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THE BALLINGER-PINCHOT INVESTIGATION. Early in the Taft administration the President, on the recommendation of Secretary Ballinger, restored to entry approximately one million acres of the public domain which had been withdrawn late in the previous administration to protect water power sites. Secretary Ballinger held that the withdrawals had been made without sufficient warrant of law and on inadequate information regarding the location of power sites. The release was criticised and Mr. Ballinger, having caused further investigation to be made, withdrew three hundred thousand acres covering sites which had been protected by the earlier withdrawals.
Friction had developed between Secretary Ballinger and Gifford Pinchot, Forester of the Agricultural Department. In the summer of 1909 an Irrigation Congress was held at Seattle, during which the so-called Glavis charges became parThe Glavis tially public. L. R. Glavis, a special agent of the General Land Office. Charges. charged that, as Commissioner of the General Land Office during the previous administration, Mr. Ballinger had passed to patent or "clear listed" certain claims to Alaska coal lands filed by the Cunningham brothers and others to the number of thirty-three, when such clearlisting was not warranted by facts. Mr. Glavis accused the Cunninghams and their associates of a conspiracy to defraud the government in that they were taking up these lands through collusion with individual entrymen. The charges were put in legal form, and, armed with a letter, Mr. Glavis went to Beverly and submitted them to the President.
After calling on Secretary Ballinger and his associates for a statement of their side of the case, and after consulting the Attorney General and receiving his oral opinion, President Taft directed Oscar Lawler, Assistant Attorney General for the Interior Department, to prepare for the signature of the Executive a letter addressed to Mr. Ballinger, exonerating him and his associates of all blame, denouncing the charges as "disingenuous" and directing the dismissal of Glavis for filing such charges against his superiors. Such a letter, containing only a small portion of the Lawler draft, President Taft made public on September 15, 1909.
President Taft, after receiving the oral opinion of the Attorney General at Beverly, instructed him to prepare it in writing. Soon after Congress met in December, 1909, Secretary Ballinger, with the permission of the President. The Investigation. wrote to Senator Jones, of Washington, a letter demanding an investigation of his department and of the Bureau of Forestry. to the end that he might be exonerated of the charges which had been spread by the latter and that the blame for their circulation might be fixed. Senator Jones introduced the necessary resolution just before the Christmas recess, and it passed both houses of Congress. The investigating committee, as appointed by the VicePresident and elected by the House, consisted of Senators Nelson, Flint, Root and Sutherland Republicans, and Purcell and Fletcher, Democrats. and of Representatives McCall, Denby, Olmstead and Madison. Republicans, and James and Graham Democrats. The resolution, printed in full on page 144 of this volume, called on the President to submit all papers which had led to his decision, and among these he submitted the written opinion of the Attorney General, which conformed to the oral opinion given at Beverly, although prepared much later.
On the day the opinion of the Attorney General reached Congress and was made public Senator Dolliver read in the Senate a letter from Mr. Pinchot, presenting his side of the controversy. This letter was written in disobedience of a general order of the President which forbade a subordinate official to communicate with members of Congress without the permission of the member of the Cabinet who was the superior of such subordinate. For this act of insubordination President Taft dismissed Mr Pinchot from the public service.
The investigating committee of the two houses of Congress met in January and held sessions more or less regularly until the termination of the second session of the Sixty-first Congress. The committee then adjourned, Premature subject to the call of the chairman, without passing upon Minority Reports. the testimony taken. Pursuant to a call of the chairman the committee met in Minneapolis on September 7, and with only six members, or less than a quorum, present-the four Democrats, Mr. Madison and Chairman Nelson-the Democrats and Mr. Madison adopted a resolution censuring Secretary Ballinger, Senator Nelson refused to vote, and declared that no quorum was present. A little later six of the eight Republican members of the committee met in Chicago and adopted a resolution rebuking their colleagues for attempting to railroad through a resolution when no quorum was present.
