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New York, New Haven & Hartford.
The drop test pieces are marked in the center of their length into six one-inch spaces. The marking is done with a seven-point punch on head or base. After each blow the elongation is measured with a flexible steel scale graduated to 1/50ths of an inch. The total elongation in six inches should be read independently as a check on the readings of each inch. Norfolk & Western.
Elongation in each inch for a length of 6 inches is measured with a flexible steel scale graduated to 100ths of an inch. Pennsylvania
Use a scale six inches long reading to 100th of an inch. Philadelphia & Reading.
Seven marks are made upon the head or base of the rail, three marks on either side of the center of the test piece. The elongation between each two marks is measured by means of a steel rule reading to 100ths of an inch. Southern.
Rail test samples are prick punched 1 inch apart on the base and the elongation is taken with a steel scale graduated in 100ths of an inch.
8. SURFACE INSPECTION OF RAILS. Baltimore & Ohio.
The heat number, the letter and the branding are first checked. The inspectors walk each rail on top, bottom, and each side for defects, the mill men turning the rail for each operation. At the same time the ends of the rail are checked for drilling and inspected for pipes or crooks. Canadian Pacific.
The four sides of the rail arc walked to detect any flows or mechanical defects. The drilling is checked. Second quality rails are checked to see that they are properly painted and prick punched and to see that they are loaded separately on cars. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.
Rails first walked with bases up and then walked with heads up. Then inspected for crooks, drilling checked and examined for piping in the bolt hole or end of the rail. Next checked for length with a steel tape. Rails which have been marked for crooks are sent to the re-straightening press and those with defects that can be cut back are sent to the cold
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.
Rails are first laid on their side with heat number and letter up and rejected rails removed. Rails are then inspected for surface and line. Those out of line are sent back for restraightening. Any rails in which flaws are found are either rejected or made second quality according to the degree and nature of the flaw. The drilling in the most part is taken care of in the finishing mill. The lengths of rails are checked in the finishing mill. Any 33-it. cold saw rail found is laid aside until the end of the rolling and annealed with an acetylene torch to remove the brittle steel at the end of the rail. Grand Trunk.
Same as described under Canadian Pacific.
Hunt & Co.
The finished rails are laid out in tiers on the inspection beds, either head or base up. The final inspectors walk them from end to end, usually directing their specific attention on one trip to three or four rails. Any flaws or imperfections seen are examined and the rails marked accordingly with pre-arranged classification marks. After this inspection the rails are turned 180° and the process repeated, so that each rail sent out for shipment is inspected on two sides. After the walking of the rails is completed the inspectors examine the ends of the rails for mechanical finish and measure the lengths when considered desirable. The rails are then sighted for straightness and the ends examined for indication of piping. New York Central.
The rails upon the inspection beds are walked by our inspectors on head, web and base, for flaws and imperfections, and the ends are examined for pipes in the web or head. If any sursace defects are found, the rails are marked as second quality or scrap. They are also marked for surface defects in the head, web or base near the ends, to be cut at the saws into short lengths. Drillings, straightness of line and surface, sawing of the ends, stamping and branding, length of rail, fish and finish of the sections are also inspected and checked. New York, New Haven & Hartford.
Surface inspection by the mill's inspectors is performed before the rails are drilled. After drilling the rails are walked, both head up and base up by the surface inspectors. It is customary at most mills for the inspector to examine the heads of three rails or the bases of four each time he walks the lengths of the pile. After the heads and bases are inspected and the heat numbers examined to guard against the acceptance of rails rejected at the drop test, and to pick out rails of heats over 71 in carbon for painting red at ends, the surface inspector walks along the ends of the spread or list of rails and examines the ends of the rails for defects and sights them for straightness. Norfolk & Western.
Surface inspection is given the heads, webs and bases of rails offered for acceptance and delivered on loading skids. Pennsylvania.
Rails are inspected for surface, finish and straightness before loading, all rails turned that each side, top and bottom may be looked over. Philadelphia & Reading.
Rails are inspected for straightness, seams, etc., on the loading beds. Inspectors walk four sides of the rails and also inspect the ends, examining them for pipes, etc. The section is checked both in the mill at the hot saws and on the loading beds. No inspector stationed at the straightening presses.
The drop test inspector looks after this department, as only a portion of his time is taken up with making drop tests. Southern.
Surface inspection consists of an examination of the head, base and web of each rail for local defects, an examination of the machined (milled) ends of same for evidence of interior defects (pipes), sighting the rails along both the line and the surface for straightness and checking the drilling, sawing, lengths, etc.
