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REPORT OF COMMITTEE
ON COURSES OF STUDY AND FACULTY FOR THE ILLINOIS
Inasmuch as some time must necessarily elapse before the University can be properly equipped and prepared for opening, the Committee present, now, only the outlines and some of the general features of a plan of organization, hoping to be permitted, by fuller consultation with each other, and with eminent educators in other States, who are engaged in organizing similar institutions, tu ripen their plans more fully before presenting them in detail, In Jaying the foundations of an insti. tution which is to last through coming agos, and to affect all future generations, we have need to plan wisely. We must not expose ourselves, needlessly, to the inconFeriences of changes, nor to suspicions of caprice.
THE GENERAL AIMS OF THE UNIVERSITY.
The aims of any institution necessarily control its organization. It should be fitted to its uses. The great general aims of the University are defined by the statutes under which it is established. Though not strictly confined by law to the objects proposed in the Congressional grant, we are yet bound to meet those objects fully and fairly. According to the language of the grant, “the leading object shall be, without exclud.ng other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the in. dustrial classes, in the several pursuits and professions in life.”
Or, changing the order of statement, the chief aim of the University is, “the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes, in the several pursuits and professions in life;" and in order to this end, the University is "to teach such branches of learning as are related to agricultural and the mechanic arts, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics.” The military tacties are required, and the scientific and classical studies are permitted. Such at least is the common construction of these clauses, though the language may not anreasonably be understood to imply that the latter studies shall not be excluded from the course.
The State law evidently aims to carry out the intention of the Congressional grant, and gives the trustees power “to appoint such profe-sors and instructors, and establish and provide for the management of such model farms, model art and other departments, as may be required to teach, in the most thorough mancer, such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, and mili. tary tactics, without excluding other scientific and classical studies."
This slight change of the order of the language of the Congressional enactment, gives addi, tional emphasis to the opinion that it was intended to prohibit the exclusion of other scientific and classical studies." Under any construction the Legislature evidently intended to insist—as the law of Congress insists—on the industrial and military education, yet explicitly allowing the trustees to enlarge the scope of studies as they may see fit.
A clear insight into the real intention of the Congressional grant may be gained it we call to mind that the colleges, existing at the time of the passage of the act making this grant, were adapted only to fit men for the so-called "learned professions,” and that the influence of these colleges teuded to withdraw their students from the pursuits of industry. Congress therefore proposed to create a new class of colleges, which should train men for industrial pursuits, and help to turn some por. tion of the great currents of educated life into the channels of industry. They aimed to link learning more closely to labor, and to bring the light of science more fully to the aid of the productive arts. Any other interpretation of the design of Congress than this would involve an absurdity.
The Industrial College was not an expression of Congressional condemnation of the ordinary college, or opposition to it. A grant of a township of land in each new State had already provided for State Universities of the common sort. And besides these, rich and powerful seats of learning were every where fitting men for the great public fields of Law, Medicine and Theology. Congress only sought to extend still wider the benefits of science and liberal culture. They wished to establish other seats of learning, equally great and equally powerful, which should send scholars of high scientific attainments and broad and liberal culture, to the farms and workshops of the country,
And finally, as it was not the object of the Industrial Colleges to educate simply the sons of farmers and mechanics, so it was not their design to teach the mere manual arts of agriculture and manufacture. The college course can not replace the apprenticeship in the shop or on the farm; and if it could, a hundred such Universities as this could not train to their various trades, the future farmers and mechanics of this State. Some practice should, if possible, accompany the scientific study of the several arts, but the aim of this practice must be to insure the thorough comprehension of the principles involved. To teach the millions their trades, however desirable, is beyond our power. To so teach the few who will come and patiently complete their course, that they shall be thorough masters of practical science, and able in their turn to teach others, this is the worthy and attainable end of the University.