The four Democratic members of the committee reached the following conclusion: "That Richard A. Ballinger has not been true to the trust reposed in him as Secretary of the Interior, that he is not deserving of public confidence, and that he should be requested by the proper authorities to resign his office."
Ir. Madison's 'iew.
Mr. Madison, in a separate report, made this finding: "That the charges made y L. R. Glavis against Secretary Ballinger should be sustained; that in the matter of the disosition of the Cunningham coal lands Mr. Ballinger was not a faithful trustee of the interests of the people, and did not perform his duty in such a manner as to properly protect such interests. "That the charges made by Mr. Pinchot should be sustained; that [r. Ballinger's course in the administration of the Department of the Interior has een characterized by a lack of fidelity to the public interests. That this has been hown in his treatment of the Cunningham coal claims, the restoration of the water ower sites to entry without intention to rewithdraw, and in his administration of he reclamation service, the latter resulting in unnecessary humiliation to the director nd tending toward the disintegration of the service.
"He has not shown himself to be that character of a friend to the policy of conervation of our natural resources that the man should be who occupies that Imporant post of Secretary of the Interior in our government, and he should not be reained in that office."
The majority of the committee submitted a report, signed by Senators Nelson, lint. Sutherland and Root and Representatives McCall, Olmsted and Denby, declaring the charges made against Secretary Ballinger to be unsustained Ir. Ballinger by the evidence given. The majority of the committee reached xonerated. the conclusion that "neither any fact proved nor all the facts put together exhibit Mr. Ballinger as being anything but a compeent and honorable gentleman, honestly and faithfully performing the duties of his High office with an eye single to the public Interest."'
The main findings of the majority report were:
First-That the charges and insinuations against Secretary Ballinger in regard o the Cunningham coal land entries or other coal land claims in Alaska are not ustified and his conduct in respect thereto is not justly censurable.
Second-That he was, under the circumstances stated, fully justified in revoking he Indian co-operative agreement.
Third-That the restoration of water power sites by Secretary Ballinger was nade in good faith and not in enmity to the government and policy of conservation of natural resources, but pursuant to an honest opinion as to the legality of the withdrawals, in which many members of the Senate and House, as well as many competent and disinterested authorities in private life, agree with him; that the question is a doubtful one, and in the opinion of the committee the withdrawals ould not be justified on the broad grounds of supervisory power which had been alleged in their support. and Secretary Ballinger is not censurable for having or cting on his honest opinion thereon; that the rewithdrawal of the portions of he lands in question necessary to enable Congress to act, and for that purpose only, was justifiable, and that no injury appears to have been done to the government or the cause of conservation by either the restorations or rewithdrawals.
Fourth-That, in view of the opinion of the Attorney General, he was justified n abandoning the use of the so-called water users' co-operative certificates in connection with the reclamation of arid lands.
Fifth-That the administration of the reclamation law presented features ustly subject to criticism. More projects were undertaken than the money in and would complete; some projects applied to little or no government land and were wholly or chiefly for the benefit of private lands. In some cases the cost was greatly in excess of what settlers had been led to expect; the scope of the work had been enlarged beyond the cash resources contemplated by the statute y the use of so-called co-operative certificates of doubtful legality. These things called for active investigation, criticism and corrective measures, so far as pracicable, on the part of the Secretary of the Interior. No unfair criticism or mproper conduct on Secretary Ballinger's part has been shown, nor any action y him not within the sound discretion of the head of the Interior Department n the faithful performance of his duty.
Sixth-That he is not an enemy of nor hostile to a reasonable and judicious policy of conservation, and that no ground whatever has been shown justifying he opinion that he is not a faithful and efficient public officer.
