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their inward tranquility. It would neither Religion is essentially a personal mat In the Constitutional Convention, Benbe difficult nor costly to create thus little
ter and I never discuss it without the jamin Franklin, in the midst of a difficult islands of peace, attractive and beautiiful,
fear of intrusion. Still it has its public debate, stood in that assembly when feelin the center of the uproar of the city. In
expression and the founders of this ings were ruffled and suggested that they the silence of these refuges men could, in lifting up their thoughts to God, rest their
Government recognized that fact. I am pray. He added: muscles and their organs, relax their spirit, reminded by this reference to the Amer
I have lived, sir, a long time, and the longer clarify their judgment, and receive ican tradition of religious freedom that I live, the more convincing proofs I see of strength to support the hard life under the first amendment to the Constitution this truth-that God governs in the affairs which our civilization crushes them.
which guarantees it is one of history's of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the It is when prayer becomes a habit that it most significant documents. The Amer
ground without His notice, is it probable operates on the character. It is necessary, ican doctrine has two facets, and both
that an empire can rise without His aid? therefore, to pray frequently. “Think of
We have been assured, sir, in the sacred God more often that you breathe,” said Epicmust be viewed with understanding.
writings, that except the Lord build the tetus. To pray on rising and then to behave First, the framers had a distrust of
house they labor in vain that build it. the rest of the day like a pagan is absurd. man; they recognized his frailty, and this I firmly believe this; and I also believe that Very brief thoughts or mental invocations applied not only to politicians and mili without His concurring aid we shall succeed can hold a man in the presence of God. All
tary men who had misused power, it ap- in this political building no better than the conduct is then inspired by prayer. Thus plied even to the ministers. No man, ac
builders of Babel: We shall be divided by our understood, prayer becomes a way of life.
little partial local interests; our projects will cording to this philosophy, could be
be confounded, and we ourselves shall beIn the same spirit the Reverend Albert trusted with power over the minds of his
come a reproach and byword down to future E. Day, pastor of Baltimore's Mount Ver fellow man. But, again, the first amend
ages. And what is worse, mankind may non Place Methodist Church, writes: ment represents something besides dis hereafter from this unfortunate instance,
Right prayer is not humanism in medita- trust of man. Its positive aspect ex despair of establishing governments by tive action. It is the human flinging him- plains the reverence we have for it. It
human wisdom and leave it to chance, war, self upon God in dedication and trust. It is reveals a high opinion of man as God's and conquest. essentially a religious act. Properly under creation. It encourages individual faith,
Mr. Speaker, I expect to use this room stood, it is the supreme religious act. It is
In granting full freedom of worship to pray for forgiveness when I irritate man “at the end of his tether," reaching out
my colleagues, and I know there are octo the untethered God; man, having done
all the authors revealed a faith that men
would not abuse the privilege, that social casions when I do. And as we pray for that he can, seeking the God who finds in man's extremity His great opportunity; man,
stability would not be lost in the re ourselves we will doubtless pray for our having confessed the bankruptcy of his false nunciation of control over religious country—that is certainly an appropriself, seeking from God the recreation and re forms. The Constitution reflects a faith ate prayer. lease of his true self.
that individual judgments in the su For the reasons I have given, Mr, And, finally, the words of an authentic premely important issues of human life Speaker, I hope the resolution
will be aprepresentative of the Jewish faith, Rabbi and destiny would not have a destruc- proved and that we will be able to Solomon B. Freehof, of Pittsburgh, Pa., tive impact. The authors dared to trust strengthen the confidence of our people past president of the Central Conference the individual in this vital realm of life. in the integrity of the Congress and its of American Rabbis:
Thus, it should be clear that our religious interests—not by gestures or
democratic ideal of religious freedom is 'pretense but by actions and decisions We know, too, that prayer itself which brings us into God's presence is often its own
not in disparagement of religion. Our growing out of good habits of prayer and blessing. The very fact that we lift up our governmental foundations are essential- worship. thoughts to Him makes our thoughts clearer. ly spiritual. George Washington spoke Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent The very fact that we reveal our wishes in for the young Nation when he said in to revise and extend my remarks and inHis sacred presence makes our desires purer. his Farewell Address that decency and clude in these remarks three statements The fact that we earnestly ask for help and morality in public life are not possible on the subject of prayer and a biblifor support strengthens us. Whenever with
without the inspiration of religion. It ography as follows: all our heart we seek for guidance, that in itself will make clear our path. Often, the is the American policy, however, to let
PRAYER: A SHORT SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF earnestness of our prayer is its own best the citizen seek an outlet for this di
RECENT BOOKS answer. In whichever way our help comes, vinely given right in ways that appeal
Barth, Karl: Prayer according to the whether through expressing our inner needs, to him so that each man worships God
catechisms of the Reformation; stenographor through the gift of an all-loving Father, according to the dictates of his own con
ic records of 3 seminars adapted by A. Rouwhether our prayers deserve to be answered science. And, again, as proof of our
lin. Translated by Sara F. Terrien. Philaor not, how and when they are answered, in
daring spirit in granting full freedom, delphia, Westminster Press, 1952, 78 pages. what mysterious way God sends us His help,
we allow each to reserve to himself the we leave that to His infinite power, but we
(BV210.B333.) continue to seek Him that we may be ever
privilege of not worshipping at all if he Bett, Henry: The reality of the religious near Him and feel the blessing of His pres chooses not to do so. The resources of life; å study of miracle, providence and ence. Not in complete knowledge but in a positive faith recognized by the Con
prayer. New York, Macmillian Co., 1949, complete faith, do we speak the words of the stitution will save the Nation from any
159 pages. (BT97.B48 1949a.) ancient writer (Psalms 121:2): "My help theoretical damage by those of infirm
Bro, Margueritte (Harmon): More than we cometh from the Lord, who made heaven
are. New York, Harper, 1948, 144 pages. faith; they, too, must be protected. and earth."
