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Office buildings of the better class should have oak, maple or dense pine floors as indicated by the use for which the various rooms are intended. For hallways and toilets terrazzo, mosaic, tile or some kind of a sanitary composition floor is to be preferred, provided the importance of the building warrants the expenditure.
For office buildings of lesser importance floors will naturally be of composition, concrete or pine. If concrete is used it is desirable to cover it with linoleum or cocoa matting for added comfort to employees. Passageways between desks may be covered with rubber runners. Passenger Stations.
In large city stations and in suburban stations of importance, terrazzo, mosaic, tile or some high grade type of composition floor is generally accepted as best meeting the requirements. In such locations the architectural suitability of the floor is of as much importance as its wearing qualities. For ramps, a non-slip wearing surface is essential.
For second grade stations and for small stations at outlying points, concrete or wood floors are commonly used and give entire satisfaction.
In stations where concrete or terrazzo floors are used a wood floor should be provided in the ticket office. Signal Towers.
Floors in signal towers are to a certain extent dependent upon the style of construction of the building and may be of concrete, composition or wood.
Concrete floors are not desirable where there is electrical machinery unless a dense, hard, permanent surface can be obtained to prevent dusting.
FREIGHT HOUSE DESIGN
A STUDY OF THE PRINCIPAL FACTORS WHICH GOVERN THE
DESIGN OF THE LEVEL L.C.L. FREIGHT HOUSES
Hugo Filippi, Sub-Committee.
While generally recognized the importance of adequate and correctly designed terminal facilities as a measure of economical operation has only in recent years been given the careful consideration which the question deserves.
In the past, the problem of L.C.L. freight house design has been largely attended by a series of approximations and by comparison with existing freight houses through which substantially the same tonnage was being handled. Only too frequently the size of the house has been determined arbitrarily and the lack of careful planning has made itself manifest immediately upon completion of the structure.
L.C.L. freight facilities, particularly in large cities, are rapidly assuming an important position from a property investment standpoint. It is, therefore, of prime importance that this problem be given the closest possible study, to the end that the freight houses of the future may be properly and economically designed, not only in so far as such design affects the actual physical operation of receiving or stowing the freight, but also that the entire plant may be the result of a preconceived plan which will allow for expansion due to reasonable growth in business and one in which each factor has been carefully considered and given proper weight.
It should be recognized at the outset that the problem of freight house design involves more than a simple consideration of those individual factors which are related to the house design alone. A satisfactory solution must necessarily include a critical study of existing freight conditions and a broad vision as to probable future developments. General Considerations.
L.C.L. freight consists of several distinct classes, each of which must be received in a particular manner and handled without delay.
In the larger terminal these classes are generally as follows:
Inbound House Operation.
L.C.L. inbound freight is received at the house in cars, unloaded, checked and placed on the floor of the house. Freight for city delivery is held on the floor until called for by consignee, while freight for industries and for connecting lines (and in some instances for the outbound house) is loaded into transfer cars or vehicles for delivery to proper destination. Outbound House Operation.
Freight delivered to the outbound house by vehicle is received at the doors, checked, weighed, routed and loaded on house trucks for movement into proper cars in the outbound setting. Car transfer freight (freight from industries and connecting lines) is received either on house tracks or at a separate transfer platform adjacent to the outbound house setting.
After the freight has been received, movement into the proper car is accomplished either by use of hand trucks or, in the case of long houses, by placing on 4-wheel trucks made up into trains and handled by motors directly into or opposite the proper car where it is to be stowed. Character of Business Handled.
A careful study of the general manner in which L.C.L. freight is received and forwarded draws attention to the necessity of determining the volume of each class of freight to be handled. While all the classes
indicated above will not be found applicable to smaller freight houses, it is evident that in the design of large terminals all of these must be considered. The relation in tons of each class of freight to the total tonnage handled is, therefore, an important, consideration.
A study of the business handled at a large freight terminal in Chicago developed the following approximate relations :
Door Freight-City delivery, plus delivery to connecting lines by vehicle
70% Car Transfer Freight-Delivery to industries and connecting lines.. 25% . Freight delivered by other means.....
Door Freight-City receipt, plus delivery from connecting lines by
vehicle Car Transfer Freight-Received from connecting lines and indus
tries Freight received by other means.
The above example is given merely as an illustration of the manner in which the data preliminary to design should be prepared and the percentages indicated should be understood as applying to this freight terminal only. Growth of Business.
The next step lies in a determination of the probable future growth of business to be provided for in the design of the facilities. This problem is exceedingly complex owing to the number of variable factors involved, such as changes in industrial conditions, possible unification of terminals, changes in routing, pooling of shipments to make carloads, possible development of waterways, etc., but a careful study of past growth will do much to reveal the probable future tendency.
Mr. E. H. Lee, Vice-President of the Association, states in his excellent paper, "Notes on L.C.L. Freight Houses,” Volume 15, page 364, that "the L.C.L. business is at present growing at the rate of about 5 per cent a year. It, therefore, doubles every fifteen (15) years." While this statement is quite general, it has been found to reflect the average conditions throughout the country. Whether the future growth will continue at this rate is highly problematical and it seems probable that the rate must decrease as the development of the country becomes more complete. The application of such a high rate of increase to the business growth at the average freight house results in such generous provision in capacity that its use for design purposes, however, must be questioned.
This thought leads to the advisability of providing house capacity capable of handling the ultimate freight business as determined by the physical life of the facilities. On general premises such a step appears illogical and careful study would seem to indicate the wisdom of providing facilities sufficient to serve present requirements plus a reasonable increase. Preconceived provisions in the general design of house and tracks should be of such character that an increase in facilities may be had at any time without destroying their unity. Factors of Design.
After the relation between the various classes of freight has been determined and the volume of business for present and ultimate development has been decided upon, the problem resolves itself into a determination of individual factors of design, and it is these factors which will be discussed in the succeeding paragraphs.
Inasmuch as this study contemplates a discussion of these factors for one level L.C.L. freight houses only, no consideration will be given those which have a relation to multiple leyel houses. It is to be hoped that subsequent reports of the Association will consider the latter factors very fully and present data on that phase of the problem. The factors which will be considered here are enumerated below:
Width of roadway.
and relation to floor space required.
foot of tailboard and per door.
Floor live load, per square foot.
The question of roadway width is dependent primarily on size of vehicles to be accommodated and whether the roadway will serve buildings on one or both sides. In order to obtain information on the size of vehicles commonly used for freight purposes, observations were made recently at the South Water Street facilities of the Illinois Central Railroad at Chicago. This information is shown in Table No. 1.