The committee profoundly appreciate and commend the far-reaching wisdom and beneficence of these aims of the Congressional grant, and would seek to carry them out to the very letter. They have discussed thus fully the intent of the Congressional enactment, in order to brush aside the false impressions which may have gained currency, and to bring out into clearer relief this grand idea of the Industrial University, as it lies involved in both State and National statutes—a true University, organized in the interest of the industrial, rather than of the professional pursuits, and differing from other Universities in that its departments are technological rather than professional-schools of Agriculture and Art, ratber than schools of Medicine and Law. Its central educational courses, while equally broad and liberal
are to be selected to fit men for the study and mastery of the great branches of industry, rather than to serve as introductions to the study of law, medicine, or theology.
This broad idea of the Industrial University proceeds upon the two fundamental assumptions: First, that the agricultural and mechanical arts are the peers of any others in their dignity, importance and scientific scope: and, Second, that the thorough mastery of these arts, and of the sciences applicable to them, requires an education different in kind, but as systematic and complete as that required for the comprehension of the learned professions. It thus avoids the folly of offering as leaders of progress in the splendid industries of the nineteenth century, men of meager attainments and stiated culture, and steers clear also of that other and absurder folly of supposing that mere common school boys, without any thorough discipline, can successfully master and apply the complicated sciences which enter into and explain the manifold processes of modern agriculture and mechanic art.
Nor is it forgotten that man is something more than the artisan, and that man. hood has duties and interests higher and grander than those of the workshop and the farm. Education must fit for society and citizenship, as well as for science and industry. The educated agriculturist and mechanic will not unfrequently be called to serve in Senate Chambers and gubernatorial chairs, and will need an education broader and better than the simple knowledge of his art.
The State has need every where, but especially in the center and at the head of the great industries, on which, as on corner stones, rest down her material progress and power, of broad-breasted, wise-hearted, clear-thinking men-men of rich, deep culture, and sound education.
And besides all this, it should be reflected that half the public value of a body of educated and scientific agriculturists and mechanicians will be lost, if they lack the literary culture which will enable them to communicate through the press, or by public speech, their knowledge and discoveries; or if they are wanting in that thorough discipline which will make them active and competent investigators and inventors, long after their school days are over.
Nor pould we forget, nor attempt by a one-sided education to restrain, that free movement and versatility of American life and genius which leads so many of our more eminent citizens to the successive mastery of several vocations. Let us educate for life, as well as for art, leaving genius free to follow its natural attractions, and lending to talent a culture fitting it for all the emergencies of public or private duty. If some of our graduates shall quit, for a time, the harvest field for the forum, or prefer medicine to mechanic art, we shall hope they will demonstrate ibat, even in professional life, the education we give is neither inferior nor inadequate.
And in riper years they will return to their first love, and bring their gathered wealth and honors to lay them in the lap of the agriculture and art we have taught them. Let the State open wide, then, this Pierian fount of learning. Let her bid freely all her sons to the full and unfailing flow: those whose thirst or whose needs are little, to what they require; those whose thirst and whose capacities are large, to drink their fill. Let the University be made worthy the great State whose name it bears; worthy the grand and splendid industries it seeks to promote ; and worthy of the great century in which we live.
DEPARTMENTS AND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION. Having thus defined the general idea and aims of the University, the Committee suggest the following enumeration of departments, with the courses of instruction in each : I. The Agricultural Department-Embracing:
1. The course in Agriculture proper.
3. The course in Horticulture and Landscape Gardening. II. The Polytechnic Department-Embracing:
1. The course in Mechanical Science and Art.
4. The course in Architecture and Fine Arts. III. The Military Department-Embracing:
1. The course in Military Engineering.
2 The course in Military Tactics.
1. The course in Mathematics.
7. The course in Philosophy, Intellectual and Moral. It may not be found feasible to develop all these departments at the outset, but ultimately, even others may be added to those here enumerated.
The following brief exposition of some of the principal courses will exhibit their general scope :
1. The course in agriculture proper may embrace the study of common tillage, arboriculture, fruit growing, cattle and sheep husbandry, veterinary art, agricultural chemistry, and rural engineering and architecture.
