Page images


The annual record of events in the Philippines closed about December 1, 1899. The increase of the American forces from 26,820 men, in August, 1899, to 71,538 men of all arms, on October 1, 1900, with a maximum of about 55,000 effectives in the late fall and winter of 1899–1900, fostered public hope that the Filipino rebellion would be subdued by spring at furthest, a hope which has not been fulfilled. It has ceased to be a war of battles, and on the part of the enemy has become a mere system of bushwhacking, treacherous murder and ruthless pillaging. Aguinaldo's government has no abiding place; the insurgent chief, if alive, is in constant motion for self-protection, or in careful hiding. Bloody defeats early convinced insurgent leaders of the futility of further resistance in the field, and about November 11, 1899, in a conference at Bayambang Aguinaldo and his subordinates formally agreed to scatter and maintain guerilla operations, There has since been no noteworthy departure from that method of warfare. But it is now clear that his numerous defeats, heavy losses and the full comprehension of the immense power employed against him have discouraged the enemy, destroyed Aguinaldo's military prestige and greatly weakened his moral hold upon the islanders. For some time there has been a rapidly growing peace party among the revolutionists themselves. The American military policy has been mild and humane, in strong contrast with the Spanish administration, which was proscriptive and cruel. The military reports show that there are two kinds of people in the Philippines—the peaceful, industrious citizens of the towns and country, the vast majority; and the terrorists, or so-called revolutionists, by far the fewer, yet the dominant race. When protected from these the former return to their homes and daily avocations with alacrity and are friendly to American supremacy.

Absolute proof has been obtained from Aguinaldo's captured papers that the war was deliberately begun by the Filipinos while treacherously pretending loyalty and friendship to the Americans. This is important, because it has been denied both in the United States and Europe, and the responsibility for the outbreak charged upon the Americans.

Although Aguinaldo escaped from the military cordon which surrounded him in Central Luzon in the last days of November, 1899, the operations of Generals Lawton,

MacArthur, Young and Wheaton secured the entire railway Military Operations from Manila northward to the coast of Dagupan, about 122 in Detail.

miles. The small rebel force which retained cohesion re

treated to the west of the railway into the mountain fastnesses of Zambales, where they had previously provided storehouses and arsenals. Some of the commands broke up into small guerilla bands and began plundering. Many deserted to their homes, presenting themselves to the Americans as friends. Thus Aguinaldo's army of the north was dissolved, losing all its artillery, ammunition and supplies. In Southern Luzon there was still a formidable force of insurgents; threatening points in the immediate vicinity of Manila. General Otis was now urged by his subordinates to declare all insurgents out of the pale of the laws of war, and to summarily execute all guerillas captured with arms in their hands. As he had no positive evidence that Aguinaldo had formally decreed guerilla warfare, and as yet only a small area of the islands was reduced to actual possession, the commanding general declined to go to this hazardous extreme.

As late as February many Filipino leaders in remote quarters were still unaware that the rebel capital at Tarlac had been captured and Aguinaldo was a fugitive. General Lawton ordered Captain Batchelor, with a battalion of the 24th Infantry, to march against Bayonbong, the recently designated insurgent capital. The town was occupied without resistance, and some American and Spanish prisoners released. Without orders, from Ba yonbong Batchelor then made a remarkable and successful campaign right through the interior to the north end of the island, fighting and routing a small force at Naguilan and receiving submission everywhere. A naval expedition was sent to Aparri to succor Batchelor in case of need. The entire northern province of Cagayan, on December 12, was surrendered to Captain McCalla, its commander, by the rebel General Tirona, with all his artilery and small arms. On the 21st Colonel Charles C. Hood, 16th United States Infantry, was appointed Military Governor of the northeastern provinces of Luzon, viz., Cagayan, Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya, with headquarters at Aparri. Affairs in this quarter progressed favorably until about March 1, when the Tagalos, previously surrendered by General Tirona, again commenced guerilla operations, joined by scattering bands of marauders from Western and Central Luzon. Our troops were easily successful everywhere, but met with numerous losses. Early in March Colonel Hood was reinforced with two battalions of the 44th Infantry, and soon reduced his department to measurable order. On the west coast General S. M. B. Young had hotly pursued the various bands of the enemy in every direction, capturing many important personages, considerable property, and releasing American and Spanish prisoners. On December 22 he was formally appointed to the independent command of a district composed of the northern provinces west of Colonel Hood's district, to wit, Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, Lepanto, Ilocos (North and South) and Union, with headquarters at Vigan. Aguinaldo retired to the northeastward into the province of Bontoc, while his troops fed into the mountains to the eastward of Vigan. In his hasty movements many of his prisoners escaped to the American lines. On January 17 a house to house search in Quiangan, where Aguinaldo was reported to be hidden, failed to reveal his presence. Operations were energetically pushed, but owing to Young's small force and the great extent of territory to be covered, it was impossible to prevent Tagalo depredations or wholly quell their guerilla bands.

