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ness of tumbled rock and jagged crag was built by a giant who was such a clever necromancer that all he had to do was to sit in the Giant's Easy-chair, to whose comfort we can testify, and will the castle to rise out of the sea. For latter-day necromancy, our guide pointed out Porthcurnow Beach, where, he said, six submarine cables land. He was a native of the coast, a fisherman, and gave us eyes to see the gulls rejoicing over their feast of pilchards and ears to hear the whistle of a young otter. The lion of Treryn is the Logan Rock, but we first encountered, in our scramble over the crags, Lady Logan, a stumpy personage whose hood and skirt, though recognizable, are of the Stone Age fashion. This granite beauty is so sensitive in her feelings that she trembles at a touch,-if it be vigorous enough. As we climbed higher among the rocks, in the exhilarating air, we won views ever more wonderful of rolling green billows shattered into clouds of spray upon the shore. The Logan itself is an enormous rocking-stone,-a boulder weighing some seventy tons delicately balanced on cubical masses of rock. It does not, like the rocking-stone in Burma on which a little pagoda has been built, oscillate in the wind, but swings at a sturdy push. It was formerly more easily swayed than now, for a mischievous young Goldsmith, nephew of the poet who was himself so prankishly inclined, undertoook in 1824, when commanding a revenue cutter off this coast, to dispel the popular notion that no human force could dislodge Logan Rock. On the eighth of April, though the first would have been more appropriate, he landed with a crew of eight men, meaning to tip the stone over into the sea. But he succeeded only in moving it some four feet to the left and, even so, found his escapade an expensive one, for it cost ten thousand dollars to replace the ponderous mass—as the anger of the people compelled the Admiralty to order him to do—on its original pivot. With all his efforts, he could not hit the perfect poise, and whereas Logan Rock once had the power of healing sick children who were rocked upon it, that spell no longer works. It

was not the right hour for us to ascertain whether touching the stone thrice three times would still make a woman a witch. This test should be undertaken at midnight, when a battalion of sympathetic hags, mounted on stems of ragwort, would be hooting encouragement from their favorite rendezvous at the towering crag south of Logan Rock known as Castle Peak.

We returned to our carriage and drove on. The fields of gorse and heather suddenly slipped over foaming reefs and we were at Land's End. Great waves were churning themselves white against the ledges. A few sails glinted on the horizon; a few gulls were perching on the rocks ; but we were, at first, aware of nothing save the steep, broken wall of granite and the strange, compelling song of the Atlantic. By degrees we noted lighthouses, bays, and a curious cavern, with such wave-eaten arches as we had seen at Biarritz, beneath our very feet. We walked along the edge of the cliffs, green with turf to the sheer plunge. At places, indeed, the heather runs down the rocks to meet the tide. We passed close by gulls that stood unstartled in this their own domain of crags and spray-dashed gorges, eying severely the approach of uninvited guests.

The sun was setting, and we could distinguish the Scilly Isles like gold cloudlets resting on the sea. Between these islands and Land's End once bloomed the lost Arthurian realms of Lyonesse. But weary of the past and its dim fables, our hearts followed the rippling line of splendor farther and farther west, far out across the Atlantic to the land of hope and promise, the strong young land that fronts the future, vowed to the great adventure of human brotherhood.


SOMERSET: Blackmore, R. D., Lorna Doone. Rideing, W. H., "In the Country of Lorna Doone," New England Magazine, 1894. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor: Rime of the Ancient Mariner, The Æolian Harp, Monody on the Death of Chatterton. Tennyson, Alfred: The Holy Grail, Sir Galahad, Ode for the Duke of Wellington. Wordsworth, William, Sonnet on the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Goldsmith, Oliver, Life of Richard Nash, of Bath,

Esq. Austin, Jane, Northanger_Abbey. Burney, Frances, Evelina.
Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler, English Cathedrals (Wells and oth-
ers). Freeman, E. A., History of the Cathedral Church of Wells.
Doyle, Conan, Micah Clarke (Battle Sedgemoor). Hunt, William,
Bristol (Historic Town Series).

DEVON_AND CORNWALL: Norway, Arthur H., Highways and
Byways in Devon and Cornwall.