Its aim will be to give a practical knowledge of the various kinds of soils, their composition and improvement, by chemical or by mechanical treatment; the several classes of crops, with the preparation of the soil, seeding, cultivation and harvesting of each; the rotation of crops, and preparation and use of fertilizers; vegetable anatomy and physiology, with the classification, values, and laws of growth and culture of the cereals, grasses and other useful plants, together with general botany ; fruit growing, and the several modes of propagation, and the production of new varieties; arboriculture, with the nature and value of the various species of ornamen. tal, shade and forest trees, the propagation, growth and care of forests, their importance and value in a prairie country, in their effects upon climate, vegetation and health; animal anatomy and physiology, with a study of the breeds of domestic animals, and their values for the dairy, for fattening, for draught, and for wool or other products, and of the principles of stock-breeding; veterinary art, with the laws of feeding, care and training of the domestic animals; the apiary and poultry yard ; agricultural chemistry, applied to the analysis of soils, fertilizers and food, etc.; entomology, especially including the useful insects and those injurious to animal life; meteorology and climatology ; rural architecture and engineering, embracing the planning of farm buildings, and the laying out, draining and fencing of farms; political economy, the laws of production, consumption and markets ; real estate jurisprudence, the laws regulating the tenures and transfers of land, and the laws relating to rural affairs; the history of agriculture, and general views of the husbandry of foreign countries. To these studies should be added, either to prepare for the fore. going, or as necessary to complete education, courses in mathematics, language and literature, mental and moral philosophy, logic, history and science of government.
The instruction should be partly by text-books, and partly by lectures, enforced by observation and practice in the laboratory, and the various departments of the experimental farm.
2. The course of instruction in horticulture may comprehend most of the studies already described under the course in agriculture, omitting stock-breeding and veterinary art, and adding to the fruit-growing, the culture of the small fruits and culinary vegetables, and the culture of flowers; the construction and management of the hot-bed, the green-house, the grapery, the seed-plot and the nursery ; landscape gardening, the laying out and ornamentation of public and private pleasure grounds, parks, cemeteries, etc. The methods of instruction should be like those in the department of agriculture.
3. The courses in mechanics, civil engineering and mining belong, properly, to the polytechnic school. All the fundamental sciences involved in them being taught at the University, these courses may also be developed there. The committee defer the delineation of a course of instruction in this department till the question of the extent of its means of development is settled.
4. Military tactics being specifically required by the act of Congress, the development of this department, to such an extent as may be found practicable, should be undertaken at the outset. While the effect of this department will be to scatter through the State a body of men, so far advanced in military art, that, in case of war, they will furnish skillful officers, ready to drill and lead the volunteer ces of the country, it is the opinion of many experienced educators that the introduction of the military drill and discipline is of positive value for their educating influence. They will materially assist in the government of the institution, and tend to form those habits of order and punctuality, for want of which so many educated men fail of usefulness and success.
It is strongly recommended by eminent military officers, that some simple and taste. ful uniform be prescribed for all the students, as the law contemplates and provides ; that the organization partake somewhat the military form, and that a daily drill be bad in military tactics. The uniform would not be more expensive than ordinary clothing, and its use would repress extravagance in dress, and promote a feeling of democratic equality among the whole body of siudents. It will help, also, to stimulate the virtues of personal neatness and manly courtesy of demeanor.
By frequent rotations in office, and by making those eligible to office who merit it by proficiency in drill, and by good soldierly conduct, a sufficient stimulus would be gained to insure attention, and both the faculties of obedience and command would be developed, Students of the first year might be required to serve in the ranks and as non-commissioned officers, the higher officers being selected from the advanced classes. Some new drill might also be introduced for each advanced class, and thus the interest be sustained.
Besides the field exercises, some elementary text books should be used, and the students be required to read for recitations or for examinations on the general principles of military science.