STOCKHOLDERS IN CORPORA-
In order to protect stockholders in corporations, by giving them access to the statements of earnings filed with the Secretary of the Treasury under the provisions of the corporation tax section of the Payne tariff law, Secretary MacVeagh issued on November 25, 1910, with the approval of President Taft, the following rules and regulations giving limited publicity to corporation
1. The return of every corporation shall be open to the inspection of the proper
officers and employes of the Treasury Department. Where access to any return is de
sired by an officer or employe of any other department of the government, an application for permission to inspect such return, setting out the reasons therefor, shall be made in writing. signed by the head of the executive department or other government establishment in which such officer or employe is en ployed, and transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury. If, however, the return is desired to be used in any legal proceedings, or to be used in any manner by which any information contained in the return could be made public, or acces to any return is desired by any official of any state or territory of the United States, the application for permission to inspect such return shall be referred to the Attorney General, and, if recommended by him, transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury.
2. The Secretary of the Treasury, at his discretion, upon application to tim made, setting forth what constitutes a proper showing of cause, may permit inspectier of the return of any corporation by any bona fide stockholder Applications from in such corporation. The person desiring to inspect such reStockholders. turn shall make application in writing to the Secretary of the Treasury, setting forth the reasons why he should be permitted to make such inspection, and shall attach to his application a certificate signed by the president or other principal officer of such corporation, coun tersigned by the secretary, under the corporate seal of the company, that he is a bona fide stockholder in said company. The privilege of inspecting the return of any corporation is personal to the stockholders, and the permission granted by the Secretary cannot be delegated to any other person.
3. The returns of the following corporations shall be open to the Inspection of any person upon written application to the Secretary of the Treasury, which applestion shall set forth, briefly and succinctly, all facts necessary Applications from to enable the Secretary to act upon the request. Other Persons.
(A) The returns of all companies whose stock is listed upon any duly organized and recognized stock exchange with the United States for the purpose of having its shares dealt in by the public generally.
(B) All corporations whose stock is advertised in the press or offered to the public by the corporation itself for sale.
In case of doubt as to whether any company falls within the classification above the person desiring to see such return should make application, supported by adver tisements, prospectus or such other evidence as he may deem proper to establish the fact that the stock of such corporation is offered for general public sale.
There were more than 11,000,000,000 messages sent over the telephone wires in the United States in 1907, an increase of 124 per cent over the 5,000,000,000 similar conversations reported in 1902, according to estimates presented in the Census Bureau's reports for 1907, covering the physical equipment, service and financial operations of the commercial, mutual and independent rural telephone lines for 1907.
In 1907 the total number of systems and lines was 22,971, as compared with 9.136 in 1902, an increase of 151.4 per cent. The miles of wire in 1907 were 12.999369, as compared with 4,900,451 in 1902. The salaried employes in 1907 numbered 25,298, as compared with 14,124 in 1902. Salaries amounted to $19,298,423, agains $9.885.886 in 1902. The average number of wage earners in 1907 was 118,871. B against 64.628 in 1902, an increase of 83.9 per cent, belonging to the Bell system and outstanding in 1907 was $814,616,004, while in 1902 it was $348,031,058, an in crease of 134.1 per cent. The income in 1997 was $184,461,747, as compared with $85,825,536 in 1902, a gain of 112.5 per cent.
The first telegraph line was opened for business in 1844, and thirty-two year! later the telephone was introduced. The telephone industry is largely concen trated in the populous North Atlantic and North Central states,
Of the 22.971 systems and lines represented in the census of 1907, 175, or 8 per cent, belonged to the Bell system, and 22.796, or 99.2 per cent, were Independent But the Bell company operated 8,947,266 miles of wire, or 68.8 per cent of the total. The Bell system in 1907 had 31,132.063 stations or telephones. 51.2 per cent of the total, and the non-Bell operated 2,986,515, 48.8 per cent. The Bell system controlled more than half the telephones in the North Atlantic, South Atlantic. South Central and Western divisions, and in twenty-eight states and territories.
OCEAN CABLES OF THE WORLD.
The first ocean cable to be laid was one across the English Channel betwẹ an Dover and Calais, which was opened in 1850. This line was laid with English capital. and English capital still controls more than half the length of the submarine lines of the world.