Many small affairs occurred, and the rebels were easily overcome in open fight and driven off, only to repeat their forays and murders elsewhere. These skirmishes were mainly along or near the western coast, and the American losses were in the aggregate quite severe. The rebels in this district were under direction of a rebel chief named Tinio, who was severely defeated by Major Steever at Mount Binmaya, on January 14, with a loss of twenty-eight killed. On January 20 General Young asked for reinforcements, and increased efforts of the enemy compelled a gradual increase of General Young's force by fifteen companies and 250 friendly native scouts. Upon the withdrawal of General Lawton from Tayug to take charge of pressing operations toward the south all portions of Luzon north of Caloocan and south of the districts of General Young and Colonel Hood came under the supervision of General MacArthur, whose subordinate, General F. D. Grant, marched through the Bataan province, and with Navy assistance secured possession of Olongapo and Subig, on Subig Bay, and large captures of insurgent military stores were made by General Bell in Northern Zambales, the remnants of the dispersed insurgent army being driver back into the mountains. During De-Y çember and January MacArthur's reorganized forces were actively engaged in running down guerilla bands in his department and giving protection to peaceful towns from the raids of robbing ladrones, who preyed upon the wealthier class.

The character of the service performed by the American troops in central and northern Luzon from the time Aguinaldo's northern army was dispersed, in November,

until the present time is fully indicated in the foregoing Death of General narrative of the operations succeeding that event. General Lawton.

Otis thus reports: "They (our troops) were widely scattered

in detachment, company and battalion organizations, guarding centres of population and points deemed important for strategic purposes and concentration. This kind of duty continued, gradually proving more successful, as it was prosecuted with vigor, discouraged the insurgent leaders in their attempts to effect guerilla combinations and demoralized their adherents." About December 3 General Lawton, at Tayug, was relieved by General Wheaton and ordered to turn southward, concentrate at San Isidro, and from thence clean out some three thousand well armed and active insurgents under General Pilar, located around San Miguel and in the Maraquina Valley. Simultaneously troops were to move from Baliuag, while Major Carson was to intercept any portion of the enemy who endeavored to escape by the Angat and Norzagaray roads. The movements were well timed and energetically executed. On December 11 General Lawton entered San Miguel, General Pilar hastily retiring without resistance. In these operations Colonel Hayes captured the famous rebel stronghold Biac-na-bato on the 12th. It had been successfully held January 8, 1897, by sixteen rebels against nine hundred Spaniards. After this part of the work was done on December 16 Lawton returned to Manila for a new start. While these operations were on foot final preparations were made to crush the rebels in Southern Luzon, where, probably following Aguinaldo's instructions, they had displayed unusual activity as a diversion in aid of their hard pressed chief at the north. Then followed to the east of Manila, in the province of Morong, and to the south, in the provinces of Cavité and Batangas, almost precisely the same character of operations heretofore described in the northern districts. The Americans could easily go anywhere, killing, capturing and dispersing the guerillas that infested the country, with but small loss to themselves. But suppressed in one locality the enemy appeared in another, and not unseldom again at the same old points. Nevertheless their operations were marked everywhere by a gradually lessening spirit. General Lawton was the leading figure in the movement to push back the enemy threatening Manila from Morong. On December 18, for this purpose, he led an expedition up the Maraquina River. While directing the crossing of the river opposite San Mateo, on the 19th, Lawton was shot by a sharpshooter concealed on the eastern bank, and instantly killed. It was the greatest disaster of the war, and created universal sorrow throughout the United States, where the General had become a hero to the people of all classes. General Otis thus officially noticed his death: "The loss of General Lawton was keenly felt and deplored by the Whole corps, and also by a large class of Filipino citizens, whose respect and admiration he had won by his kind treatment, soldierly bearing and continued military suc

As a leader of men and a master in handling them under trying conditions he had few equals.