9. RECORDS OF MANUFACTURE. Baltimore & Ohio.
Each heat is followed from the pouring at the open-hearth furnaces to the finishing beds and all information as regards the history of the heat and the disposition of same is recorded in rail book, form 1632-B. Canadian Pacific.
Records are kept of drop test, nick and break test, chemical analysis, heating and blooming of each heat in a heat record, where provision is made for the failures of each heat to be recorded under the particulars of each heat. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.
None before the rolling of the ingots. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.
Following records of manufacture are kept by railroad inspectors: Open-hearth records of ingots made, records of ingots charged into the pits, time ingots are kept in the pits, weight of ingots, amount of discard from top and bottom, length at hot saws. Grand Trunk.
Same as Canadian Pacific. Hunt & Co.
Steel, blooming mill, rail mill and drop test inspectors keep records pertaining to manufacture and testing. Special forms are used providing for a complete record of the making and rolling of each heat. New York Central.
Records are kept of the details of manufacture and include mill records, notes by inspectors, and the record of tests and inspection. New York, New Haven & Hartford.
Record kept of general method of manufacture, size of ingots, number of ingots, discard, shrinkage allowance at hot saws, blooms reheated or not. Vorfolk & Western.
Reports of inspection show for each rolling the number of ingots cast and rails rolled from each heat, the size and weight of ingots, the number of passes in rolls from ingot to finished rail, the discard from top and bottom of ingot, shrinkage, check weights, the total of first and second quality rails accepted, number of rails rejected, with cause for rejection, and this information is from time to time supplemented by a special report covering the complete process of manufacture including raw material, fuel, mill design and output. Pennsylvania
Records are kept of all heats rolled, number of ingots to heat, number of rails to ingot, size of ingot and average percentage of discard from top and bottom. Philadelphia & Reading.
No permanent records are kept of the mill practice. Any changes are noted in inspector's report which is kept in book form. Southern
Record kept of any details of manufacture worthy of special interest.
10. CHECKING AGAINST ERRORS. Baltimore & Ohio.
Heats and rail letters are checked on loading beds to see that only accepted rails which have passed tests and inspection, are loaded. Canadian Pacific.
The open-hearth inspector keeps track of special ingots such as "stickers" and others. Rejected rails are separated. Care is taken to check up the number of ingots and number of rails from each heat, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific.
Before loading commences, all rejected rail must be shown to the Chief Rail Inspector, and in addition to this he checks the rails as they are loaded. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western.
The loading inspector is supplied with accepted heat numbers, and number of rails in each heat. Rejected rails found are separated and scrapped. Grand Trunk.
Same practice as with Canadian Pacific. Hunt & Co.
The work of inspection being of a progressive character insures against rolling odd ingots and blooms to a very large extent. There is always a slight possibility that heat number stamping and rail lettering will be incorrect but that too is practically eliminated by this plan of inspection. Rails are loaded almost as rapidly as inspected and rejected rails are marked plainly and set aside. New York Central.
Inspectors oversee the loading of the cars which is done adjacent to the inspecting beds. New York, New Haven & Hartford.
Rejected rails are immediately culled from accepted ones and piled separately. Surface inspectors also check the heat numbers. Norfolk & Western.
Heat numbers are examined on the loading skids. Where cold ingots are charged from stock, the heat numbers are examined and odd heats tested. Pennsylvania.
Checks are made at different times during rolling of method of handling each heat through the various stages, but depend mostly on mill people to keep heats together and their efforts are not faulty. Philadelphia & Reading.
In order the prevent rejected rails, or rails rolled from odd ingots, being shipped, and also to keep a record of where rails of each heat are shipped, a record of the number of rails of each heat, loaded into each car, is kept. Southern.
Inspectors are required to witness the loading of the rails and make record of the cars in which loaded. Inspectors are also required to check the heat numbers of the rails while being loaded, which records are checked against the heats tested.
11. OTHER COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS. Baltimore & Ohio.
Cooling beds should be covered. Drilling of rails should be carefully checked. Rejected rails should be marked near the center so they cannot be again offered as short rails. The manner of marking and branding should be clearly defined in the specifications. Special and second quality rails should be loaded in separate cars. Delaware, Lackawanna Western.
Rails at the hard side of the specifications are painted red, and those at the soft side are painted blue. New York Central.
Record should be kept of details of manufacture. Southern
The front ends of all rails are milled in order to better detect the presence of pipes.