Of the 252.436 miles of ocean cables in operation in 1904, only 38,797 miles, or about 15 per cent, were owned by governments, the remainder belonging to private owners. Of the total, 139.136 miles were owned by English corporations and 14.96 miles by the British Government.
The most important of these English cables are the five lines which stretch
across the North Atlantic, and the one across the Pacific connecting Vancouver with the Fiji Islands, Norfolk Island, New Zealand and Australia.
The United States ranks next to Great Britain in number of miles of ocean cable operated. The most important of these lines are the five across the Atlantic and the Pacific cable which connects San Francisco with Honolulu, Midway Island, Guam, the Philippines, China and Japan.
France ranked third among the nations in 1904 as to miles of ocean cable owned, the French Government owning 10,092 miles, or 42 per cent of all the French lines. Denmark was fourth, with 9,488 miles, and Germany fifth, with 9.288 miles, of which more than one-third was owned by the Government. The seventeen other countries having financial interest in submarine cables had only 11,131 miles of lines, almost all of which were owned by the various governments.
THE REVOLUTION IN PORTUGAL.
A sudden revolutionary outbreak in Lisbon October 4, 1910, changed the former constitutional monarchy hereditary in the House of Saxe-Coburg-andGotha Braganza into a republic. After brief street fighting the republic was proclaimed on October 5, the emblem of the monarchy on the palace was replaced by the flag of Red and Green, the colors of the Republican party, and the Braganza family by a decree of the provisional government relegated to the position of an exiled house.
Portugal proper is divided into seventeen districts, and with the Azores and Madeira into twenty-one districts, covering an area of 35,490 square miles, with a population of 5,423.000. The colonial possessions in Africa and Asia have an area of 802,952 square miles and a population of 9,144,316.
Capital: Lisbon. National Colors: Green, red. President of the Provisional Government....
.Dr. Theophylo Brago
Senhor Machado Dr. Affonso Costa .Antonio Jose d'Alonida Jose Reloas
Colonel Rapozo Botelho Amaro d'Azeveolo Gomes .Dr. Antonio Luiz Gomes ....Senhor Leao
The new government abolished the State Council and House of Peers and proposed the formation of a committee to raise a national subscription for the purpose of liquidating a portion of the foreign floating debt. It is expected that a constitutional assembly will be convened in April, 1911. The present plans call for the creation of a single chamber_legislative body of two hundred members, which will elect the President of the Republic for a five-year term.
THE PROHIBITION MOVEMENT.
The policy of prohibition by state law the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages began with the law of Maine of 1846, replaced in 1851 by a more stringent one, which, with the exception of the years 1856 and 1857, has been in force ever since that time. The "Maine law" was enacted in Vermont in 1852 and in New Hampshire in 1855. Prohibition laws have at one time or another been enacted in Connecticut (1854); in New York (in 1855, repealed in 1857); Delaware, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, Kansas, Ohio and North and South Dakota, but were repealed after a longer or shorter trial.
At present there are nine prohibition states-Maine (1854), Kansas (1880), North Dakota (1890), North Carolina, Mississippi and Alabama (in each of which states the law went into effect January 1, 1909); Tennessee (July 1, 1909); Georgia
(1907), and Oklahoma (1907). A state prohibition amendment was defeated in Florida in November, 1910.
While a number of bills for federal prohibition have been introduced in Con- | gress the only federal legislation of a prohibitionist nature enacted has had reference to the sale of alcoholic liquors to Indians living in tribal relations and to the sale of intoxicating beverages in army canteens (1901).
NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE
The National Woman's Christian Temperance Union was organized in Cleveland, Ohio, November 18-20, 1874, incorporated March 1, 1883. It is now organized in every state of the Union. There are about 12,000 local unions, with a membership and following, including the children's societies, of about half a million. The W. C. T. U. has forty distinct departments of work, presided over by as many women experts in the national society and in nearly every state. the states in the republic have laws requiring the study of scientific temperance in the public schools, and all these laws were secured by the W. C. T. U.; also the laws forbidding the sale of tobacco to minors. The first police matrons and many industrial homes for girls were secured through the efforts of the society, also refuges for erring women. Laws raising the age of consent and providing for better protection for women and girls have been enacted by many Legislatures through the influence of the union.
