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his fields of wheat or corn destroyed by from 50 to 500 cattle flling themselves and trampling down the remainder; and no recourse left but to pocket the loss with as good grace as he can.
J. Tefft.-For road fence we prefer wire, as it turns unruly stock better than board fence. Costs about 50 cents per rod when well made.
C. E. Barney.--Quaking asp poles, cut, split and peeled in summer, nailed on good, seasoned posts, make a light and very strong fence. Cut eight feet long.
I think, if no stock was allowed to roam in the roads and lanes, people would have better stock, take better care of it, and make more money on it.
V. Aldrich.-Fences here mostly made of rails, called the Virginia fence. The staked and ridered fence, where timber is plenty, is the best. In this locality the post fence, with rails or boards, is fast taking the place of the old worm fence. Either of them will eost from $1 to 1 25 per rod.
Osage hedge, properly made, I prefer to all other fence. The plants cost from 62 1-2 to 75 cents per rod. It will require four or five years growth to make a substantial fence. I formerly cut it back each year, but now prefer to let it grow as fast as possible, until large as fork stobs—10 or 12 feet high, or more, then lop it by cutting each one about balf off near the ground, laying it in an angle that will make the top high enough for the fence. It will sprout up through this and become very thick and still retain life in the main lopped stem.
When I desire wind-breaks I let them grow their own way after lopping; prune other places to suit. The cost of a hedge is less than keeping up other fences.
I am greatly in favor of keeping up stock. Which is cheapest, to fence in or out? I don't know, but believe least trouble to arise from fencing in.
A. Rankin.--I think Osage orange is the best material for fencing. The next best is made by using large, round cedar posts, with three boards and three wires; costing about $1 60 per rod.
It is decidedly cheaper to put up stock than to fence them out.
G. W. Minier.-Osage orange hedge every time and all the time. Mine, completed, cost just twenty-five cents per rod. Board and rail fences will soon be obsolete. We can hardly estimate the value of hedge as a wind-break and modifier of our bleak climate.
"Is it cheaper to fence out stock than to keep them up?" Yes; by at least fifty por
T. Gregg.-"All sorts” of fences abound. White oak posts and pine lumber are very extensively used as a first fence, both on the prairie and on the bluffs. The Osage orange succeeds well and is being planted in great quantity. It is believed to be the best material for live fences for this region, and will have to be generally resorted to. That earlier planted has, however, been much neglected; so that it is a rare thing to see a really good and beautiful live fence in the country. But the slovenly habits of our people are gradually yielding to the influence of better teachings, and there is a marked improvement taking place.
A. C. Hammonit.—The Osage orange is the cheapest, best and most durable fence. It can be planted, cultivated and trained until it forms a perfect fence, for 50 cents per rod, and afterwards annually pruned for 5 cents per rod. A board fence cannot be built for less than $1 25 per rod, and I find the expense of keeping it in repair greater than that of trimming the hedge. When properly pruned a hedge is of little value for protection.
If the farmers of Illinois were to keep their stock up, instead of fencing it out, it would andoubtedly add hundreds of thousands of dollars annually to their pockets.
W. A. Allen.--Hedges preferred for fencing. Cost now, $1 per rod. Keeping hedge trimmed costs $8 per mile per year. Keeping up a board fence costs nearly all your
time, besides boards and nails. Hedge for protection is very good, but does not equal the grey willow.
It is cheuper to fence block in.
8. P. Baardman.-In the way of fencing, public interest in Central !llinois is now entirely concentered on hedge. Since the discovery and practice of plashing bas come about, there are but few doubters as to the complete efficiency of the Osage hedge. Many of the old bedyes (rather attempts at hedges) which were considered not only failures but nuisances, hare been made, by plasbing, to turn all kinds of stock.
G. Hirding.--My experience is in favor of a live hedge fence of the Osage orange. It gives shelter to stock ; is a good wind-break, and an everlasting and effectuni fence, at a cost of 60 cents per rod, when large enough to turn stuck, and an apuual cost of 10 cents per rod to keep the same in repair.
I consider it cheaper to fence out slock than to keep it up.
