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CIRCOLAR RESPECTING ACADEMIES OF DESIGN,
GALLERIES OF ART, AND ART CULTURE
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,
WASHINGTON, D. C., January, 1868. The undersigned desires to obtain for this Department printed docaments respecting Academies of Design, and Schools and Galleries of Art, and such other information as you may please to communicate respecting efforts which have been made in your city, or State, to promote the study of Art and its applications to Painting, Sculpture, Engraving, Architecture, Landscape Gardening, Music, &c., in any of the forms and particulars specified below.
Commissioner. 1. Academies of Design-when and how established; how supported; present condition as to funds and members.
2. Schools of Art—when and by whom founded; how supported; tuition free or otherwise; number of pupils, male and female; trustees, how many and how paid.
3. Schools of Art for Women—when and by whom established; how supported; number of pupils.
4. Public Museums or Galleries for Exhibition of Works of Art-when established; how supported; character and value of the works exhibited; number of visitors, (estimated, or known by sale of tickets.)
5. Private Collections of Works of Art-their character and value; whether the productions are of foreign or native artists.
6. The study and practice of Drawing in Colleges and Schools of any grade with you, (not included above)—when first introduced-how taught-number of pupils, male or female.
7. Academies or Schools of Music—when established-how supported—present condition as to proceedings, funds, and members.
8. Music in Colleges, Academies, and Public Schools—when introduced as a regular exercise-how taught, special teacher, &c.
9. Public Parks-extent and original cost of grounds-plan and cost of improvements, and by whom designed-annual cost of improvements and superintendence historical monuments and statues, &c.
10. Private grounds-extent, and by whom planned-on what conditions open to visitors.
11. Rural cemeteries-extent and cost of grounds—when and by whom planned—annual cost of improvements and superintendence-number of proprietors.
12. Number and character of Books on Art accessible through public libraries.
13. Native artists—living or dead, whose reputation and productions are associated with your city-any details as to special training and encouragement ne ceived by them there.
14. Any special action by the State or City, or by any institution or individual, for the advancement of Art in design, construction, or decoration of buildings and grounds, in portraits, statues, paintings, or monuments.
15. Schools or Classes (day or evening) for artizans, in any branch of decorative Art, modeling, &c.
16. Art and Æsthetic Culture generally—any suggestions as to its conditios and improvement in this country.
CIRCULAR RESPECTING PUBLIC GROUNDS
AND OTHER ARRANGEMENTS FOR POPULAR RECREATION.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,
Washington, D. C., 1868. In the progress of the Science of Education, attention is more and more called to the fact that a refined development of the mental powers, unattended by a corresponding development of the physical system, necessarily results in morbid conditions which are subversive of the objects of education.
It follows that the science of education includes the science of recreation, and that elaborate arrangements for the education of a community must be regarded not only as incomplete, but as radically unsound, in which suitable provisions for physical training and recreation are not included.
A thorough consideration of the educational system of the United States can not therefore be had without an examination not only of the special methods of physical training adopted in schools, but of the usages which obtain, especially in our more important towns, with regard to public, open-air recreation.
Few communities yet possess grounds so designed as to provide, with any approach to completeness, for this purpose, but there are certain localities in and about all towns which are more or less resorted to, because of such limited advantages as they offer.
The object of the present circular is to elicit such information as may aid to establish a correct understanding of the general stage of advancement which has been reached by American towns in this particular.
Henry BARNARD, Commissioner of Education,
SUGGESTIONS IN MAKING RETTRXS. The following suggestions and questions are not intended to indicate the limits to which the returns should be confined, but to facilitate the adoption of a short method of supplying the more important facts desired. It is not designed that the several inquiries and suggestions shall be followed seriatim in all cases, but it is requested that the several divisions indicated by capital letters may each be taken up by itself, though a single sentence is only given in reply; for instance, the division “E.” may be sufficiently answered in many cases as follows: E. We have no scientific gardens, and nothing has been done for public education
in the direction indicated by these inquiries; our teachers and those chiefly concerned in the management of the public schools confining their interest and labors almost exclusively within the walls of the school-houses.
A. (a) When your citizens wish to take the air, without engaging in vigorous ex
ercise; to meet their fellow town’s-people, without ceremony or the necessity of engaging in conversation; or to entertain guests with a pleasant drive or walk, to what localities do they more commonly resort? (Note. If a cemetery seems to be made use of as a place for pleasure prom
enades, the fact should not be omitted. See Note d (a) at close. It should be mentioned also if the public is indebted to private enterprise
and generosity for opportunities of recreation.) (6) Is the custom established among your citizens of a promenade, that is to
say, of a general gathering in a certain locality for the above purposes, at
certain hours of the day? (c) If so, what is the number of people who ordinarily engage in it under fa.
vorable conditions of weather? and (d) What the extreme number under special circumstances ? (e) Has it been customary to provide music in the locality of the promenade
on certain days ? (f) If so, how frequently? (9) What is the expense ? and (h) By what arrangement defrayed ? (0) What are the special attractions and advantages of the localities named in answer to question A (a)? Under this include attractions supplied by water views, landscapes, shade,
fountains, and works of art, parades, spectacles and displays. See
Note A (i) at close. (1) State if the carriage-way used is especially adapted to pleasure driving. (k) If so, what is its constructive character ? See Note A (k) at close. (1) Is it reserved exclusively for pleasure vehicles ? (m) What is the width and length of such carriage road? (n) What is the limit of speed allowed, if any? (0) What are the provisions for watering the road ? (p) State if there is a special way for saddle horses. (a) If so, what is its constructive character ? (r) What is the width and length of such bridle-road?