DEVON : Freeman, E. A., Exeter (Historic Town Series). Kingsley, Charles, Westward Ho (and other romances). Blackmore, R. D., A Maid of Sker (and other romances). Phillpotts, Eden: Children of the Mist, An American Prisoner (and other romances). Gould, S. Baring, Dartmoor Idyls. James, Henry, Transatlantic Sketches (Exeter and Wells Cathedrals, Lynton, Lynmouth, etc.). Hardy, Thomas, A Pair of Blue Eyes, The Trumpet Major. Tennyson, (Lord) Alfred, Ballad of The Revenge. Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, Sir Humphrey Gilbert. Ingelow, Jean, Winstanley. Page, John L. N.: An Exploration of Dartmoor and its Antiquities; An Exploration of Exmoor and the Hill Country of West Somerset (Seeley & Co., London, 1889); The Rivers of Devon from Source to Sea (Seeley & Co., London, 1893); The Coasts of Devon and Lundy Island (Cox, London, 1895); The North Coast of Cornwall (Hemmons, Bristol, 1897).

CORNWALL: Hunt, Robert, Popular Romances of the West of England. Tennyson, Alfred, The Passing of Arthur. Malory, Thomas, Le Morte D'Arthur, XXI, 4-5. Baring-Gould, S., John Herrick : A West of England Romance; In the Road of the Sea (a Romance of the Cornish Coast). Southey, Robert, The Well of St. Keyne. Hawker, R. S., The Cornish Ballads. Quiller-Couch, A. T., The Delectable Duchy. Besant, Walter, Armorel of Lyonesse.

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William Ewart Gladstone*

By John Graham Brooks

T was once in fashion to apply "meter tests” to the mind.

If one could do "stunts” in mathematics, Greek and other studies lending themselves to these experiments, it was thought that comparative results in brain power could be reached. It was claimed at that time that Gladstone had "nineteen times as much intellectual capacity as the lowest man in his class.” It is well not to be very serious about this "meter test” and yet the impression that his shining gifts make upon the student, is that his powers of acquisition and of expression are such as to put him in a class far removed from the general run of educated men. Nor is it his mind alone. Lord Derby once said, “It isn't Gladstone's mind that is so extraordinary, it is his body." To go from the heat of great debate in which every faculty had been used to its utmost four successive hours and yet be able to drop upon a sofa and sleep like a child almost instantaneously until the nervous tides had risen, is as much a talent as any other. His toughness and endurance were as astonishing as his versatility and resourcefulness.

Early in his career it was said of him, "Gladstone is Oxford on the surface and Liverpool beneath.” He was born in that city in 1809, the son of one of its most famous mer

*This is the sixth in a series of studies of famous Englishmen appearing in THE CHAUTAUQUAN during the months from December to May: Charles Darwin, by Prof. John M. Coulter (December); John Burns, by Mr. John Graham Brooks (January); Dean Stanley, by Bishop Williamrs of Michigan (February); Sir Edward Burne-Jones, by Prof. Cecil Lavell (March); Benjamin Jowett, by Professor Paul Shorey (April); Gladstone, by Mr. John Graham Brooks (May).

chants. That the more famous son should be “Liverpool beneath" expressed the gifts of this polished Oxford scholar in dealing with such brilliant mastery with every phase of finance and commerce.

His student life at Eton and for a time at Oxford was without distinction. Before leaving the university he had, however, shown such powers both as scholar and debater that the highest honors came to him. It was the great year of English reform, 1832, and because this highly tutored youth had made so thrilling a speech in the Oxford Union against reform, the Duke of Newcastle offered him a seat in Parliament. Gladstone was in Italy when he received this “stunning and overpowering proposal” as he wrote his father.

This is to be noted well, that he was chosen expressly to defend class privileges against the rising protest of the people. Landlords like the Duke held as private possessions more than fifty “rotten boroughs,” thus depriving the people of nearly one hundred and fifty representatives in Parliament. It was at this time that Tories began to be called Conservatives. "Of very noble appearance" young Gladstone entered the House of Commons to become almost at once the darling of the whole Tory reaction. Even the West Indian slaves, of which his father owned many, were not to be emancipated, but to have Christian instruction instead. It was for this that the anti-slavery party put his name straightway on the blacklist. Against the vote by ballot, he turned both ridicule and history. He would admit no Jew to Parliament, neither should any dissenter come in until he had bowed to the university tests. He stood for the tax on corn, for retaining naval and military sinecures, even for the atrocities of flogging, and strange as it now seems, for all that was worst in the Irish Coercion Bill.

It was Gladstone's life achievement to fight victoriously against every one of his early Tory opinions. From the pet and pride of the aristocratic Carlton Club, he became the best hated man in public life by the whole body of "gig

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