(BV210.B73.) We think of what prayer means to us and Mr. Speaker, I would like further to
Campbell, Donald James: The adventure then we multiply it a million times and refer to the fact that the Chaplain of
of prayer. New York, Abingdon-Cokesbury more to realize what prayer has meant to
the House of Representatives, Dr. Bras- Press, 1949, 92 pages. (BV210.C25.) the human race. In many generations all kamp, is giving almost full-time service Carrel, Alexis: Prayer; translated by Dulover the world, in sorrow and in joy, in now to a ministry which is greatly cie de Ste. Croix Wright. New York, Moretrouble and in triumph, in sickness and in needed. I know this proposed action house-Gorham Co., 1949, 54 pages. (BVhealth, the children of men have turned in would be gratifying to him.
210.0335.) their devotions to the Eternal Father. How many thoughts have been ennobled in all
Clark, Glenn: The soul's sincere desire. There is ample precedent for this pro
Silver anniversary ed. Boston, Little, Brown, history, how many desires purified, how posal. In the early days of the Repub
1950 (first edition lic, services were held in the Capitol
1925), 113 much strength has been found in time of
(BV210.055 1950.) trouble, how much hope in despair. We can Building because churches were not
Claudel, Paul: Lord, teach us to pray, not calculate the comfort and the strength available. In the early part of our his translated by Ruth Bethell. First American and the blessing which prayer has brought tory there was little fear that constitu edition. New York, Longmans, Green, 1948, to the children of man.
tional principles would be violated in the 95 pages. (BV215.C58 1948) I believe, Mr. Speaker, that the people recognition of religion. It is only be Day, Albert Edward: An autobiography will approve this action today. I trust it cause at times some have exploited re of prayer. First edition. New York, Harwill be unanimous, and I trust that we ligion that we have felt restraints in
ligion that we have felt restraints in per, 1952, 223 pages. (BV210.038.) will interpret the measure to our con speaking of it as a great force in our
Donne, John (1573-1631): Prayers; stituencies in the light of our religious work.
lected and edited from the earliest sources, work. I know every Member of the traditions and the ideals of Government
with an essay on Donne's idea of prayer, by House would share my conviction that Herbert H. Úmbach. New York, Bookman growing out of those traditions. to exploit religious faith is ignoble.
Associates, 1951, 109 pages. (BV245.D65.)
Fosdick, Harry Emerson: The three mean. Pardue, Austin, Bp: Prayer works. New Government. The sanctuary which this ings: prayer, faith [and] service. Garden York, Morehouse-Gorham Co., 1949, x, 127
legislation will establish will be comCity, New York, Garden City Books, 1951, 3 pages. (BV220.P23.)
pletely nonsectarian and nondenominavolumes in 1. (BV4832.F6 1951.)
Peyton, Patrick J.: The ear of God. Gar
tional. Freehof, Solomon Bennett: In the House den City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1951, 226 pages. of the Lord. New York, Union of American (BV210.P47.)
It will not be, and should not be, a Hebrew Congregations, 1951, 162 pages. Poling, Daniel Alfred: Faith is power for large assembly hall through which dema(BM669.F68 1951.)
you. New York, Greenberg, 1950, viii, 212 gogues and hypocrites can parade their Frizzell, John Henry: For days of crisis, pages. (BV220.P6.)
religion. Rather, it will be a small, sima book of prayers. Boston, Christopher Pub Radcliffe, Lynn James: Making prayer real.
ple, sanctified retreat, midway between lishing House, 1952, 75 pages. (BV245.F74.) New York, Abingdon-Cokesbury, 1952, 254
the Senate and House Chambers, to Garrett, Constance: Growth in prayer. pages. (BV210.R3.) New York, Macmillan, 1950, viii, 156 pages.
Shoemaker, Helen Smith: Prayer and you.,
which the elected Representatives of the (BV210.G33.)
