising and separation of cream. The school visited four centres in Westmorland, each for a fortnight. The total attendance was 50, all of whom took the full course.
Poultry Keeping.-One lecture and demonstration was given at seven centres to an average attendance of 44.
Horticulture. Instruction is given in this subject by means of lectures and outdoor demonstrations through the Armstrong College. Three lectures were given at eight centres, and two lectures at two other centres. Demonstrations were also given during the year at these and other centres. The average
166 AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION PROVIDED BY COUNTY
attendance at the lectures was 36, and at the demonstrations 22. The whole of the time of the instructor in this subject is taken up by Cumberland and Westmorland, two-thirds of his time being spent in the former and one-third in the latter county. Reports from Westmorland show that the work is very highly appreciated.
School and other Gardens.-There were two Day school gardens in this county. One was worked on the collective plot system and one on the individual plot system. The total number of pupils who received instruction was 32.
Fruit-growing Stations.-There is one in prospect for which a piece of land is being secured.
Training of Elementary School Teachers.-Exhibitions were granted to the Ambleside summer course where nature study was one of the subjects taught.
COUNCILS IN ENGLAND AND WALES IN 1905-6. 167
centre for soft-cheese making and remained 20 days. There were 105 pupils who received instruction in butter-making and nine pupils in soft-cheese making.
Poultry Keeping.-Instruction is given in this subject by means of lectures and visits. A course of six lectures was given at 25 centres, of three lectures at one centre, of two lectures at two centres, and a single lecture was delivered at another centre. The average attendance at all of these lectures was 38. Visits were also paid to various poultry-runs and shows, and advice given.
Bee Keeping. The above 21 county experts, all of whom have passed an examination in connection with the British Bee-keepers' Association, visited 42 centres altogether. Not more than three lectures were given at any one centre. Demonstrations and lectures were given at two shows and three special classes were also held. The average attendance at each lecture was 20.
Farriery.-Instruction in this subject is given by means of a travelling van, and a staff instructor is employed all the year. The number of centres visited during the year was 11, and ten lessons were given at each centre. The total number of pupils who received instruction was 113.
An examination for Certificates, conducted by a veterinary surgeon, is held at the end of each course.
Manual Processes.-Instruction is given in the processes of ploughing, hedging, ditching and thatching. Seventeen courses were held in ploughing, nine in thatching, and nine in hedging and ditching. Each course lasted at least 20 hours. The total number of pupils who attended was 241, all of whom took the full course. Considerable success seems to have followed this work, and at one competition in ploughing, held at the end of a course, as many as 71 persons competed in ten classes. It is encouraging to find the number of young farmers who are taking up this class of work.
Horticulture.-Courses of six lectures were given in this subject at 34 centres. The average attendance at each centre was 30. In addition, the staff instructor made 924 visits to gardens, and he also grafted a large number of stocks and conducted demonstrations, especially in grafting, which were well attended.
School and other Gardens.-There were 44 Day school gardens in this county. Of these 38 were worked on the individual plot system, and the remaining six on the collective plot system. The total number of pupils who received instruction on these gardens was 523.
There were also 17 Evening school gardens at which 190 pupils received instruction.
Poultry Keeping.—Instruction is given in this subject by means of lectures and visits of advice. A course of three lectures was given at each of 15 centres to an average attendance of 40. The lectures were usually given on successive nights, and the lecturer remained in the district and visited the local poultry yards and gave advice.
Bee Keeping.-Instruction is given in this subject by means of lectures in the rural districts and at agricultural shows, and also by visits of advice to apiaries. Two lectures were given at each of four centres to an average attendance of 45. Three lectures were given at each of 10 local shows to an average attendance of 60. Lectures were also given at 27 apiaries to an average attendance of five.
Farm Hygiene.-From two to four lectures were given on this subject at each of 10 centres to an average attendance of 42.
Farriery. Instruction is given in this subject by means of a travelling van employed throughout the year. During the year six centres were visited, and instruction lasting from five to seven weeks given at each centre. The school was attended by 57 shoeing smiths. A competition is held about every other year for those who have received instruction. The instructor also visits the blacksmiths' shops in all the surrounding districts and gives advice.
Manual Processes.--Instruction was given in the processes of pruning, grafting, and hop-drying. In pruning, one course was held every week from November to March, two classes being held every day. The course lasts from three to six days, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., and about 200 pupils received instruction. In grafting, six courses were held, and pupils were sent to the centres at which these courses were conducted. About eight pupils received instruction during the year, all of whom are free to remain under instruction the whole time that grafting is being carried on, viz., about 21 days. In hop-drying, about ten courses were conducted, and the pupils were again sent to the centres at which the courses were given, remaining at each centre until the drying in the kiln is completed, i.e., about three or four weeks. Ten pupils thus received instruction during the year.
Horticulture.--A grant of £800 is annually made to the Worcestershire Union of Workmen's Clubs and Institutes, which is responsible for most of the horticultural instruction in the county. This body employs two horticultural instructors throughout the year, and lectures and courses of instruction are given at many centres. Demonstrations in local gardens are also given at a large number of centres. A grant is also made to the Pershore Gardening Committee in respect of instruction in Evening school gardens.
School or other Gardens.-Gardens were attached to seven Elementary Day schools in this county, and instruction was given to about 100 pupils. There were also 19 Evening school gardens at which 294 pupils received instruction. Two county allotments are used for demonstrational purposes.