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of a handful of foreigners who have gone through the red tape of the customhouse there, for it is close to the Austrian border, and a smaller handful of violinists who seek perfection in their instruments, it is little known. Yet this unheralded village produces violins that are exported to every country in the world. Violin-making is an art, an exceedingly exacting one. In Mittenwald it has approached a perfection that knows few competitors.

Garmisch lies in the shadow of the Zugspitze, Germany's highest point above sea-level, and directly in front of the town the Alpspitze rears its snowy cap. The town is a popular winter-sport resort for the citybred folk of Munich and other large Bavarian towns.

As a winter resort, however, Garmisch is practically unknown beyond the borders of Germany. But if you enter a fine-art shop in Munich, Dresden, Berlin, Cologne, Vienna, Stockholm, Brussels, Paris, London, Rome, New York, and a hundred other widely scattered centers, and go through a collection of fine etchings, you will almost certainly come across some wonderfully appealing piece of work, and perhaps many pieces, by Paul Geissler.

These etchings and the artist who not only conceives them and picks them out on the copper plate, but turns them out with his own hand from his own presses, are the products of the artistic environment of the place wherein he lives and works-Garmisch, in the Bavarian Alps.


In the gorges, especially the Partnachklamm and the Höllental-klamm (Hell Ravine), there are countless little streams that begin their plunge down the precipitous walls, hundreds of feet above, as waterfalls, and before half the distance to the bottom of the gorge is reached, have dissolved into mist more delicate than any cloud, more filmy than any lace.

In the few rare instances where the sunlight penetrates such gorges at just the proper angle and strikes the mist, yet another transformation takes place and a miniature rainbow is born.

So frequent are these fairy waterfalls in Partnach-klamm that umbrellas or

raincoats are recommended for even a cloudless day.

And the lakes! It is indeed difficult to say whether there is greater beauty in looking aloft at the snow-covered Zugspitze stabbing the blue sky than there is in looking into the clear waters of Eibsee and seeing it all reflected in the placid depths.


The Bavarians have surrounded the seeker after beauty in his mountains with every device and aid to make his journey easy and safe, without in any way marring the glory of it all.

Along the sheer rocks, precipitous walls of canyons, trails have been cut in the solid granite and wherever it appeared that the hand of that the hand of man might in any marked way deface the handiwork of God, tunnels have been constructed at great labor.

The routes to the highest peaks are clearly marked, and if these are followed the visitor may, without unnecessary fatigue or danger, climb to the roof of a continent.

Here and there along the routes are to be found hospices, where a rest and often a meal may be had.

Perhaps the professional alpinist would scorn these accessories provided to assist him in reaching his objective. However, to the searcher after grandeur rather than excitement these aids are most welcome.

Ludwig II, who committed suicide in 1886-the monarch whom Bavaria called an artist and the rest of Europe declared a madman-built a number of castles and lodges throughout this mountainous section of his kingdom, the two most imposing palaces being Schloss Linderhof, not far from the village of Ettal, and Neuschwanstein, close to the Austrian border and overlooking Alpsee, a jewel lake (see Color Plate VI).

A distinguished American novelist has declared Neuschwanstein the most beautiful spot in the world. I do not know how much of the world she had seen when she wrote that, but she could add the sum total of my journeyings to her own and still feel no inclination to alter her opinion regarding the preeminent beauty of Neuschwanstein over every other spot.



From Algeria to Madagascar caterpillar cars carried 17 adventurous individuals through territory never before crossed by mechanical means (see text, pages 651-720).


Caterpillar Cars Make 15,000-Mile Trip from Algeria to Madagascar in Nine Months


With Illustrations from Photographs by Members of the Citroën Central African Expedition


IFTEEN thousand miles by motor through the heart of Africa reads almost like a figment of Jules Verne's fertile imagination, but it represents the actual accomplishment of the Citroën Central African Expedition, which it was my privilege to lead from Algeria to Mozambique and on to Madagascar.

Our original purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of motor transport in these wild regions, and to trace a route which might later enable the French Government to project a railroad that would connect two of its greatest provinces, now separated by thousands of miles of desert. and jungle.

This was soon broadened, however, to include official missions for the Colonial Office, the Air Ministry, the French Natural History Museum, and the French Geographical Society, all of which added materially both to the complexity of the arrangements and the interest of the trip.

A detailed and connected account of all our adventures is beyond the compass of this article and must be reserved for several volumes, but I am including here the more interesting incidents of a journey which daily revealed the mysteries and beauties, and in some instances the terrors, of a little-known world.


The personnel of the expedition included my two assistants, M. Louis Audouin-Dubreuil, second in command, and Major A. Bettembourg. A motionpicture producer, M. Léon Poirier, was in charge of our cinematographic work, with M. Georges Specht as camera operator.

M. Alexandre Jacovleff accompanied us to make sketches, while Dr. Eugène Bergonier provided medical attention and

taxidermic supervision, and M. Charles Brull was in charge both of our mechanical department and mineralogical and geological research. Nine mechanics, all experienced in Saharan travel, completed the party.

Our eight 10-horsepower Citroën cars. were equipped with the Kegresse-Hinstintype caterpillar system in addition to regular front wheels. Because of the great amount of equipment which had to be carried on so elaborate a trip, it was necessary to provide each car with a trailer, and both cars and trailers with extra water, gas, and oil tanks.



In order that we might not upset the economic equilibrium of the remote places through which we were to pass, and that we might be sure of our sustenance, we sent from France nearly all of our supplies. Depots were established at intervals along the route and more than 80 tons of foodstuffs, general and mechanical supplies, were distributed to them some weeks before we started.

After 10 months of careful and painstaking preparation, we left Colomb Béchar (see map, page 652) on the morning of October 28, 1924, to cross deserts and penetrate jungles, some of which had never before been traversed by mechanical


As our caterpillar cars spread through the miniature ravines and over the hillocks of the South Algerian Plain, they looked for all the world like the vessels of a flotilla performing maneuvers on a rough


The initial stage of the journey took us across the great Sahara to Burem, on the Niger River, but ours was not the first mechanically transported party to make

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THE ROUTE OF THE CITROËN CENTRAL AFRICAN EXPEDITION For nine months eight 10-horsepower automobiles equipped with caterpillar tractors pushed their way diagonally across Africa from Colomb Béchar, the railhead south of Algiers, to the Mozambique Channel, and thence across to Madagascar. On the shores of Lake Victoria the Expedition began to separate into groups of two cars each, and pursued their journey by various routes (see text, page 705). For a crossing of Africa from Cairo to Cape Town, partly on foot, see Felix Shay's narrative in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE for February, 1925.

this trip. Nearly two years before, in December, 1922, and January, 1923, the Citroën Caterpillar Tractor Expedition crossed from Tuggurt to Timbuktu, definitely outdistancing the camel in his own. domain by making the 2,000-mile journey in 20 days instead of the customary three months.*

Crossing the desert, even though we were fortified with the experience of this earlier passage, was still no easy task.

*See "The Conquest of the Sahara by Automobile," in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE for January, 1924.

After leaving the magnificent oasis of Beni Abbes, which stretches its long, green trail of palm trees along the bed of the Wadi Saura, we encountered what we thought at the time was rough going; but when, on November 10, we entered the almost unknown Tanezrouft, we embarked on a desert compared with which the wilderness we had already crossed was as nothing.

It is a country utterly devoid of resources: no water, no wood, no grass, no growing, living thing. In crossing from Quallen to Tessalit we traveled more than

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