With intrduction by E. Stanley Jones. New people, in the discharge of their someGore, Charles, Bishop of Oxford: Prayer York, F. H. Revell Co., 1948, 157 pages.
times awesome and bewildering responand the Lord's prayer; with an introduction (BV210.947.)
sibilities, may repair for meditation and by Angus Dun. First edition, New York, Stephens, John Underwood: Prayers of the
prayer. Harper, 1947, xv, 124 pages. “A reprint of Christian life, for private and public worpapers published in commonwealth, mostly ship. New York, Oxford University Press, Except the Lord build the house, they labor in 1896.” (BV210.G684.) 1952, 154 pages.
in vain that build it; except the Lord keep
(BV 245.867.) Gossip, Arthur John: In the secret place Swarthout, Lind: Captain Eddie Ricken
the city, the watchman waketh but in vain. of the Most High. New York, C. Scribner's backer. God still answers prayer. Grand
Mr. SCRIVNER. Mr. Speaker, one Sons, 1947, 210 pages. (BV210.G69.)
Rapids, Mich., Zondervan publishing house, Graef, Richard: Lord, teach us to pray; 1944, 115 pages.
need go no further than the Declara
(E748.R488.) translated from the German by Sister Mary Villiness, George N.: Man relating him
tion of Independence to learn that one Hildegard Windecker. New York, F. Pustet self to God in prayer, Fort Worth, Tex.,
of the cornerstones upon which this NaCo., 1952, 193 pages. (BV210.G6963.)
Seminary Hill Press, 1951,
tion was founded was a deep-seated beHarkness, Georgia Elma: Prayer and the (BV210.743.)
lief in a divine providence. Common Life. New York, Abingdon-Cokes Vining, Elizabeth (Gray): The world in Franklin's admonition to turn to bury Press, 1948; 224 pages. (BV210.H347.) tune. ' Wallingford, Pa., Pendle Hill, 1952,
prayer in the Constitutional Convention Havig-Gjelseth, Christian: Prayer and its 32 pages. (BV210.754.) power; translated by Bernhard H. J. Habel.
undoubtedly prevented its ending in fail
Wesley, John: Prayers, edited by Frederick Minneapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, C. Gill. New York, Abingdon-Cokesbury
ure and gave to us our great charter1947, 99 pages. (BV210.H3733.) Press, 1952, 124 pages. (BV245.W4.)
the Constitution. Hughes, Henry Trevor: Prophetic prayer, Whiston, Charles Francis: Teach us to The creation of a sanctuary for prayer A history of the Christian doctrine of prayer pray; a study of distinctively Christian pray and meditation is in complete accord to the Reformation. London, Epworth ing. With an introduction by Nels F. S. with Christian doctrine. We find, acPress, 1947, viii, 132 pages. (BV207.H8.) Ferré. Boston, Pilgrim Press, 1949, xx, 243 cording to Matthew-chapter 6, verse Kelpius, John (1673–1708): A method of pages. (BV210.W43.)
6—that Christ told his followers: prayer; edited, with an introduction, by E. Wieand, Albert Cassel: The gospel of Gordon Alderfer. New York, Published in prayer, its practice and psychology as re But thou, when thou prayest, enter into association with Pendle Hill by Harper, 1951, vealed in the life and teaching of Jesus.
thy closet, and when thou hast shut the 127 pages. (BV209.K315 1951.)
Grand Rapids, Mich., W. B. Eerdmans Pub door, pray to thy Father which is in secret. Kirchberger, Clare, editor: The coasts of lishing co., 1953, 245 pages. (BV215.W47.)
Mr. BENNETT of Florida. Mr. the country; an anthology of prayer drawn from the early English spiritual writers. In
These references were provided by the Speaker, I congratulate Congressman troduction by Godfrey Anstruther. London, Legislative Reference Service under the BROOKS HAYS and others who cooperated Harvill Press, 1952, 266 pages. (BX2177.K54 direction of Dr. Ernest S. Griffith and with him on making available in the 1952.)
were assembled by Harold E. Snide, of National Capitol Building a room for Laubach, Frank Charles: Prayer, the
the History and General Research Di spiritual meditation and prayer, preserymightiest force in the world. New York, vision.
ing therein the principles of religious London, etc., Fleming H. Ravell Co., 1946, 95
The SPEAKER. Without objection, freedom. Truly, religious freedom not pages. (BV210.L37.) it is so ordered.
only embraces the idea of freedom from Lee, Robert Greene: The Bible and prayer. Nashville, Broadman Press, 1950, X, 132 pages.
There was no objection.
coercion in some particular religion but (BV214.L4.)
Mr. LECOMPTE. Mr. Speaker, in all also it embraces the at least equally Macartney, Clarence Edward Noble: Prayer that has been said there is much wis important idea of opportunity to worat the golden altar. Grand Rapids, Mich., dom. A number of Members have ship. I feel that the establishment of Zonderman publishing house, 1944, 99 pages. spoken to me concerning this resolution, this room for meditation and prayer (BV210.M23.)
and I ask unanimous consent that all should be a spiritual help to us in ConMcNabb, Vincent Joseph: The craft of
Members may extend their remarks on gress and an inspiration to our country prayer. Westminster, Md., Newman Press, 1951, 105 pages. (BV210.M283 1951.) this resolution at this point.
and our friends beyond the seas. MacNutt, Frederick Brodie: The prayer The SPEAKER. Without objection, Mr. PRIEST. Mr. Speaker, before manual, for private devotions or for public it is so ordered.
landing on the New England shores the use on divers occasions. Compiled from all
There was no objection.