Whatever the emergency he was always found competent to cope with and overcome it." General Lawton's body was returned to the United States and buried in the National Cemetery, at Arlington, with military honors. Popular subscriptions were solicited, and a fund of $100,000 'was quickly raised and presented to his widow.

Continuing the operations begun by Lawton, Colonel Lockett attacked the insurgents at and about Montalban on December 27-29, driving them back into the moun

tains, with the loss of eighty killed. Others were captured, Operations by Gen- also some munitions.

The passes

were garrisoned, and eral Schwan. affairs quieted down up the Maraquina. Brigadier-General

Bates was appointed major-general on January 2 to succeed Lawton, and with Generals Schwan and Wheaton as subordinates was ordered to clear the rebels out of the provinces to the south and east of Manila. General Schwan's column successively overran Eastern Cavité, the whole of Batangas and all that was necessary of Laguna and Western Tabayas to bring the rebels under subjection. Lieutenant-General Trias commanded all the rebel forces in Southern Luzon. Some thirty-three combats took place, none of which, however, arrived at the dignity of a battle. American success was almost unvarying, and the losses of the insurgents

Finally vanquished on all hands, small bands of the insurgents sought safety in the jungles or mountains, but the great mass either disbanded and returned to their homes or fled to the Camarines. Strategic points and the principal towns were gar



risoned, and quiet comparatively restored to all the region around Lakes Laguna and Taal before February 8. General Schwar, by his energy, courage and brilliant tactics, had in a single month marched six hundred miles, and defeated, scattered and demoralized all organized forces of the enemy in four large provinces, with an aggregate American loss of less than fifty men killed and wounded.

This region soon began to resume trade with Manila, which, through Laguna Lake, soon exceeded all previous records. Steps were taken to establish local civil government, the church services were resumed and schools reopened. The terrorized people rapidly returned to their homes, once assured that the Americans, whom the crafty Tagalos had educated them to believe would kill or enslave all natives, had no desire to oppress or punish them. The situation of affairs then in these four provinces, as well as that in all Luzon, and the situation as it practically appears to-day from the official reports, are well told in General Schwan's report from Santa Cruz, February 8, 1900. In part he said: From personal observation and the investigation of other officers I have reached the conclusion that with constant vigilance and proper measures on our part the insurgents in the provinces of Laguna and Tabayas will be incapable of doing any serious mischief. Their attempts on all but individuals, mere squads or inadequately escorted trains, are feeble to a degree, and are evidently induced by a spirit of bravado rather than any hope of success. They are split up into small fragments, who emerge from their mountain retreats mainly for the purposes of rapine and murder."

While General Schwan was thus operating General Wheaton in a similar manner overran the western part of Cavité and Batangas, His work was as thorough as Schwan's, although on a far more limited scale, and was done by the end of January. Schwan returned to Manila on February 9, and Wheaton was then assigned to the command of the four pacificated provinces of Cavité, Batangas, Laguna and Tabayas. Throughout the islands in December there were seventy-five fights, in which nineteen Americans were killed and ninety-one wounded. In January there were 114 combats, thirty men killed and seventy-five wounded.

General Otis, in generalizing upon the American losses, says: "Our losses were partly due to the rashness of our men in absenting themselves without permission and visiting among the natives, notwithstanding repeated cautionary orders, or the failure of small escorting parties to take proper precautionary measures in pasisng through defiles or over roads lined with thick brush, which furnished concealment for natives seeking booty. Throughout Luzon nearly all our soldiers who fell into the hands of the enemy were captured while illegally absent from their commands or while they were remiss in the performance of their duties. The total number of Americans captured and missing or unaccounted for up to May 5, 1900, did not exceed 150 men, the majority of whom had been recaptured or released. During the operations of the year not less than 1,500 Spanish prisoners were recaptured from the rebels.

