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legislation relating to Income Tax. The bulk of the book consists of an exhaustive Dictionary of Income Tax, from which persons in every position in life may readily find the information they require. The specimen accounts and returns constitute a special feature of great value; tables of rates of duty add completeness to the subject. As the Author is on the staff of the Inland Revenue Department, his statements and explanations may be received with confidence.

Conventions and Declarations between the Powers, concerning War, Arbitration and Neutrality (English, French, and German Texts). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 1915.

The World in Alliance. By F. N. KEEN, LL.B. London: Southwood & Co. 1915.

Law and Usage of War. By Sir THOMAS BARCLAY. London: Constable & Co.

1914. At this moment it is a great benefit to practitioners and others to be able to find, in a convenient and handy form, the full and accurate text of the various International Conventions which enter so constantly into the discussion of legal and political problems in the Prize Courts and in Parliament. Such a collection is supplied by the well-known house of Mr. Nijhoff. It does not contain the Hague Conventions of 1899, rendered obsolete by those of 1907; but it gives in full the Declaration of London of 1909. The English translation appears to be remarkably well done. “Compromis" might have been adequately translated by “Submission,” and “Sickbay” is better than “Sick-ward.” A convenient Table shows which Conventions have been ratified by each Power.

Mr. Keen urges a thesis which is often put forward in more florid periods, namely, the institution of an International Parliament, Courts, and police. Parliaments and police are not in high favour just now, however. Besides, Mr. Keen would have the central authority debarred from interfering with the “internal affairs ” of each State. One would like to inquire (1) how long the Author thinks it would remain so, and (2) whether the influx of a horde of aliens, lowering the standard of living, or otherwise disliked, is a purely internal matter? Unless a satisfactory answer can be given to such interrogations, it would seem that schemes of this kind are premature.

Sir Thomas Barclay's handbook is arranged on an alphabetical scheme. He gives a concise explanation of each of the terms used in International law by which the lay reader is commonly perplexed.


“ Pilot” seems to have proved too much even for the Author's

-at any rate, he leaves the problem unsolved; but from Floating Mines to Flags of Truce we find a succinct explanation given of every institution that can reasonably be inquired about. A series of Appendices contains the relevant documents, including the Proclamations as to Contraband up to September 21st, 1914. It might have been well to specify in every case which are Hague Conventions; but this is a small detail and should not impair the value of an exceedingly useful compendium.

The Law of Contract during War. By W. F. TROTTER, M.A., LL.M. Edinburgh : W. Hodge & Co. 1914.

Mr. Trotter's excellent book is the best that has been brought out on its particular subject. His grasp of principle and his clearness of thought are remarkable in an age of incoherent superficiality. Much industry has been expended on the collection of authorities-Aleiator v. Smith, for instance, is not easily unearthed. The only complaint that can be made is that Mr. Trotter's own work, after the manner of these treatises, extends only to 76 pages. Part II, of 236 pages, is a very useful reprint of cases, not easily accessible, transcribed in full—which is the only commendable way. Parts III and IV contain a good selection of the recent legislation and Orders up to 29th October, 1914, and an Appendix and Addendum give between them the recent cases and Statutes up to December, but without comment. The Author's luminous discussion of the rights of resident enemies under restraint enables one to hope that the House of Lords may examine the somewhat motiveless judgment by which the Court of Appeal, catching at rather irrelevant American authority, conferred, last January, on the supervised German a very full set of privileges.

Third Edition. British Enactments in Force in Native States. 6 Vols., with Addenda and Corrigenda. Edited by O. V. BOSANQUET, C.I.E., I.C.S. Calcutta : Superintendent Government Printing, India.

1914. The first edition of this highly valuable work was prepared by Mr. (now Sir John) Macpherson, Secretary to the Government of India in the Legislative Department in 1890. Mr. A. Williams, I.C.S., was responsible for the second edition, which carried the work up to the year 1899. In the present edition, prepared by Mr. Bosanquet, each volume contains the law in force up to April 19th 1913 In these volumes the term “British Enactments” includes (1) the enactments made by the British Legislature, in exercise of the general jurisdiction which it possesses over its subjects and servants in all Native States, and (2) the enactments made by or under the authority of the British Indian Executive Government, in exercise of the special jurisdiction which it has acquired, usually over all persons in Native States or places therein. The system of the arrangement of these enactments, originally adopted in the first edition and retained in the second, has been radically altered by Mr. Bosanquet. Vols. I, II, and III now deal with the States in direct relation with the Government of India—that is to say, with the administered areas in them—whilst Vol. IV deals with States in relation with Local Governments. Vol. V is devoted to Railways wherever situated. Vol. VI contains General Appendices and the Index. The orders under Acts applied and under local laws have been separated from the rest of the enactments which appear in Vol. I, and form Vols. I and II in the case of the first group of States. In the case of the second group, they form Part II of Vol. IV, and in the case of Railways Part II of Vol. V. Orders relating to the Courts are now treated separately in their appropriate place in Vols. I, IV, and V. In the Appendices are the Statutes in force

I generally in all Native States, the Acts of the Governor-General in Council and Orders of the King in Council similarly in force generally. By the reproduction in extenso of all enactments which have been issued by the Government in India, except such as are to be found in the volumes of the General Acts of the GovernorGeneral in Council and in the Provincial Codes, to which references are given, these volumes now form a still more complete guide to the British enactments now in force in the Native States than the original publication. This work is worthy of a fuller Index. The present one only contains place-names. There is no subject Index, a serious obstacle to comparative and historical research. In the Addenda and Corrigenda will be found those enactments which are in addition to or in correction of previous enactments which have come into force since April, 1913, and are brought up to April, 1914.