Pilgrims entered into a covenant and sources, ancient, medieval, and modern, with
Mr. POFF. Mr. Speaker, as a fresh- agreed to the Mayflower Compact. That a foreword by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
man Member of Congress I want to comLondon, A. R. Mowbray, 1951, xvi, 272 pages.
historic document began with a prayer: (BV250.M3.)
mend the author and cosponsors of this “In the name of God. Amen.” Marshall, Peter: Mr. Jones, meet the
most praiseworthy legislation. When I Amid the vicissitudes and discourageMaster; sermons and prayers. New York, came to Congress on January 3 I did ments of Valley Forge George WashingRevell, 1950, 192 pages. (BX9178.M363M5 not know, as I am sure most people in ton sought the quietness of the snow1950.)
the Nation still do not know, that there covered campground for a place of Miller, Basil William: Praying Hyde, A man is no place in the Capitol Building where
prayer. of prayer. Grand Rapids, Mich., Zondervan
one can commune in holy solitude with publishing 1943, 132
I join with other Members of the pages. (BX9225.H9M5.) his Maker. I was told that the reason
House in expressing deep appreciation Miller, Basil William: Remarkable answers was the fear that the establishment of
to the gentleman from Arkansas [Mr. to prayer. Kansas City, Mo., Beacon Hill
such a place would contravene the tra- HAYŠ] in sponsoring, and to the House Press, 1950, 159 pages. (BV220.M5.) ditional American concept of separation
in approving the resolution authorizing Miller, Samuel Martin: Have faith in God; of church and state. He answers prayer. Rock Island, Ill., Augus
the Speaker to set aside a room in the
To my mind that fear is wholly untana Book Concern, 1952. 156 pages. founded. The concept of separation is
Capito. to be used by Members of the (BV210.M62.) based on the maxim that the Govern
House and the Senate as a place of Moore, Thomas Hendrick: The morning ofment should not either champion or
prayer and meditation. fering. New York, Apostleship of Prayer, 1952, 162 pages. (BV210.M755.)
oppose any particular religious faith to In these days when circumstances and the exclusion of the others, and, con
events of a troubled and frustrated world Oursler, Fulton: Why I know there is a God. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1950, versely, the church should not attempt so often try our patience and test our 192 pages. (BT101.08.)
to dictate the political structure of the faith and fortitude, it is important that
to June 30, July 1, 1953
place where we can draw aside when we the request of the gentleman from was given permission to address the
we spend some time each day in medi- FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF INVES Mr. LECOMPTE, All Congresses, in tation and prayer.
TIGATING AND SELECT COMMIT- . my experience, have done a splendid job It is my understanding that this room
TEES, 83D CONGRESS
in handling difficult cases. is to be a private place for the individual
Mr. LECOMPTE. Mr. Speaker, I ask meditations of Members. It is not, as unanimous consent to address the House I understand, a meeting place for groups for 1 minute and to include a table.
SPECIAL ORDER GRANTED or planned programs. But rather a
The SPEAKER. Is there objection to
Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan asked and will for communion with our own con
House for 30 minutes today, following Iowa? sciences and with our Creator. Moses
There was no objection.
the legislative program and any special could not hear the voice of God until he
orders heretofore entered.
Mr. LECOMPTE. Mr. Speaker, I hold turned aside from herding sheep to the
in my hand a table which shows the burning bush on the edge of the desert.
amount of money which has been au REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 7 This place of prayer in the Capitol, I thorized for investigation by each of the am sure, will prove to be extremely help- special and standing committees of the speaker, I move that the House resolve
Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan Mr. ful to Members of the Congress.
House. The amount of money that has The SPEAKER. The question is on
been expended by each of these commit- itself into the Committee of the whole the resolution.
tees, as of June 30 of this year, and House on the State of the Union for the The resolution was agreed to; and a
the unexpended balance in each of those consideration of the resolution (H. Res. motion to reconsider was laid on the funds.
261) disapproving Reorganization Plan table.
The table is as follows:
No. 7 of 1953; and pending that motion,
Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent Investigating and select committees, 83d Cong., Jan. 3 to June 30, 1953
that general debate be confined to 3
hours on Reorganization Plan No. 7 and Amount Balance
2 hours on Reorganization Plan No. 8,
available the time to be equally divided and con1953
trolled by the gentleman from California
[Mr. HOLIFIELD] and myself. Agriculture Committee (general) (Congressman HOPE, Kansas, chair
The SPEAKER. Is there objection to man), H. Res. 161, Apr. 15, 1953.