On January 18 Brigadier-Genera! W. A, Kobbé, with the 43d and 47th Infantry, and Battery G, 3d Artillery, convoyed by the gunboats Helena and Nashville, sailed on

transports for extreme southeastern Luzon. On January 20 Operations in the he entered Sorsogon Bay, garrisoning Sorsogon, and subSouth.

sequently took possession of Bulan and Donsal, which were

also garrisoned. Passing San Bernardino Straits, he captured Albay and Legaspi, at the latter po'nt having a severe fight. Thence he crossed over to Virac, on the island of Catanduanes, which was garrisoned. Vast quantities of hemp in bales were found in all these ports. Afterward Kobbé captured the cities of Calbayog and Catbalogan, on the island of Samar, and passing through the dangerous strait of San Juanico to the south, on February 1, after a sharp fight, captured the town of Tacloban, on the northeast coast of Leyte. Here he found 100,000 bales of hemp in sight. Kobbe's successes were important. Although he did not have troops enough to completely cover necessary strategic points, which permitted the Tagalos to continue their isolated outrages upon the inhabitants who acquiesced in the American occupation the situation in these southern islands, as in all parts of Luzon, soon began to improve with a marked disposition on the part of the masses to resume their peaceful pursuits.

On February 15 Major-General Bates, with the 40th and 45th Infantry, Captain Koehler's battery and a detachment of cavalry, sailed from Manila for the Camarines provinces, southeast Luzon, mainly occupied by rebels driven eastward by Schwan and westward by Kobbé. Passing San Bernardino Straits, he entered San Miguel Bay, and landed at the mouth of Bicol River, receiving valuable assistance from the Navy. Colonel Godwin defeated the enemy at Libmanan, killing sixty-four and wounding many. General Bates's persistent activity was rewarded by the dispersion of all hostile organizations, the capture of their artillery and rifles, much ammunition, the release of Spanish prisoners, the return of the inhabitants to the towns, and the restoration of trade relations with Manila. The Chinese General, Paua, insurgent, was sent to Manila, charged with murdering Spanish prisoners. Brigadier-General James M. Bell was the active commander under Bates.

On March 20 General Bates was ordered to take possession of Northern Mindanao and establish military stations on its coasts, and thence to Zamboanga, headquarters of the military district of Mindanao and the Jolo Archipelago, taking with him the 40th Irfantry. Brigadier-General Bell was assigned to the command in southeastern Luzon, including the provinces of the two Camarines, Albay and Sorsogon, Luzon, the island of Catanduanes and adjacent small islands, and his command increased to 2,600 men. Thereupon General Bates, with a considerable force, occupied Surigao, northeastern Mindanao, General Garcia voluntarily surrendering the district and all the ordnance in his possession. At Cagayan resi.tance was offered, but with the Navy's effective assistance the enemy was easily driven off. Afterward Bates occupied the coast towns of Iligan, Misamis and Dapitan, in all of which the inhabitants gladly welcomed the

Americans. A strong garrison was established at Iligan, and lesser ones at the other points. The entire northern and southern coasts of Mindanao and the islands of the Jolo Archipelago, extending southwest, were thus occupied without firing a gun. General Bates received the surrender of ninety-seven pieces of old artillery and 241 rifles.

Between Luzon and Mindanao lie the Visayas Islands-Panay, Negros, Cebu, etc. They are designated the Military District of the Visayas, commanded by BrigadierGeneral Robert P. Hughes, with headquarters at Iloilo. Panay. August 31, 1899, the towns of Iloilo and Cebu City, with contiguous mountain country and the important positions in Negros Island, composed all the territory in possession of our troops. They were garrisoned by the 18th and a battalion of the 19th Infantry, and Battery G, 6th Artillery. During the fall and winter of 1899–1900, with further reinforcements, General Hughes fully pacified Panay Island, after many severe engagements, capturing all the rebel artillery and much of their munitions and small arms. The Tagalos attempted to revolutionize Negros Island, but were speedily reduced. On Cebu Island Colonel Snyder's operations had resulted in complete success by the middle of January. The rebels were everywhere routed, and all their strongholds easily secured. It was found that the leaders against our occupation in the Visayas were Tagalos from Luzon Island. In the middle of February 167 Tagalos surrendered at Capiz with their rifles, and were sent home to Taal, on Luzon. By the middle of March the progress made in Panay, Negros and Cebu enabled General Hughes to look after the lesser islands, the inha bitants of which generally received our soldiers cheerfully, having been greatly terrorized by the insurgents from the greater isles. To reduce the ignorant mountaineers to submission, or entirely check their forays upon the coast towns and peaceable inhabitants, is reported by General Hughes to be a labor of time, but it is a result which will be achieved. In the three principal islands over fifty military stations are maintained, and the majority of the inhabitants are comparatively secure. In February throughout the Philippines 114 fights occurred, 30 Americans were killed and 70 wounded. In March there were 103 different fights, with 19 killed and 63 wounded.

