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Mr. Arthur P. Kellogg, have kindly lent their aid by allowing the publication of important articles from their journals.
For his valuable assistance in the reading of the proofs, and in the preparation of the index, the authors have been placed under exceptional personal obligations to Mr. H. G. Hotz of the University of Wisconsin.
ELLWOOD P. CUBBERLEY,
Stanford University, California EDWARD C. ELLIOTT,
AUGUST 11, 1916.
EDUCATION AS A STATE FUNCTION
I. EDUCATION AND SOCIAL THEORY
Democracy and Education. The twentieth century seeks consciously to express the reality of democracy in terms of education; to humanize education through the mechanisms of democracy. The foremost efforts and the dominant ideals of our civilization are symbolized through these two ideas — democracy and education. The former represents the goal of social progress; the latter, the chief instrument for the attainment of individual development as the necessary condition for carrying the load of common social obligations.
The easily discernible tendency in the evolution of the modern state is toward an increased state foundation of a universal system of education. The state approaches democracy in direct proportion to the universality of its education; education becomes universal just to the degree to which it is regarded as one of the essential functions of the state.
The growth of democracy as a modern social order has resulted in a remarkable increase and extension of the functions of the state, little anticipated by the political pioneers of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Education, naturally seized upon by the interpreters and leaders of democracy as the chief instrumentality for the realization of the human purposes residing in free constitutions and in representative government, exhibits both in form and magnitude its intimate relationship to the state. No other of the fundamental social enterprises bears more clearly the stamp of state authority, of state power, and of state stimulation and dependence.