$50,000.00 Armed Services Committee (general) (Congressman SHORT, Missouri,
$50,000.00 the request of the gentleman from Michichairman), H. Res. 125, Feb. 24, 1953; H. Res. 156, Mar. 5, 1953
150,000.00 $20, 656. 22 129, 343. 78 gan? Defense Production (Joint Committee) (Senator CAPEHART, chairman),
Mr. HALLECK. Mr. Speaker, reseryPublic Law 95, June 30, 1953, fiscal year 1954---
50,000.00 District of Columbia Committee (Congressman SIMPSON, Illinois, chair
ing the right to object, did I understand man), H, Res. 270, June 11, 1953.
2,000.00 40.97 1, 959.03 the gentleman to say that he suggests Education and Labor Committee (general) (Congressman MCCONNELL, Jr., Pennsylvania, chairman), H, Res. 115, Feb. 24, 1953; H. Res. 116,
general debate be limited to 3 hours on Mar. 5, 1953..
50,000.00 1, 247.05 48, 752.95 each one of the plans? Foreign Affairs Committee (general) (Congressman CHIPERFIELD, Illinois, chairman), H. Res. 113, Feb. 24, 1953; H. Res. 145, Mar. 5, 1953
Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. No; 3
75,000.00 952. 72 74,047. 28 Fourth of July 1953 (commemorative observance, Declaration of Inde
hours on the first one, and we may not pendence), #1. Con. Res. 85, June 30, 1953.
use and probably will not use all of that Government Operations Committee (general) (Congressman HOFFMAN,
Michigan, chairman) clause 8 of rule 11, H. Res. 150, Feb. 25, 1953. 355, 050.00 67, 791.97 287, 258. 03 time; and 2 hours on the second one. Interior and Insular Affairs (general) (Congressman MILLER, Nebraska,
Mr. HALLECK. From what inquiry chairman), H. Res. 109, Mar. 5, 1953; H. Res. 117, Mar. 16, 1953.
50,000.00 284. 04 Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee (general, also newsprint),
I have made, I have not found many who H. Res. 126, Mar. 5, 1953 (Congressman WOLVERTON, New Jersey, chair
are interested in speaking very much on man), H. Res. 127, Mar. 5, 1953; H. Res. 128, Mar. 16, 1953.-
60,000.00 1, 901. 46 Judiciary Committee (general) (Congressman REED, Ilinois, chairman),
58, 098. 54 these plans on our side. I do not know H. Res. 50, Feb. 24, 1953; H. Res. 66, Mar. 5, 1953.
110,000.00 65, 419. 17 44, 580.83 what the situation is on the minority Judiciary Committee (Congressman REED, Illinois, chairman), privileges of the House in re: Michael Wilson, et al. v. Loew's, Inc., Á. Res. 190,
side. We had hoped that these two matMar. 26, 1953.-
ters might be disposed of this afternoon Kitty Hawk, N. C. (air flight), S. J. Res. 42, Public Law 32, May 22, 1953 (1)
at a reasonable hour. Post Office and Civil Service Committee (general) (Congressman REES, Kansas, chairman), H. Res. 32, Feb. 24, 1953; H. Res. 148, Mar. 5, 1953. - 50,000.00 4,418.03 45, 581. 97
Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Speaker, will Small Business Committee (select committee) (Congressman HILL, Colo
the gentleman yield? rado, chairman), H. Res. 22, Feb. 3, 1953; H. Res. 131, Feb. 24, 1953. 135,000.00 31, 527.75 103, 472, 25 Un-American Activities Committee (general) (Congressman VELDE, Illi
Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. I yield nois, chairman), sec. 17 of House rule 11 (H. Res. 5); H. Res. 119, Feb. 24,
to the gentleman from California. 1953
300,000.00 128, 101.37 171, 898. 63 Mr. HOLIFIELD. We have practiVeterans' Affairs Committee (Mrs. ROGERS, Massachusetts, chairman), H. Res. 34, Mar. 5, 1953; H. Res. 168, Mar. 16, 1953..
50,000.00 3,558. 30 46, 441.70
cally no requests for time on our side. Ways and Means Committee (general) (Congressman REED, New York,
We consider the matter noncontroverchairman), H. Res. 91, Feb. 24, 1953; H. Res. 123, Mar. 5, 1953, and H. Res. 243, May 27, 1953..
200,000.00 68, 609.94
sial; that is, most of us. As far as I am 131, 390.06
personally concerned, I would encourage Total..
1,687, 050.00 394, 508.991, 292, 541.01 the gentleman from Michigan [Mr.
HOFFMAN] to request a lesser amount of 1 Necessary expenses.
time. I should think possibly an hour ELECTION CONTESTS
altogether on plan No. 7 and an hour on decision in settling disputes over the plan No. 8 would be sufficient. I do not Mr. LECOMPTE. Mr. Speaker, I ask rights of an individual to represent a
know what the requests for time are on unanimous consent to address the House
given district. I am glad to announce to the gentleman's side. for 1 minute.
the House that this year there are no Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. I am The SPEAKER. Is there objection to contests. The day of the filing of con never in favor of a long debate either in the request of the gentleman from tests has passed and every Member has the House or in the committee. I have Iowa?
secured his seat. There will be no elec no objection to following that suggesThere was no objection.
tion contests this year. Certainly every tion, to make it an hour on each side for Mr. LECOMPTE. Mr. Speaker, I de- Member will be glad to know that no each one of the plans. That would suit sire to make a brief announcement contests have been instituted.
me. which I believe will be of interest to
Mr. KARSTEN of Missouri. Mr.
