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Moore's Earlg.—This is a Massachusetts prodnction ; seedling of Concord; bunch and berry resembling its parent; said to be of better quality, but I think no one at the meeting discovered any superiority. It is said to ripen as early as Hartford Prolific, or two weeks earlier than Concord, and on this account doemed valuable for market.
Worden is another of the same class—a beodling of Concord, and recommended as of better qoality, bat I have not boon able to discover the improvement. The berries are of larger size, which is of no particular advantago. Vino said to be as vigorous and healthy as Concord. It has been disseminated pretty widely, and vines are for sale at many of the nurseries, along with the Brighton, eto.
Highland.—This is one of Mr. Rickati's remarkable lot of seedlings; the stock of it was parchased by a nurseryman of New Jersey, and vides are sold by him. It is a beautiful and excellent grape; bunch and borry large, purplish, flesh rich, sprightly and sweet; vino said to be vigorous and healthy; bat boing a neodling of Concord crossed with a foreign variety ronders it liablo to mildew, though deserving of trial by amateurs wbo aro willing to be at some pains to produce first-rate grapes.
Secretary is another of Mr. Rickett's seedlings, from Clinton crossed with a foreign sort. Banch and berry of good size, color black, flesh juicy, sweet, slightly vinour; said to be a good table and wine grape. Vide will be apt to mildew where others do.
Jefferson.—Thir, to my mind, is the most promising of all Mr. Rickett's seedlings, if there is no mistake as to its parentaye, which is claimed to be Concord crossed with Iona. The fruit resembles lopa in color and size of bunch and berry, but quality not so rich and vinons, but more sweet and meaty. The vine is eaid to be vigorons, bardy, and produciive, with wood and foliage resembling the Conoord ; time of ripe ing the same.
Caywood -1 use this name pro tempore only to designate a new grape shown by A. J. Caywood, of Marlborough, N. Y , the name and parentage of which I failed to record, but it impre-sed me gnire favorably, as likely to bo an improve.nent on Delaware; the bunch and berry somewhat larger, and vive said to be moro vigorous and less liable to mildew. It was claimed to be not from Delaware seed, but some gond jodges said, in my hearing, they could not distinguish the fruit from well-grown Delawares. I shall try to learn more about it.
Noah avd several other now white grapes wore presented from Missouri, but only deemed valuable as wine grapes, hence not within the scope of this articlo.
Willis is the name of a now white grape grown by Willis Jones, Camargo, Ills., and fruited by him for tbe past nine years, the quality and appearance of the fruit being 80 fine as to make it very salablo in the market, while the vino is said to be quite hardy and free from disease. This was not exhibited at Rochester, and I have never seen it, but from the testimony of others I think it is a promising varioty of this class, and deserves to be looked after by tbose who are interested in growing white grapes at the West.
A score or so of other new grapes were on exhibition, from different parts of the country, but most of them only wine grapes, deficient io quality and without any particlars as to origin or points of excellence The colored varieties of new grapes did not, as a whole, attract as much attention or seem to promise as much advantage as the white varieties.
GRAPE ROT AND ITS CAUSES.
BY B. M. BATEHAM.
At the late meeting of the American Pomological Society at Rochester, New York, here was considerable discussion upon grape rot. In my opinion, those who are familiar with what has heretofore been published on the subject, will admit that mora progress was made at this meeting than ever before towards solving the voxed problem as to the causes of the malady.
Mr. Isidor Bush, a very intelligent grape grower from Mis ari, road an essay giving the results of many years' observation and experience with grape rot, correcting some popular errors in regard to the nature and causes of the mischief, and showing that it dues not result from any disease of the vino or defect in the soil or cultivation, but in some way from atmospheric influences—unfavorable states of the weather; that, as a rule, it makes its appearance during hot, sultry, and damp weather, such as usually accompany thunder storms. Mr. Bash did not attempt to explain how such weather might canse the disease; and the manner in which he alluded to an article oi mine on this subject showed that he misapprehended my language, in that he supposed I attributed the rot to debility of the vino. On the contrary, I have found in all my observations that the more luxuriant the vine the greater the liability of the fruit to rot.