The foregoing is a rapid summary of the salient events of the grand strategy which followed the assembling in the Philippine Islands in the fall of 1899 of an overpowering

military force. Doubless mistakes were made, but the final Funston in

result, as we see, was the practical defeat and subjugation Central Luzon.

of the insurgent Tagalos in all quarters by the early spring

of 1900, although small bands of guerillas still continued a predatory warfare in remote districts. American prestige had been raised far above the previous Spanish rule. Subsequent operations extended the American occupation into more remote sections, further fortifying American power. A last rallying place for the disaffected, still unoccupied, was the large mountainous region in Central Luzon to the east of the railway, at some point in which Aguinaldo was supposed to have his headquarters. General MacArthur's troops occupied eighty-one stations. With headquarters at Bautista, he energetically pushed the guerillas of Central Luzon in a series of operations like those already described. General Funston crossed the mountains and occupied Baler, on the east coast, in the last days of February. Almost daily skirmishes took place. Many prisoners were taken, filling the Manila prisons. A few Americans were killed and a good many wounded, but the enemy suffered far greater loss. General Wheaton's command the while occupied thirty-three stations in Southern Luzon, with headquarters at Calamba, on Lake Laguna. Here Schwan's invasion had left a far more pacific feeling than prevailed in the north. Wheaton's troops had fewer fights with marauders, but were very active. Many prominent insurrectionists were captured or voluntarily surrendered themselves. In Northern Luzon General Young's forces were kept busy by the active insurgents, and a severe fight took place at Batac April 16, where 333 of the enemy were reported killed. In the southern islands the insurgents were even more active. On Panay and Mindanao they made several attacks in force. The only serious American reverse occurred at Catubig, Samar, on April 15. The garrison of 31 men was attacked by 600 islanders, with a cannon and 200 rifles, and driven out, losing 18 killed and 5 wounded. The rebels lost 200 killed, so reported.

Altogether in April there were 120 skirmishes, great and small, with 38 Americans killed and 68 wounded. From January 1 to April 1 General Otis reported rebel loss: Killed, 1,426; captured, mostly wounded, 1,453. Captures of arms, munitions and stores in April largely exceeded any previous record, chiefly effected through information furnished by the natives themselves. General Funston captured official Filipino State papers, disclosing conspiracies and threatened treachery in Manila, to culminate in an outbreak. On April 7 the Military Division of the Philippines was created, which General Otis divided into four departments, each subdivided into districts. Generals MacArthur, Bates, Hughes and Kobbé were assigned, respectively, to command the new departments of Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao and Jolo. An expedition of General Bates occupied the islands of Maranduque and Masbate without opposition, important as sources of cattle supply. Paterno, president of Aguinaldo's Cabinet, was captured April 25 near Trinidad, Northern Luzon.

On May 5 General Otis, at his own request, was relieved and Major-General Arthur MacArthur assigned as Military Commander and Governor--General of the Philippines.

The departing General was greatly praised in the War DeGeneral Otis

partment order relieving him. He arrived at San Francisco Relieved.

May 30 on the transport Meade, On May 6 General

Young reported that Aguinaldo had unquestionably joined Tinio, the northern insurgent chief. General Garcia, the highest Filipino officer next to Aguinaldo, was captured near San Isidro, and some valuable papers were secured. On May 12 Señor Buencamino, a prominent Filipino reconciled to the American regime,



previously released by General Otis, issued to the insurgent chiefs an equitable plan of peace on the basis of American supremacy. It apparently received no attention from the rebels. In May the work of laying a system of telegraphic cables among the southern islands, connecting with Manila, was inaugurated.

The fighting in Luzon was not so continuous in May as previously. On the 19th Major March, pursuing what was supposed to be Aguinaldo's party, shot an officer thought to be Aguinaldo himself at Sagot, North Luzon. The wounded Filipino was carried away, but his horse and saddlebags, with papers, were secured, the latter belonging to Aguinaldo undoubtedly. There were several considerable fights on Samar, Panay, Leyte and Mindanao, where the insurgents presented a strong front. American losses comparatively slight. There were 108 fights in May; American loss, 28 killed and 66 wounded. General MacArthur reported the Filipino losses from the beginning of the war to May 31: Killed, 10,780; wounded, 2,104; captured and surrendered, 10,425; number of prisoners on hand, about 2,000.