Mr. HALLECK. Mr. Speaker, further every Member of the House on both Speaker, will the gentleman yield?
reserving the right to object, do I undersides of the aisle. In the years I have
stand the gentleman from California served in the Congress, there has never
Mr. LECOMPTE. I yield.
[Mr. HOLIFIELD] suggests that an hour been a Congress when there has not
Mr. KARSTEN of Missouri. I would for both sides would be satisfactory, been at least one or more election con like to point out that that is a tribute to which would mean half an hour on each tests over seats in the House of
our colleague, HALE BOGGs, who was side, on each plan? Representatives.
chairman of that subcommittee last Mr. HOLIFIELD. That was my sugI think that in all cases this House year and who did a thorough job before gestion, in view of the fact that I have during the years has reached a judicial the last Congress adjourned.
no requests for time.
Mr. HALLECK. Mr. Speaker, further Accordingly the House resolved itself 'the foreign policy and overseas operareserving the right to object, are there into the Committee of the Whole House tions area. Some of the top men who Members on our side who desire to speak on the State of the Union for the con testified before us have privately exwho think they will need more than the sideration of House Resolution 261, with pressed their regret that more sweeping time suggested by the gentleman from Mr. FORD in the chair.
changes could not be made more rapidly. California ?
The Clerk read the title of the resolu. Yet they recognize, as we all must recogMr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. They tion.
nize, that the United States has reached want time. What is the hurry? I have By unanimous consent, the first read the point at which every move in internever delayed proceedings here in the ing of the resolution was dispensed with. national operations must be studied for House.
The CHAIRMAN. Under the con its possible repercussions in every sensiMr. HALLECK. I do not anticipate sent request the gentleman from Mich- tive sector of the globe. that there will be any delay.
igan [Mr. HOFFMAN] will be recognized In the hearings on these plans three Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan, I am for 1 hour and the gentleman from Cali factors struck me with considerable not conducting a filibuster. fornia [Mr. HOLIFIELD] for 1 hour.
force. Mr. HALLECK. But certainly, when The gentleman from Michigan [Mr.
The first point is the sincerity with time is fixed, and considerable time is HOFFMAN] is recognized.
which the Eisenhower staff has reallowed, in our experience many times Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. Mr.
sponded to President Eisenhower's desire other matters are brought up. Chairman, I yield to the gentleman from
that they work together in harmony as Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. What Indiana [Mr. BROWNSON), who is in
a team. By word and deportment they else have you today? favor of the plan, 10 minutes, all the
have revealed that no thought of perMr. HALLECK. Extraneous matters Extraneous matters gentleman requested.
sonal status or struggle for prestige will come up which are discussed, and I would Mr. BROWNSON. Mr. Chairman, Re
hamper their work. In so doing their suggest a certain limitation if we can organization Plan No. 7, now before us,
difficult jobs, these men will quietly and know definitely in what time the matter proposes to establish a Foreign Opera- naturally find the way in which they can can be concluded. tions Administration, which shall under
best work together. It is my earnest Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. Mr. take the duties set forth by the Mutual
plea that we give this new team a chance Speaker, the Reorganization Act was Security Act, the Yugoslav Emergency
to divide the load of responsibility adopted over my violent protest. Under Relief Act, the Institute of Inter-Amer
among them as they can best carry it, that act 10 hours of general debate is ican Affairs Act, and the technical assist
This plan accomplishes such a division allowed. ance program of the Mutual Defense
in an orderly manner. Mr. HALLECK. That is exactly right. Assistance Control Act. At the same The gentleman could insist on the full time the plan assigns clear responsibility saving expected. It was estimated by
The second point is the amount of 10 hours of general debate, if he wished for foreign policy to the Secretary of
the Bureau of the Budget that nearly 11 to do so, but I certainly would not ex State and materially reduces his operapect him to do that. tional responsibilities.
million dollars will be saved by the pro
Reorganization The SPEAKER. Will the gentleman Plan No. 7 consolidates foreign operat- posed 'reorganization of the United from Michigan restate his request?
States information services alone. I ing programs and further provides that Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. Mr. official United States activities in any
realize that future savings are difficult Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that foreign state be cleared through a single
to predict with certainty at this stage of
reorganization. Harold Stassen stated general debate on House Resolution 261, ambassador. dealing with plan No. 7, be limited to 1 This is the specific and tangible con
that with the reduction in personnel hour a side. sequence of the President's message of
afforded by reorganization under Plan 7 Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, re June 1, asking for a clear focus of re
he will cut staff to the point at which he serving the right to object, I would like sponsibility within the executive branch
can close up some of the buildings now to ask the gentleman from Michigan if for the conduct of foreign affairs, and occupied in Paris. Incidentally, the he discussed the matter of time with for an integration of various activ
payrolls of the Mutual Security Agency anyone on the Democratic side. ities formerly scattered among several
show a greater reduction than those of Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. Yes; agencies and programs.
