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hatchery at Sandusky, capable of turning out 30,000,000 of young fish every year, than it would be to increase the facilities to that extent at Toledo. With improvements in hatching apparatus, I hope to be able, with a favorable year for securing spawn, to turn out from the hatchery at Toledo from 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 the coming year. There is no danger of getting too many in the lake. There is room and food for many hundreds of millions there. A resolution has already been adopted by the Board of Water Works at Sandusky, giving the State the free use of the necessary water, and ample grounds for the erection of the hatchery, and an appropriation of $3,000 will construct, equip, and put it in running order.
LAND LOCKED SALMON.
I have received from the United States breeding establishment, at Grand Lake stream, in Maine, 30,000 of spawn of this fish, which is now in the hatchery in a promising condition, and the fry will be ready for distribution by the first of May. There are some deep lakes in the eastern part of the State where they will propably thrive and become acclimated.
There are now in the hatchery over 70,000 of the eggs of the brook trout beginning to hatch, and will be ready for distribution by the first of April. There are a few streams in the eastern and central portions of the State where I have no doubt they may be successfully introduced.
There have been, from 1872 to 1875, inclusive, deposited in the tributaries of Lake Erie 300,000 shad, from which nothing has been heard. In tributaries of the Ohio River 300,700 have been deposited. It is said that a few have been taken in the Ohio River, so that their introduction there may prove successful, but the experiment has entirely failed in all of our waters not accessible to the ocean. It is possible that they have escaped over Niagara Falls. They have either taken that course or have died on our hands, for, with all the fishing with pound, drag, and gill nets, not one is known to have been taken in any of our lake waters.
I have notice from Professor Baird that he has ordered a consignment of red-banded trout spawn (salmo iridir) from McCloud River, California, for experiment. There will not be enough of them for very general distribution. If, however, the experiment is successful, the United States Commission will hereafter send them East in larger quantities. A suitable place must be selected to fairy test their adaptability to our waters. A law should be passed to prohibit the catching or killing of speckled trout for the next three years, except in waters under the control of private or corporate parties.
I have made application to United States Commissioner Baird for a supply of the carp for breeding purposes. I have two ponds near Toledo well adapted to that purpose. I shall probably obtain the fry in the spring, but it may be two or three years before they will begin to breed.
They are now bred in abundance in the United States breeding ponds in Washington, and also in California, where they have been successfully acclimated, and are said to be very prolific.
They will thrive in small ponds with muddy bottom, in warm or cold water—best in warm-and there is every reason to believe that in a short time every stream, pond, and lake throughout the State will be peopled with this desirable food fish. They are said to feed on vegetable as well as animal food, and may be fed and fattened like pigs. Very little water answers their wants, and there are very few farms in the State where they may not be cultivated.
By the regulations of the United States Fish Commission, application for carp, to receive attention, must be made through and by the endorsement of a member of Congress. The following letter from Professor Baird to Senator Pendleton, through whom I made application, will explain itself:
UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES,
WASHINGTON, D, C., February 12, 1880. Dear Sir: I will take great pleasure in meeting your application for carp at the earliest possible moment. The fish are at present buried in the mud, and I cannot say whether any can be sent in the spring, or whether it will be necessary to wait the result of the natural increase of the fish during the summer. Very truly yours,
SPENCER F. BAIRD, Commissioner. Hon. Gxo. H. PENDLETON, United States Senate.
I am under obligation to Senator Pendleton for the promptness with which he attended to and endorsed my application.
I cannot close this report without making some suggestions as to needed legislation upon the subject of catching fish. I suppose that fishes, like fiends, esteem every day alike, without Sabbath or holiday, but I would set apart one or two days in every week, during spawning time, when they should not be disturbed by trap, seine, or any other device for their destruction or capture.