After the close of that essay, I took occasion to say a few words on the subject-first distributing to the audience clusters of Cataw ba and Iona grapes, cat from my vineyard the day previous, showing the effects of an attack of rot the past summer, three-fourths or more of the berrios being black and dried up, while the rest remained sound-though in some cases all are often destroyed by one or more attacks of the disease. I said, in substance, that this malady had been troublesome to grape growers in Ohio for the past thirty years. It first caused the destruction of a thousand acres or more of promising Catawba vineyards in the neighborhood of Cincinnati, planted by Nicholas Longworth and other citizens of that place. Afterwards it was thought the Ives' grape was proof against the disease, and this was planted largely for wine making; but after bearing a fow good crops these vineyards also saccumbed to the rot, and the wide makers commenced planting on the lake shore and islands, as sources of supplies of grapes.
In the meantime it was generally believed that the Concord grape was proof against all d'Heases; and, although not good for wine, it was “the grape for the million,” and its culture for the markets was profitable. Hence many vineyards, of a few acies each, were planted in numerous parts of the State, making several thousand acros in the aggregate. Within the past four or five years the fatal rot has also attacked these, excepting in a few hilly localities, and also near the lake shore, and after repeated failures of the crops very many of the vineyards have been grabbed out, and grape growers are, of course, mach discouraged throughout a large portion of the State.
For the past six or seven years we have had, in Ohio, an aggregate of a lout 10,000 acres of vineyards. About half of these are on the lake shoco and islani's, and mostly of the Catawba variety, the fruit being chiefly used for wino. The rest of the vineyards are dispersed over the State, and consist mostly of Concord, Delaware, and other varieties, chiefly for tablo or market. But, while it is known that planting bas been going on to the extent of pot less than five hundred acres per year, in the favorable districts, the aggregate of vineyards in the State has decreased fully to the same amount each year for several years past, showing that about a thousand acres per year have been destroyed on account of the rot. In this calcnlation no account is made of the tens of thousands of home gardens, where once fruitful vines have become worthless from disease. I say, then, that there is no topic of more timely importance than this likely to come before this meeting for discussion, or on which more of the people are at this time desirous of gaining information.
As to the causes of grape rot, my observations of more than twenty years bavo led me to the same conclusions, in the main, as those of my friend, Mr. Bush. The difficulty is certainly not in soil or cultivation, or in the vine, or in the effects of insect ravages, though each of these may increase the liability to disease, as is especially true of moist and sheltered locations. It bas long been observed in Ohio that much rain in June or July is sure to be followed by grape rot, when succeded by hot and sultry weather; and the greatest exemption from disease is in seasons of least rainfall in these two summer months, especial.y if there is an absence of close and hut, damp weather, as was the case generally the past summer, though one or two thuador showers passed over portions of the State, and grape rot followed in their tracks. It is also understood that the peculiar exemption from disease of the island and lako shoro vineyards is mainly owing to the small amount of rainfall and the almost entire absence of dews in that section during the summer months. To this may, no doubt, be added the greater purity of the atmospbere, or its froodom from the spores of fungus which genorate the rot—the same being measurably true of a few elevated and billy localities, which are found favorable for grapes, in other parts of the State.