any other of the agencies we examined. with the gentleman from California (Mr. At this point I would like to pay tribute
And, incidentally, let no one sneeze at HOLIFIELD]. to the staff of the International Opera
a $10 million saving. A special subcomMr. McCORMACK. When?
tions Subcommittee for their outstand- mittee on which I served at the request Mr. HOFFMAN of Michigan, This ing work during these hearings and in
of our chairman, the gentleman from morning.
research work in the development of the Michigan, together with the InternaMr. McCORMACK. Did Mr. HOLI reports on both plan No. 7 and plan No. 8.
tional Operations Subcommittee, saved FIELD go to the gentleman or did the No one who has had the opportunity to
another ten million the other day by our gentleman come to him?
question men like the Under Secretary investigation of a single overseas buildMr. HOFFMAN of Michigan, I think of State for Administration, Donald B.
ing program. A hundred of these sayhe came over here. Do you want me Lourie; the Director of Mutual Security, ings would amount to a billion dollars, to run around over there? Inasmuch Harold E. Stassen; and the Under Secre
a good round sum of money. To paraas the gentleman on several occasions tary of State, Walter Bedell Smith, whom phrase our parental admonitions, if we has expressed a minimum of admiration I am proud to claim as a constituent,
take care of the ten millions, the billions for me I do not want to make myself can avoid a reawakened feeling of pride will take care of themselves. welcome in his house.
and of confidence in their concept of the The third striking point brought out Mr. MCCORMACK. All right, now, new, hard-hitting instrument of foreign in the testimony was the fact that the except that the minority is going to in- policy we are forging today. These Department of State employs 42,000 peosist upon its rights at all times. I just members of the new team have moved ple today, as contrasted with 13,000 in wanted the RECORD to show that in this with care and deliberation to work with 1946. Here is one explanation of the case the minority was not consulted as President Eisenhower to develop a plan faults of operation and the errors of deto time.
which may have some unforeseeable cision as well as the graver errors of inMr. HOFFMAN of Michigan. Oh, well, weaknesses but which is a constructive decision charged against the Departthat is not so.
step toward providing the action agency ment. Where can we hope to find a The SPEAKER. The gentleman from .
so needed to implement a vitalized for statesman who is at once politically Michigan asks unanimous consent that eign policy.
astute, a natural intellectual leader of debate on House Resolution 261 continue Careful consideration of the public the Western World, and a born executive not to exceed 2 hours, the time to be welfare and a deep realization of the capable of directing a loosely knit body equally divided between the two sides. need for stability both at home and of 42,000 people? This is a frustrating Is there objection?
abroad argue strongly against hasty and and very nearly preposterous situation, There was no objection.
improvised action toward reorganization which demands immediate attention. The SPEAKER. The question is on in this area. This plan and plan No. 8 Many criticisms have been leveled at the motion.
to be presented later today are far from the proposal to separate policy making The motion was agreed to.
the end of reorganization required in from the execution of policy, but in view
of the choices before us many of these I should like to quote also from Harold Mr. LANTAFF. Mr. Chairman, at the criticisms seem academic. After this Stassen:
outset I want to compliment the complan is put into effect the size of the De
At this point let me emphasize again that
mittee and the staff of the Brownson partment of State itself will be reduced all these programs and operations which I subcommittee that prepared this very by nearly one-half. Critics of the pro- have discussed as the responsibility of the excellent analysis and report on Reorposal warn us that there will be friction Director of the Foreign Operations Adminis ganization Plan No. 7. between the Department of State and tration will be planned and carried out under As has been explained to you, the purForeign Operations Administration. Of the direct supervision of the President and
pose of the plan is to ease the responcourse there will be some friction. There policy as determined by the Secretary of in conformance with United States foreign
sibilities that have heretofore fallen on will be two bodies rather than one. But State, military policy formulated by the Sec
the Secretary of State. We are by this there will also be more accomplishment. retary of Defense, and the Secretary of Treas- plan setting up a new agency, called the
May I illustrate with a simple ex ury's judgment on monetary and fiscal Foreign Operations Administration. We ample?
policy. The participation of the Director of are also organizing what is known as Here is a fat boy weighing 420 pounds. Foreign Operations in the sessions of the
the International Information Agency. He is not much help on the gridiron. By National Security Council, the Cabinet, the
At the top of this pyramid structure will Munitions Allocation Committee, the Nasome legerdemain or legislative magic tional Advisory Council on International
be the State Department laying down we make two out of him, and squeeze a Monetary and Financial Problems, and the
policies to be followed by these operating lot of lard out in the process. Now we Defense Mobilization Board assures normal
groups. have a couple of potential half-backs. and regular awareness of overall policies and The committee, and I think most of They will doubtless get their signals effective implementation of program deci our members, have several reservations mixed occasionally. Each will want to sions.
about this plan. Those reservations are carry the ball. Despite the best will and
And, under further questioning, Mr.
well set forth in the committee report. understanding of the heads of these Stassen added, extemporaneously:
Actually, it violates many of the prinbodies the flesh will remain weak and
ciples of good organization which were
I believe that President Eisenhower is the will be subject to a conditional response ablest administrator in the world today.
recommended to the Congress by the known as jealousy. But the two normal I think there is no man that has his quality
Hoover Commission. It is absolutely bodies, nevertheless, move faster than of pulling together a problem and develop the opposite of the principles contained the overweight fat boy on whom we ing an organization to carry it out. * in the reorganization plan we operated.
