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MOUNT ST. ELIAS (18,002 FEET) FROM LIBBEY GLACIER

Named by Vitus Bering in 1741 in honor of the patron saint of the day, Mount St. Elias was considered the monarch of the vast and nameless
heights of the St. Elias Range until 1890, when, from a vantage point on the range's foothills, Israel C. Russell, leader of a National Geographic
Society Expedition, saw rising above the clouds three white domes which he named Mount Logan in honor of Sir William E. Logan, founder and
long director of the Geological Survey of Canada (see text, page 597).

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Photograph by H. C. Fassett, courtesy of U. S. Fish Commission
THE FACE OF HUBBARD GLACIER, ONE OF THE LARGEST AND GRANDEST TIDAL GLACIERS ON THE NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT

This vast ice stream was mapped and named by the same National Geographic Society expedition which discovered and named Mount Logan (see text,
page 597). It was named in honor of Gardiner Greene Hubbard, first President of The Society. The glacier has its source far back among the snow-
covered mountains, and it flows with almost no stain or débris, as a pinnacled and crevassed flood of pure-white ice. From its sinuous face, measuring
from 41⁄2 to 5 miles and towering from 250 to 300 feet above the water, there comes a continuous rumble, like thunder, as huge masses fall and float
away as icebergs.

Photograph from H. F. Lambart

THE KENNECOTT MINE IN WINTER GARB, SHOWING LINE OF ORE BUCKETS

west extremities of the mass are marked by two subsidiary peaks, one on either sideMcArthur (14,400 feet) on the east and King (17,130 feet) on the west.

It was not, however, until the publication of the photographs taken by Vittorio Sella, of the Duke of the Abruzzi's famous expedition, which conquered Mount St. Elias, that any true conception was obtained of the immense bulk of the Logan massif. If this mountain were cut through at the 16,000foot level, it would be found to be II miles in length in an easterly and westerly direction and would consist of a plateau 30 square miles in area above the 16,000-foot level.

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ALPINE CLUB OF CAN-
ADA PLANS TO CON-
QUER PEAK

On this great mountain mass is an amazingly complicated system of glaciers, snow fields, ridges, and peaks, rising from 18,000 feet at the extreme western end to the very summit on the eastern. It belongs to the strength and glory of human nature that when men are confronted with the unknown, the perilous, the impossible, daring spirits are straightway challenged to embark upon an enterprise of life and death. in order that secrets may be dragged forth and the apparently impossible achieved.

Three shifts, working day and night, keep this copper mine running constantly except for two days a year-Christmas and New Year's. The Copper River region ore was worked by the Indians for spearand arrow-head metal before the white man arrived. Back of the mine is the snow-covered terminal moraine of a glacier.

from specimens taken at an elevation of 18,500 feet, to be chiefly of biotite-diorite gneiss a coarse-grained granitic rock.

The mountain can be regarded, I believe, as the greatest in point of mass to be found upon the globe. The north and south walls present gigantic precipitous cliffs of sheer rock, so steep that no snow can lodge upon them, while the east and

As soon, therefore, as it was known that far to the north a knightly and defiant peak, cut off from civilization by rivers of ice and entrenched among a

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THE BONANZA MINE AND TRAMWAY FROM A RIDGE BETWEEN KENNECOTT AND MC CARTHY CREEK

A green patch on a mountain side, at first thought to be grass, led to the discovery of this tremendously productive mine. The patch proved to be a rich outcropping of copper ore.

thousand barriers of snow, lay waiting the coming of man, the mountaineers of this continent began to turn their eyes to Mount Logan and to dream their dreams. of its conquest.

It was not, however, until 1922 that Prof. A. P. Coleman, of the University of Toronto, veteran geologist and mountain climber, presented to the Alpine Club of Canada the suggestion that a serious attempt should be made to conquer the mountain. In the autumn of 1923 this club appointed an executive committee and tentatively named the personnel of the climbing party. The sister alpine clubs of Great Britain and the United States

were asked to send representatives, and thus the expedition assumed an international character.

THREE AVENUES OF APPROACH

The expedition leaders hoped to make the attempt during the summer of 1924, but the shortness of time available for preparation, together with the lack of sufficient financial backing, made this impossible. The delay of one year, however, enabled Mr. A. H. MacCarthy, of Wilmer, B. C., the leader, to make a preliminary reconnaissance, which was of incalculable value to the enterprise.

The first duty of the expedition was to

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A SAND STORM IN THE CHITINA RIVER VALLEY, NEAR ITS HEAD During warm afternoons, the west winds frequently blow up dust storms of great intensity. The Expedition noted dust clouds being blown for 50 miles beyond the flats of the river (see below) toward Logan Glacier.

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THE PACK TRAIN ON ITS WAY UP THE CHITINA RIVER VALLEY

The valley floor is a gravel flat some 60 miles long and five miles wide, cut by many swift-water channels in summer. The pack train kept to the flat except when a channel forced it to travel on the bank and through the woods.

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