The Osnge is best for a live fence. If managed rightly, it will turn any kind of stock in 2 or 4 years from re-setting in the hedge row. We have no machines for cutting bedges. The plan I bare followed for preparing ground, setting, tending and trimming plants, is this: Prepare the ground in the fall, then break deep in the spring by throwing together several surrows. Run onu furrow in the centre, set the plants in it cight inches apart, then cover the root to the same depth as in the pursery. If the ground is rough or cloddy, roll or barrow, or both. Plow well with the double shovel and hoe them well for the first and second years, then use the turning plow. If good-sized plants the first year, they may be plowed the second by the turning plow. I find a ditch ou either side the hedge essential, to make the roots strike downward and pot spread when the plow runs near them. If there is no ditch the roots will be broken by the plow and then sprout and spread. If the land is not tilled the ditch is unnecessary. If made at all it should be finished by the third year. I do not trim hedges until the third year, when, if of sufficient size, 1 cut the plants half off and bend them down along the row. The young shoots will again start where the plant is cut off, and when cut form the height of the fence, wbile the ones bent down stop all holes. If not well trimmed the young shoots will shade those bent down so much as to cause decay. The cost of hedge fence varies according to its width and the manner in which it is lended. As I set them it takes 2,000 to 80 rods, costing near here $2 50 per thousand, making $5 to 80 rods. The labor of setting, etc., about $6. Therefore it will cost about 20 cents per rod for getting hedge, including cost of plants. After being set it will cost 20 cents per rod to till and trim the bedge, which should be trimmed once or twice each sear after the 8d or 4th year. With macbines there would be little expense in keeping up the bedge once well started. I prefer rails for cross fences, as they are often moved. A ruil fence costs at least $1 25 per rod, if made out of good rails, such as oak, ash, walnut and red elm. A board fence costs $1 35 or $1 40 per rod, if of oak; more if of pine lumber. Where one is fencing against cuttle and horses only, a three-board fence will answer, and will last until a hedge fence can be made. Hedge fences are the cheapest the farmer can bave, and afford good protection to stock and fruit. Orchard trees are much less liable to blow down when a hedge protects them from the wind.
I think and anı sure that in any part of the country where the land is not fenced, it would be much cheaper to fence for pasture to keep stock in, than to feuce the whole of the land in order to keep stock out of the farms.
S. Butler.-Rail fence costs $5 per hundred.
D. Gove.--I have tried all kinds of wooden fences, and at best they require a great deal of repairing to make them safe. I have also had considerable experience in hedging; and it is just the fence for this prairie country. It will cost less to make it and keep it in repair than any other fence, and it bids defiance to high winds or any kind of stock. It can be made sufficiently strong to turn any kind of stock for 78 cents per rod, and can be
kept in order for 10 cents per rod per annum; and if the wind blows your fence is in no danger; which is quite an item.
"As to fencing stock out or in," my thoory is, to fence thom in. If I own stock is it not just that I should keep them where they cannot injure my neighbor, who has no stock?
J. G. Swann: Eight rails high. Black and white oak. Staked and ridered. Costs 75 cents per rod. Stock kept up.
E. A. Reihl.-It is much cheaper to fence stock in than to fence out.
J. Balsiger. --My fences are the common rail fence. Having plenty of timber, and not so much capital at my disposal, these were more convenient for me thac board fences. But I am now begivning to plant Osage orange hedges, believing them to be, when well raised and cared for, the most lasting and the cheapest fence; and requiring, when once grown, the least labor to keep it in order; and, moreover, serving as sbeler belts against the blasting winds. We have in this neighborhood, many, I dare say, perfect hodges of Osage orange.
I think it more advantageous to keep up stock than to let it run at large; though I koow that fences, and keeping them in order, are a heury charge on the farmer, as well for the work they demand, as for the timber they cousume, especially rail fences, whilo board fences are very expensive.
J. Y. Bothwell.— I have balf a mile of Osage orange hedge. It is good. I set the plants 18 or 20 inches apart, and cultivate well until they are from an inch to an inch and a quarter in diameter; then lay them duwo close to the ground. In April, confiue them there by laying rails or poles on them. In July, remove the rails or poles. In one year the fence will turn any decent animal, and in another year it will turn anything. I also bare two miles of plank fence, made as follows: Split white oak posts, split square, 7 1-2 feet long; set them top end of timber down. Use post augur 8 inches in diameter. Set the posts 5 feet apart. Use white oak plank 15 feet long. 1 inch by 4; use one nail and six planks to the panel. It makes a good tight fence, and costs $2 per rod here, where it is cheaper than a rail fence, as timber is cheap. The balance of my fencing, 5 1-2 miles, is made of rails, but I shall make no more such. The hedge is the fence; when it cannot be used, the style of plank fence I have described is the cheapest and best I bave found. I do not trim my hedge at all, as I consider it time thrown away, and injurious to tho bealth of the fence. Let it grow; it will not get very high, and if it should, 'twill make a good wind-break against the cold prairie wivds. As for side trimming, it does not become very wide, the growth is chiefly upward.