The World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded through the influence of Miss Frances E. Willard in 1883 and already has auxiliaries in more than fifty countries and provinces. The white ribbon is the badge of all the W. C. T. U. members.
The headquarters of the national organization is the Willard Rest Cottage. Evanston, Ill. The following are the officers: President, Mrs. Lillian M. N. Stevens, Portland, Me.; vice-president-at-large, Miss Anna A. Gordon, Evanston, Ill.; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Frances P. Parks, Evanston, Ill.; recording secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth Preston Anderson, Valley City, N. D.; treasurer, Mrs. Elizabeth P. Hutchinson, Evanston Ill.
Officers of the World's W. C. T. U. are: President, the Countess of Carlisle, Castle Howard, York, England; vice-president, Mrs. Lillian M. N. Stevens, Portland, Me.; secretaries, Miss Agnes E. Slack, Ripley, Derbyshire, England, and Miss Anna A. Gordon, Evanston, Ill.; treasurer, Mrs. Mary E. Sanderson, Danville. Quebec, Canada.
INTERNATIONAL WOMAN SUFFRAGE ALLIANCE.
The International Woman Suffrage Alliance is a federation of national suffrage associations and numbers twenty-three national auxiliaries. Its officers are: Presldent, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt. No. 2 West 86th street, New York, N. Y.; first vice-president, Mrs. Millicent Fawcett, LL. D., London, England; second vice-presdent, Miss Annie Furuhjelm, Helsingfors, Finland; secretaries, Miss Martina Kramers, Rotterdam, Holland; Mrs. Anna Lindemann, Stuttgart, Germany; Miss Signe Bergman, Stockholm, Sweden. The next meeting will be held in Stockholm, June 12 to 17, 1911.
The affiliated associations are:
Australia-Women's Political Association; president, Miss Vida Goldstein, Whitehall, Bank Place, Melbourne. Belgium-President, Mme. Dr. Julie Gilain, 39 Rue Charles Martel, Brussels. Bulgaria-Woman's Rights Alliance; president, Mme. 1. Malinoff, Uliza GrafIgnatieff II, Sofia.
Canada-Dominion Woman Suftrage Association; president, Dr. Augusta Stowe Gullen, 461 Spadina avenue, Toronto. Denmark-Danske Kvindeforenigers Valgretsforbund; president, Fru Louise Norlund, 28 Ahlefeldtsgade, Copenhagen.
Finland-Finsk Kvinnosaksforbundet Unionem; president, Annie Furuhjelm.
France-President, Mme. Dr. Jeanne E. Schmahl, 41 Rue Gazan, Paris.
Germany-Deutscher Verband für Frauenstimmrecht; president, Dr. Jur. Anfta Augspurg, Huglfing, Oberbayern.
Great Britain-Union of Woman Suffrage Societies; president, Mrs. Millicent Fawcett, 2 Gower street, London.
Hungary-Feministak Egyesulete; president, Fräulein Vilma Glücklich, VI Kemnitzer-u-19, Budapest. Italy-Comitato Nazionale per il Voto alla Donna; president, Signora Giacenta Martini, Piazza Pilotta 5. Rome.
Netherlands-Vereeniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht; president, Dr. Aletta Jacobs. Norway-Landskvindestemmeretsforenigen; president, Fru F. M. Qvam, Gjevran Russia-Union of Defenders of Women's Rights; secretary, Mme. Marie Tschekoff. Rue Nikolaevskaia, Maison 84, log 9, St. Petersburg. Servia-President, Mrs. Savka Subbotitch, 17 Brancova ouliza, Belgrade.
South Africa-Cape Colony: Women's Enfranchisement League; president. Mr.