In the first week in June Major Johnson occupied the island of Tablas. No opposition. War Department reported the total expenditures for transportation of troops,

animals, supplies and munitions to and from the PhilipExpenses of

pines since May 1, 1898, to be $15,637,096 45. June 9 General the War. Pilar, active insurgent leader,

captured. Two days later two other important insurgent generals were captured and brought in. On the 15th General Macabulos, with 8 officers and 124 rebels, surrendered to Colonel Liscum at Tarlac, Luzon. General Aquina also surrendered June 29. June 18 the 9th Infantry was ordered to China to aid in suppression of the Boxers, and sailed on the 27th. The 6th Cavalry and other troops were ordered from the United States to the Orient. June 21 General MacArthur, in the name of the President, proclaimed a general amnesty to insurgents in arms who shall yield in ninety days, take the oath and acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. On the same day 200 Filipinos met in Manila to formulate terms of peace to their countrymen. Paterno presided. Buencamino, Generals Garcia, Pilar, Macabulos and other prominent revolutionists were present. The plan submitted included amnesty, return of confiscated property, employment of Filipino leaders in navy and militia when established, succor of needy Filipinos, guarantees of personal liberty, establishment of civil government and expulsion of the triars. General MacArthur subsequently accepted the terms with modifications, but the bushwhacking did not cease. The cruiser Brooklyn, with 300 marines from Cavité, sailed for China June 27. Nine conspicuous insurgent leaders, including Pilar, Garcia and Alvarez, took the oath of allegiance and were discharged. The most serious engagement in June was that near Cagayan, Mindanao, on the 14th, where Captain Miller's detachment of 100 men, 40th Infantry, was defeated and driven back with a loss of 9 men killed and 10 wounded, including Miller and Lieutenant Elliott wounded. There were 131 skirmishes in June, with an American loss of 24 killed and 56 wounded. Total losses from July 1, 1899, to June 30, 1900, official,

as follows: Killed and died of wounds, 357; died of disease, by suicide, murder, drowning, etc., 1,085; total in twelve months, General MacArthur was pressed for re-enforcements from all quarters in June.

Insurgent General Ricarti, with valuable papers, was captured July 1. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilder organized at Caloocan a mounted corps of 120 loyal Filipinos. Paterno issued a seditious document concerning proposed peace, calculated to deceive Filipinos and cause trouble, and was sent back to prison. On the 15th General MacArthur shipped the 14th United States Infantry and Reilly's Battery to China. Control of Basilon Island was turned over to naval authorities, and troops withdrawn to other stations. General Young installed municipal government at Vigan, Northern Luzon, July 25, Neither peace movements nor amnesty proclamation stopped new insurgent operations. In July the American losses in Panay were greater than in any month since January. In Leyte there was a good deal of fighting, but, on the whole, less in Luzon. American aggregate losses in July about 357 killed and 40 wounded. On August 12 Colonel Grassa came in at Tayug, Luzon, and surrendered 182 officers and men, with arms. General MacArthur reported his sick list about middle of August at 5,129 men. Last of August General Hughes reported an outbreak in Bohol Island, and defeat of rebels at Carmen, with loss of 120. Conditions generally, however, improved everywhere in August. The people in North Luzon became unusually quiet and engaged in planting, but in the central and southern provinces there were still daily collisions, with moderate casualties. The most serious check the Americans received was on August 1, between San Miguel and San Isidro, Luzon, where Lieutenant Alstaetter was attacked and 1 man killed, 5 wounded and 9 captured. No official report of aggregate losses in August obtainable. Estimated, 38 killed and 64 wounded. Twenty ships of war of various classes reported in Philippine waters in September by naval authorities. September 19 Quartermaster's Department completed arrangements to bring home for burial soldiers and sailors who have died in our island possessions. Semi-officially announced by the War Department that the return of the Philippine volunteers would be begun about middle of November. Steps were taken by General MacArthur for the establishment of a leper colony on some available island. Military affairs were comparatively quiet until about the 10th, when Captain Shields and 51 men, returning overland from Terrijos to Santa Cruz, Maranduque, were all captured, less 4 killed. Five were wounded. They were rescued a month later by General Hare's forces.

The insurgents suddenly became more aggressive near Manila and Central Luzon. On September 16 a heavy fight took place near Sinaloan, Lake Laguna, between detachments of 130 men under Captain D. D. Mitchell, 15th Infantry, and the insurgent General Cailles, with 800 rebels. Americans attacked, and were repulsed with loss



« PreviousContinue »