Fourth Edition. Godefroi on the Law of Trusts. By S. E. WILLIAMS. London : Stevens & Sons.

1915. The original object of the learned Author of this work, viz., to provide a treatise upon the general Law of Trusts, to which the student might resort for the principles governing this branch of our jurisprudence, and in which the practitioner might readily find the authorities bearing upon those principles, has been fully maintained by the present learned Editor. Legislative changes since the publication of the third edition in 1907 have not been numerous. We have had the Public Trustee Act 1906, the Married Woman's Property Act 1907, The Conveyancing Act 1907, The Lunacy Act 1911, The Bankruptcy Act 1914, and The Deeds of Arrangement Act 1914. In spite of this additional material, however, the learned Editor has been able to very considerably reduce the bulk of the work. A good deal of matter which had little or no direct bearing on the Law of Trusts has been omitted, and a large number of cases which have been covered over and over again by subsequent authority have been deleted. This has resulted in a very desirable simplification of the text, and has sensibly relieved the Index and Table of Cases. The authorities are brought down to November, 1914. The Public Trustee Act, together with the Rules of 1912, are giver at length in the Appendix with explanatory notes. The few misstatements of the law, and of the effect of certain decisions contained in the last edition, have, we observe, been rectified by the present Editor, who is to be congratulated upon the very marked general improvement effected. We have now a thoroughly reliable textbook, which is at once a guide for the student to the general principles of the law, and for the practitioner to the minutix of practice. This constitutes a double event seldom achieved.

Eighth Edition. Bouvier's Law Dictionary and Concise Encyclopedia. Third Revision. By Francis RAWLE. Three Vols. St. Paul's, Minn.: West Publishing Company. 1914.

Like so many legal text-books, this standard work owes its origin to the difficulties which its Author encountered in his early days at the American Bar. His endeavours to get forward in his profession, he states in the Preface to the first edition, published in 1839, were constantly obstructed, and his efforts for a long time frustraied, for want of that knowledge which his elder brethren of the Bar seemed to possess. To find among the reports and the various treatises on the law the object of his inquiry was a difficult task; he was in a labyrinth without a guide ; and much of the time which was spent in finding his way out might, with the friendly assistance of one who was acquainted with the construction of the edifice, have been saved and more profitably employed. Thus was conceived a work which received the approval of such eminent judges and lawyers as Justice Story and Chancellor Kent. As the title implies, this is not merely a dictionary of legal terms, but a commentary on the law. Bouvier's plan incorporated the technical expressions relating to the legislative, executive, and judicial departments of the Government; the political and civil rights and duties of citizens; the rights and duties of persons, especially such as are peculiar to the institutions of the United States—for instance, the rights for descent and administration, the mode of acquiring and transferring property, and the criminal law and its administration. The first three editions were prepared by Judge Bouvier, and the fourth from manuscripts left by him at his death. The next edition, published 1867, was edited by a large staff, composed of some of the most distinguished judges and lawyers in the country. The present edition, like those of 1883 and 1897, has been edited by Mr. Francis Rawle, a distinguished Philadelphia lawyer and scholar. Mr. Rawle, a graduate of the Harvard Law Schools, amongst other legal distinctions, was President of the American Bar Association 1902-3. Under his editorship the work has undergone very considerable expansion, the encyclopedic titles, where necessary, having received much fuller treatment. For many important titles, such as Constitutional Law, Constitution of the United States, Restraint of Trade, and Equity, the Editor acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. George H. Bates; for International Law, to Dr. Charles G. Fenwick; for Medical Jurisprudence, to Dr. Norman B. Gwyn; and for general assistance, to Mr. R. C. Wilder. No library which caters for students of American law and American institutions can dispense with this American classic.

Eighth Edition. The Law of the Constitution.

By A. V. DICEY, K.C., Hon. D.C.L. London: Macmillan & Co. 1915.

. Second Edition. Constitutional Law of England. By E. W. RIDGES. London : Stevens & Sons. 1915.

The text of Dr. Dicey's new edition is simply a reprint of the seventh edition of his classic treatise on the Law of the Constitution. Upon this further criticisms would be superfluous. Dr. Dicey has, however, written a new Introduction to the present edition. Its object is two-fold. First, to trace and comment upon the way

in which the main principles of our constitution as expounded by him have been affected either by changes of law or by changes of the working of the constitution which have occurred during the last thirty years. Secondly, to state and analyse the main constitutional

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