With the foregoing facts in view, I think that a little light from science will enable us to see what are the causes of grape rot; although it may not be so easy to discover the means of its prevention. The condition, as stated, are: thrifty vines, moisture of the soil from 'ains, with hot weather, causing an abundant flow of sap; this requiring that evaporation would go on rapidly from the leaves, to carry off tbo watery portion of the sap, in order that the vital processes of elaboration and assimilation may proceed, and for this there must be buushine and air. But just now occurs a day or so of sultry, cloudy, and damp weather, when clothes will not dry on the line, and fungus spores start into life everywhere, as is seen in mildew on bread and other articles in pantries and cellars, and the quick fermentation of liquids, like vegetable juices, containing sugar, gum, starch, etc. Of course, evaporation from the grape leaves is stopped, or so greatly checked that little or no elaboration goes on, and a plethora of crude sap exists in every leaf and berry. In the latter, especially, this sap is in just the condition, while thus siagnant, to invite the action of fungus spores, which aro vitalized by the heat and moisture outside, and, penetrating through the skin, their poisonous work is as rapid as the action of yeast plants in dough-and rotting is the result. When the barometer rises, and sunshine or wind causes evaporation to proceed, presto! the vital activities are resumed and the rot ceases-often to be resumed the next week, or when the “muggy” weather ooours ag-in.
The questions wure asked in the meeting: how I would account for the facts that the rot is so much more prevalent of late years than formerly, and why do young vines commonly escape rot until after bearing several crops ! I replied that, while I did not pretend to be able to account for all the facts that had been observed, it was my belief that the spores or seeds of the rot fungus had gradually become more abundant and diffused over the country, especially in districts where old grapovinos exist; just as the fungas diseases of apples are found to increase where old orchards abound. Another reason why yonng vives are less liable to the disease than old ones may be that their roots, being more superficial, do not find so abundant a supply of sap during the heat of
BY M. B. BATRHAM.
Che malady called "grape-sot” has prevailed so extensively the past few years throughout Ohio and the surrounding States that many people are becoming discour. aged as to the possibility of growing a supply of grapes for bome ase, to say nothing of any chances of profit from planting for merkat. This disease commenced in southern Ohio more than twonty years ago, and in a short time rained the noted Catawba vineyards of Nicholas Longworth and a score of other plantors. Then, for a time, it was thought that the Ives grape, and ospecially the Concord, would prove exempt from the destroyer, hence these were extonsively planted for tablo use and for wino. But now scarcely any variety is found able to resist attacks of the rot, or if any chance to do so, line the Delaware, they suffer badly from mildow, which is induced by similar cangas.
Many different theories have been held respecting the nature and causes of rot, each pointing to different measures for its provention, but with little benefit as to resolto. Not deoming other theories worthy of space, I will say that, after twonty years of carefal observation and experiments, the following facts and deduotions are the result; and if any readers ask for proof in wapport of my positions I only invito them to observe carefully, next sommer, all the circumstances attending attaoks of the disease in their neighborhood and i hon inform mo if the facts do not sustain the following propositions :
1. The disease is not peculiar to any variety or class of vines, though some are more liable to it than others, and such as have boon some years in bearing are more liable than younger ones.
2. The kinds of soil and oulture have no effect in causing the rot, but a rich soil, or too much fertilizing, by prodacing laxariant growth of the vinos, increase their liability to the disease, and wet soil or lack of drainago has a similar effect.
3. Methods of pruning and training, whether long or short, do not cause the rot; but it is mostly prevented by training against baildings whoro largoly sheltered from rain and dew.
4. The disease is of fungas nature, generatiog from minute spores which float in the atmosphere, where they are quickoned into life and growth by heat and moisture, com. bined with a plethora of sap, which is at the time in a morbid condition owing to the stoppage of evaporation and assimilation by the leaves.
Such being the nature and causes of the disease, it is easy to see that the means of its prevention are not largely within human control. It is found, however, that something can be done in the way of avoiding the malady. Let us seo.
There are a few localities where grapo-rot seldom prevails, as on the islands of Lake Erie and some points along the shore; also in the hill lauds in Fairfield and one or two other counties in south-eastern Ohio. The reason of this exemption is no doubt owing to two causes; first, the purity of the air and its freedom from the fungus spores; and, second, the smaller amount of rainfall and dow, as compared with other sections of the country. The practical effect of this must be to prompt people to plant vineyards largely in these favored localities for the supplying of the markets with grapes. Sach districts will naturally become the vineyard districts of the country, and we must all be content to let it be so. At the same time I am not without faith that it is possible for most people who have a bit of ground to grow a supply of grapes fur home use.
