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evidently not intended him, and terminated his American experience in 1842 by visiting the various States.

"In the year 1843 he repaired to Giessen and placed himself under the great Liebig. It was not long before the Prince of Chemists recognized in his pupil that energy and ardent love for chemistry which afterwards created betwixt them the closer relationship of friendship. By his industry and talent the young student soon gained the admiration of all his fellow pupils, for whose emulation he supplied an example of indefatigable application. In Giessen he remained during two years, gaining golden opinions from all who were capable of estimating his worth.


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Having now spent some years in educating' his powers, he resolved to test their strength, and soon published a paper upon the Sulphites. This was his first public effort of any moment. It ap peared in Liebig and Wöhler's Annalen,' was copied into all the Scientific Annals, and gained him his degree of Doctor of Philosophy, a title never before granted to so young a man. Until the appearance of this treatise little had been known about its subject, though many distinguished chemists had taken it up. Muspratt was the first to prove the analogy of the sulphites and the carbonates ; having also during his researches discovered many new salts. Berzelius has written-The investigation of the sulphurous acid and its salts, by Muspratt, is one of the most elegant and elaborate we possess, and, moreover, is one which beautifully sets forth the analogy and isomorphism between the sulphites and carbonates a discovery overlooked by all previous investigators." Then followed a paper on the "Pretended Formation of Valerianic Acid from Indigo," which was read before the British Association at York.

"But these were merely preparatory to his after researches, which are amongst the most interesting in chemistry. In conjunction with Dr. Hofmann he discovered Toluidine and Nitraniline, two organic bases of the utmost importance.

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"Whilst at Giessen, he edited Plattner's Treatise on the Blowpipe, a work which in its English form bears the title of Muspratt's Plattner on the Blowpipe,' the translator having made the treatise as much his own as Plattner's, by the many valuable additions he has introduced. Of this work the celebrated Will thought so highly that he refers to it in an especial manner when he pronounces Dr. Muspratt one of the most distinguished chemists of the day.' Speaking of him at this time, Dr. Hofmann thus sums up his career at Giessen: 'Dr. Muspratt, in a comparatively short time, besides bringing out Plattner's renowned work on the Blowpipe, published two memoirs, establishing at once his intimate acquaintance with Mineral and Organic Chemistry. The first of these comprised the Sulphites, and the results obtained gave us an exact knowledge of these interesting compounds, which Berzelius has incorporated in the new edition of his Lehrbuch. In the second, Dr. Muspratt showed the groundlessness of the assertion of a French chemist (Gerhardt) that Valerianic Acid is produced when Hydrate of Potash and Indigo are fused to

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