T. Engelmann.—The old worm-fence is slowly disappearing and plank fence taking its place. The cost of constructing a plank fence in this locality is about $1 85 per rod, to-wit: Two white oak or overcup posts, 25 cents each..
$ .50 Forty feet fencing at $30 per 1,000 feet.
1.20 Nails and labor....
$1.85 Osage orange hedges have been tried to some extent. With proper care they may afford sofficient protection, but on an average they have failed to give satisfaction.
The land in St. Clair county being nearly all in cultivation-all, except comparatively small bodies of it in the river and creek bottoms-so that in a few localities only, the stock which was running at large was able to maiotain a poor existence for a few months of the year, on the so-called common pasture. It has for many years back been a fact, well understood by all farmers, that the benefit derived from that pasture was insigoifi. cant in comparison to the costs of making and keeping up fences, and efforts have been made to compel the owners of stock, by legal enactment, to keep up the same; but they bare always been defeated by the opposition of persons who own po land, or only small tracts of it, principally by the residents of towns and villages, until last fall, when a law to that effect was again submitted to the vote of the people, with a proviso, that in any election precinct in which the law would receive a majority of votes, it should be in force. In this way some of the election precincts have adopted the law, which went in force on the first of March, 1868; while in other and adjoining precincts the law bas been defeated. It is to be seen how it will operate.
19. Capital, per acre, required for good farming ?
H. Pierce.-About 840 to $50 at present rates of fencing. Without having to fence more than was required for his own stock, $20 to $80 per acre. Basis of calculation, s farm of 160 acres. One could farm with a much smaller capital, but I estimated the cost of stock, etc.
C. E. Barney.-As to the capital required for good farming, $12 per acre would be very desirable-some brains, and the ability to apply them to the soil, would be indispensable.
A. Rankin.— It costs about $10 per acre for good farming here; that is, for grain. Root crops cost more. I last year spent $41 on an acre of potatoes, and got 241 bushels, which I sold for $1 per bushel.
G. W. Minier.-$10 per acre is none too much.
G. W. Vaughan.— It costs at least 85 or 86 per acre to farm land as it should be, erclusive of manures.
D. Gove. With our mixed husbandry it takes about $10 per acre per annum, to pay all expenses.
J. G. Swann.-$6 per acre.
E. A. Riehl.—I have 160 acres ; 40 cleared, and have $10,000 invested (besides cost of land), and twice that amount would be more profitable.
J. Balsiger. I think that for good farming an available capital of nearly the same amount as the value of the land, would not be too much, though this depends on whether the land is already in cultivation, good order, etc.
G. C. Eisenmeyer.-Good farming land in this section of St. Clair county, is worth from $80 to $115 per acre. I know of no farm cultivated by hired labor owners, who have not sufficient force within their own families to cultivate their farms, find it to their interest, since wages are so high, to lease out their farms to tenants, receiving one-third of the crop as rent. Land is in great demand at this rate, and hired labor is generally employed only in harvest time. For these reasons it is difficult to make an estimate of "he capital required for good farming.
AGRICULTURE AND THE MECHANIC ARTS IN THE
EARLY DAYS OF ILLINOIS.
It may be a matter of interest to review, so far as we can, the history and progress of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts in Illinois, from its first discovery up to the year 1830, or about a generation since.
The value of the “Illinois country” as an agricultural district was early noted by the French missionaries. In the narrative of Father Marquette, who descended the Mississippi in 1673, we find it stated of the Indians at the mouth of the DesMoines, who were probably identical with those of our own State, at least in their agriculture : that “they live by game, which is abundant in this country, and on Indian corn, of which they always gather a good crop, so that they have never suffered by famine. They also sow beans and melons, which are excellent, especially those with a red seed. Their squashes are not of the best: they dry them in the sun, to eat in the winter and spring." Father Allouez, in 1676, says of the “Kach-kach-kia” Indians—“they live on Indian corn and other fruits of the earth, which they cultivate on the prairies, like other Indians. They eat fourteen kinds of roots, which they find in the prairies; they made me eat them: I found them good and very sweet. They gather, on trees or plants, fruits of fortytwo different kinds, which are excellent. They catch twenty-five kinds of fish, including eels. They hunt cattle, deer, turkeys, cats, a kind of tiger, and other animals, of which they reckon twenty-two kinds, and forty kinds of game and birds.” “It is the custom of these tribes,” says Father Membre, 1679, “to put their Indian corn in caches, in order to keep it for summer, when meat easily spoils, and to go and pass the winter in hunting wild cattle and beaver, carrying very little grain.” “The richness and