Although it is the business of the Commissioners to propagate, and, if possible, restore our depleted streams to their former productiveness, their labor will be in vain unless they are armed with power to restrain the indiscriminate slaughter of fish at all seasons, and by every means that the ingenuity of man, prompted by greed, can devise for their destruction. Most of the States, north and south, during the spawning season of the salmon and the shad, prohibit fishing for two days in the week-Saturday and Sunday—and it would be wise to adopt the same rules in our waters, especially as to the white-fish of the lakes. It is my opinion, from observation, that gill.net fishing should be entirely prohibited, but if allowed at all, the meshes of their nets should not be less than six inches. I know it is difficult to bring the entire General Assembly to one mind upon any given subject, especially upon the question of fishing; but the subject of maintaining and restoring our fish-supply, as an article of food for the people, has so impressed itself upon the minds of the wisest statesmen, in all countries, that it has become a prominent feature of legislation. In densely populated countries, like China, where it is said that fifty millions of people subsist upon fish alone, and where the land does not yield adequate support, distressing famines are averted by this fish industry. Does it not, then, commend itself to the attention and fostering care of the Government? Our experiments in the selection of fishes adapted to the waters in all sections of the State, accompanied by the intelligent aid of our people, will soon determine the kind of fishes that may be successfully propagated, and fish-farming will become an adjunct in the economy of every farmer who can raise a small pond of water upon his premises; and to those who have not the desired facilities, co-operative fish-farming in the nearest stream or lakes, may be made to supply the want.
I have appended a short statement of what has been done from our beginning, four years ago; and also a collation of the fish laws now in force in the State.
I also append a list of the Fish Commissioners of the several States, procured and furnished by Mr. Fred. Mathew, editor of the Fish Depart'ment of the Chicago Field.
SUMMARY OF WORK DONE BY THE COMMISSION. From 1876 to 1879, inclusive, there were deposited white-fishIn Lake Erie.....
20,380,000 In Havana and Mifflin lakes, in Ashland county, each 50,000.
100,000 In Clear Lake, Summit county
10,000 In Lake Erie, Ottawa county
5,000,000 In Lake Erie, at Huron
1,500,000 Total turned out from the hatchery at Toledo
From 1873 to 1878, inclusive, there have been deposited in the tributries of the Ohio River, California salmon as follows: In the Maskingam...-
35,000 In the Miami......
120,000 In the Walhonding
35,000 In the Scioto
20,000 1879—in the Miami, at Dayton.....
15,000 Total deposited in tributaries of the Ohio River.....
225,000 From 1874 to 1878, inclusive, in Lake Erie and tributariesIn Lake Erie, at Put in-Bay...
40,000 In Sandusky River
12,000 In Grand River....
10,000 In Horon River..
27,000 In Auglaizo River
45,000 In Portage River
15,000 In Castalia River....
10,000 In Maumeo River..
75,000 Total deposited in Lake Erie and tributaries....
234,000 Respectfully submitted,
EMERY D. POTTER, Supt. TOLEDO, January 15, 1880.
OHIO FI8H COMMISSIONERS IN ACCOUNT WITH E. D. POTTER SUPERINTENDENT OF
sioners, $7.40; expense at Columbus, $9.30.....
10. Cartage on same at Toledo.....
on cans, 750.....
2 33 4 75 4 25
75 3 50 7 00 2 05 7 25 10 50
7 55 1 57 1 64
$2 50 5 25
75 15 00 4 50 5 00 2 00
10 00 6 00
9 50 1 75
5 10 3 00
3 00 1 20
1879— March 20. Paid Groonwald, mending water pipos..
20. Wire cloth, $3.50; coal oil, 50c.; cartage, 750.; dray, 500..
$10; cartage $1.50; extra help, $6.50....
cartage, $1.50 ..
Huron and planting in Lake Erie....
cartage at Toledo, 75c.; wagon, 750.; Douglass, assistant, $6
States Express, $1.20
7 50 3 05 1 00 6 10 4 50 2 60 2 00 8 50
gage-man, 75.; expross, Clyde to Castalia, $1..
graph, $1 June 2. Express on cans
10. Planting Schoodic salmon in Maamee rapids
85 4 50 1 43 1 75
2 15 11 00 7 00