(s) State the length of walk especially adapted to pleasure walking.
(If of variable width, the walks may be classified according to width of
each, and the length of each class given.) (t) What is the surface material of the walk ?
(As screened gravel, powdered shell, asphalte, coal or pine-tar concrete, &c.)
(a) To what localities are delicate children, cripples, feeble aged people, invalids
and convalescents taken for sunning and airing ? (6) What is the means of access to this locality from the denser parts of the
town? c) What accommodations required especially by delicate and feeble persons are provided in the locality ? (Such as seats and level walks sheltered from chilling winds and open to
the sun; baths, warm milk, mineral waters. &c.) (d) What is the usual charge for the hire of an easy carriage for a drive of an
hour, on roads well adapted to the exercise of a feeble person ?
C. (a) To wbat localities do your citizens resort for open-air exercise of a more
active or vigorous character than walking or driving ? (6) State if there are special arrangements for the enjoyment of base-ball, football, cricket, dancing, croquet, or any other recreative exercises ? If so, describe each, giving the area of ground occupied; the arrangements
for spectators and for the rest and refreshment of players. (c) State if rowing or skating are popular amusements, and wliat are the public
facilities for engaging in them ? (d) State if there are public arrangements for gymnastic exercises, and if so,
under what regulations they are used. (e) To what places do young men most resort during the hours of the day
when they are not engaged at their homes or in business duties? (f) Are healthful and improving recreations prepared for young people, on holydays? If so, describe the arrangements and indicate to what extent they are
availed of. (9) What resources of every day amusement, entertainment or recreation are
most available and most used by young men? (h) Are your leading philanthropic and patriotic citizens generally warmly in.
terested in means of instruction, encouragement and assistance to young people in the formation of habits of temperate, healthful and virtuous recreation? (Note. The recklessness, unhealthful excitement and brutal indifference to
the rights and feelings of the community which have been often mani. fested of late years, in connection with the public, athletic contests of young men, have excited much astonishment and profound anxiety, as indicating that their education was a failure in respect to the most important object of education. The symptoms referred to have been exhibited both by young men educated in the country and at common schools, and by those educated in large towns, and at the higher institutions of learning. It is questioned whether if young men did not from childhood
generally find that in the indulgence of a propensity to engage in manly recreations, they could expect neither instruction, sympathy, fellowship, nor encouragement and judicious assistance from the better part of society, they would be equally liable to fall into the excesses referred to. Any facts or observations bearing upon this question will be valuable for the purposes of this circular.)
D. (a) On the occasion of a reception of public guests or other civic formalities,
celebrations, exhibitions or festivities; or of demonstrations of public opinion or congratulatory meetings, too large or of an unsuitable character to be held within buildings, (as where horses are used, or fireworks exhibited,) what localities are resorted to and what is the character of the accommodations they offer, and in what respects are their surroundings suitable to be asso
ciated with such proceedings ? () On occasions of public ceremony or festivities, is it customary to call upon
the public schools to take a suitable and honorable part, and are accommodations provided of such a character that children may be present, under the
government of their teachers, without danger of accident or excessive fatigue? (c) What public grounds are provided for the military training of citizens and
for parades? (d) To what localities do school children commonly resort in the largest num
bers for out-of-door play? (e) What is the area of ground especially prepared for them? () What are its attractions, and what conveniences or encouragements are
provided in connection with it for healthful recreation ? (9) If convenient, estimate the number of children who come together (h) Is there a public swimming school? (1) If so, under what regulations do the children use it, and how are its
expenses met ? (j) If there is no regular swimming school, do any of your common school
teachers systematically go on bathing excursions with their scholars and give
instructions in swimming? (k) What public conveniences or encouragements are provided to induce chil. dren to bathe and learn to swim?
E. (a) Does the system of public education (of higher or lower grade) include any
systematic training, or instructions in the judicious use of the physical powers? (6) If so, describe the means and facilities for demonstration and practice. (c) Are prizes offered for proficiency in recreative exercises, or do indolence
and neglect of the requirements of health and morality in this respect, affect in any way the school standing of scholars, on the merit-roll or otherwise ?
(a) Is there any Arboretum; or Botanic, Horticultural, Geological, or other open-air Scientific Collection, to which school children are freely admitted? If so, describe it, giving its specialty, the extent of the collection, the
ground occupied, when and by whom prepared; by what arrangements maintained, and indicate to what extent it is used with direct educational intention. Indicate to what extent it is also resorted to as a place of general public recreation.