How to avoid the Rot.-Keep in mind that dryness of soil and vine, with free circolation of air, are preventives of the disease. We have seen that vinos trained against buildings are seldom attacked. Lot moro vines bo planted in such positions. The next best plan is to train a fow vines on poles, say 19 to 20 feet high, putting one pole to each vine at first, and two after coming into fall boaring. The pruning and training can be easily done with a ladder, and if not shaded by trees the fruit thus elevated from the ground exhalations and allowed free circulation of air, will commonly escape the rot.
If anything like vineyard planting is attempted, the soil should be clayey and on as bigh and open a position as possible, with perfect drainage, so that the roots will never
be soaked and the wator from summer rains will flow off as quickly as possible from the surface, the aim beiug to keep the soil and roots dry as possible in summer, and thereby provent laxuriant growth or excessive flow of sap, and at the same time secure the freest access of sin and air. Of course care must be taken to allow plenty of room on the trellises, by planting the vines wide apart or cutting out every alternate one when they begin to crowd.
Mulching the surface of the ground boneath the vines with bitaminous coal-slack has been tried the past two years with much advantage by a friend of mine, J. H. Sanborn, of Illinois. He thinks that the coal prevents tho malarious exhalation from the soil, and that the sulphur or some other elemout it contains acts as a preventive of faugas vegetation; or it may be the coal-slack, absorbing the heat of the enn during the day, gives it off during the night, and thus lossens the deposition of dow. Coal-slack is cheap in many localities, and this remedy is deserving of extensive trial. The ase of coal ashes, sawdust, and soveral other materials as mulch has been tried for a year or two past, with no particular results. There is need of further experiments in this direo tion, especially with ingredients containing sulphar, carbolic acid, and coal-tar, the odors of which, or their volatilizing by the heat of summer, are known to be anti-fungoid.
The paper-bag method of protecting grapes from rot has been made known through our horticultural reports for the past two years. It has been tested by a large number of persons, and with very good results in almost all cases where the bags were applied early, soon after the young fruit was formed. The bags are the kind much used by grocers, five or six inches wide by sight or nine deep, and costing about $2.50 per 1,000. One of these is drawn over each bunch of yoang fruit, and the mouth folded together asouud the stem, thon fastened with a couple of pins. The fruit is found to grow larger and fairer ibside these bags than if exposed to the open air, and bosides protection from rot, there is exemption from 800-scald add from the ravages of birds and insects; an that fairer and better fruit is the result, while the expenho is in comparison quite trifling.
TAE APPLE ORCHARD.
BY G. J. NEWTON.
What a theme, what a field wherein to gather profitable and pleasurable knowledge, and yet bow few avail themselves of the many opportunities for doing so. In our various aims and objects through life, we sometimes start wrong, to correct which it may re quire years of uurequited toil and care. Perhaps there is no branch of industry known to the husbandınan, in which the inexperienced are more liable to err than powology. With a soil and climate so diverse as onrs, and a list of over two thousand known varieties of fruit to select from, how can it be otherwise ! Lot not the now beginner becomo diocouraged by these declarations. A little time spent in search of information, will enable him to start aright, and when that is done he will easily overcome all obstacles.
No fixed rulon can be given to suit all cases, the varieties that are successful in one soil and climate, may prove a failare in another. There are general principles that must bo observed, and when that is done, should slight failures occur thoy are easily remediod. In giving these goveral principles, I shall bo governed to some extent by an experience of nearly fifty years, taking my first lesson in apple caltare in 1834. Since that time I have planted six apple orcbardo, all on different soils and with different aspects, bat within a radias of twelve to fifteen miles. The first one of them I planted in 1838, the trees in which are now in a fair state of preservation and productiveness. The others