This is his conception of the best way to asked to adopt for the Defense DepartThe irritation and frustration within carry out the very complex and very vital ment. There we sought to strengthen a department of 42,000 people are of a
relationship of the United States to the rest the Secretary of Defense so that we could
of the free world, with the objective of pinpoint responsibility. We gave him different nature than those appearing
peace and so much at stake. And my own between departments, just as the fric
the authority to go with the responapproach to it is: I will administer whatever tions in the fat boy are concealed from the President wants me to administer, and
sibility. Here, however, we are separatthe naked eye. Let us say that these I will administer the way he wants it ad ing these agencies and giving the Secrefrictions lie in the realm of biochemistry. ministered, and I am honored to endeavor tary of State the policy-making powers, Medical students and experts in admin- to carry out the operation side of this for and two other groups the operating istration, like Dr. JUDD, might call them eign-economic phase, with its direct rela
powers. by their scientific Latin name—slugtionship to Defense and State and the other
It was the sentiment of most of us on departments which are involved. gishus circulus memorandus. The com
the Democratic side that since the Presimon or lay term for this condition is Every topman who appeared before dent had personally considered this plan redtape. This condition deteriorates in us, by
us, by word and attitude reflected and since he felt that this would work time to chronic decisiono delayus, which President Eisenhower's insistence on and would help to straighten out some in more advanced stages takes the form teamwork. I do not believe for one min of our operations overseas, we on the of total paralysis.
ute that this plan is a perfect solution minority side decided to go along with Even in this advanced stage there ap to the problem of organization, just as the President, although we do have cerpears no external friction whatever to I do not believe there is a perfect solu tain reservations. the lay eye. The patient is amiable and tion this side of heaven to the global Mr. MCCORMACK. Mr. Chairman, even complacent. He blames Congress troubles which these men now coura will the gentleman yield? for his troubles. But there is friction geously face. Troubles of organization
Mr. LANTAFF. I yield to the gentlebetween this hulk and the American peo are magnified by troubled times. These man from Massachusetts. ple-friction we have promised our con are troubled times, indeed. To carry Mr. McCORMACK. We are placing stituents we will eliminate.
such responsibilities requires sound the responsibility definitely upon the I do not want to oversimplify the very administration, a responsive organiza
President and this administration, real organization problem before us.
tion and streamlined operational tech Mr. LANTAFF. That is right. The During the hearings we repeatedly repeatedly niques, as well as able leaders.
responsibility is definitely on the Presiwarned the administration representa At this stage in the new administra- dent in the field of foreign policy, and for tives of the difficulty of separating pol- tion,
tion, it is important that President this plan. He has said he would like icymaking from action. But I think the Eisenhower's Reorganization Plan No. to have this organization in order to Department of State is already sensitive 7 be allowed to go into effect. Accord carry out his responsibility in the field
of foreign policy. As the distinguished enough on this point, and knows, fur- ingly, I shall vote against House Resoluthermore, that much of policymaking tion 261 which disapproves the plan. gentleman from Massachusetts pointed is only the summation of thought and I urge you, my colleagues, to vote ano,” out, we as Democrats want to go along experience from all parts of the Gov
so that a start may be made in the with him in fixing that responsibility for ernment. In full understanding of the reorganization of the Department of our foreign policy and for the implemenproblem but without full knowledge, yet, State.
tation of that policy. of the best manner of coping with it, the
Many of us have deplored conditions There are two things I do think we administration has put forward plan 7
in the Department in the past and should make a record on today. One is
voiced our impatience at the slowness as a transitional stage, the best next step
that this plan cannot possibly or conof change in organization and proce- ceivably work unless the Director of the on the road. Walter Bedell Smith
dure in this vital agency. Today we showed full awareness of the problem have an opportunity to start on a long
Foreign Operations Administration and
unless the Director of the new Internawhen he said:
range reorganization program by al tional Information Agency definitely Well, you all know as well as I do that lowing Reorganization Plan No. 7 to go subordinate themselves to the Secretary you cannot draw a clear-cut line of demarca
into effect. This is one "no" vote that of State. If they assume those position between the man who makes the policy is constructive—that is progressive
tions and then start building empires, and the man who carries it out. There is a sort of twilight zone in between,
that represents a first short step in the as ofttimes many are wont to do in and you cannot divest entirely the policy- right direction.
Washington, then this plan will fail. maker * of all responsibility for the co
Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Chairman, I So I think the Congress should warn ordination or for general supervision over yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from those who will take over operations under the implementation of that policy. Florida [Mr. LANTAFF].
this plan that the Director of the For