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In 1891 Dr. Sheldon Jackson brought 16 reindeer across the Bering Strait into Alaska; today that herd, with a few importations since, has increased to nearly 10,000, of which some 02 per cent are owned by the natives. From their herds of reindeer the natives enjoyed last year an income of $44,885.

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FOUR ESKIMO GIRLS NEAR CAPE NOM, ALASKA consiats antirely of skins of seal, reindeer, bear, and fox, the first two being the most common. The dress of the

in long jarket and trousers ticker into scal-skin loots. The jacket, which has a lonello Internis skillfully made In winter IWO S1111S ili 11).

with the lur inside

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bon deposits underground, once they are the fundamentals of the miners' codes of removed. I cannot, however, feel that early days, was passed without thought W: should sacrifice any present need for of the occurrence of other deposits inan fuel or willingly surrender ourselves to placer gold. However, the land departa demand for exorbitant prices because ment, and later Congress, applied the law of a fear that some day the coal supply to oil lands. may be exhausted (see page 205):

The placer law provides in the mall, Already there has been developed a that no location shall be made without a substitute for coal in the flowing stream. discovery of valuable minerals on the The turbine converts melted snow into claim, that the boundaries of the location heat and light, which can be distributed shall be plainly marked on the ground, over a constantly widening area. I think that no claim for an individual shall exwe have now arrived at that point in ceed 20 acres or for an association 160 scientific achievement which justifies the acres, that $100 worth of assessmentbelief that the wheels of industry will work must be done each year, and that not cease, nor our houses go unlighted upon the expenditure of $500 in labor or or unheated, so long as dams may be built improvements and upon compliance with upon our streams. Water will be-in certain minor requiremerts the claimant deed already is—the greatest conservator is entitled to a patent to his claim. of coal.

The claimant who has gone upon lands We must seek to make use of our coal, for the purpose of maling mineral locathe fullest use that society requires. This tion, and is engaged in work looking to principle seems a truism. But here lies the discovery of minerals, is protected the difficulty. We wis' cheap coal and against adverse agricultural claimants at the same time a minimum of waste. on the ground that the land which he We wish society to take the lion's share occupies is not vacant and open to setof the profit and yield no

to tlement. The extent of his protection the operator than will make his work against adverse mineral claimants is, sufficiently attractive to keep him at it. however, a matter of serious doubt. He In short, we desire competition without cannot be ousted by the forcible or waste—a frank impossibility.

fraudulent entry of another mineral Other countries have wrestled with claimant, but if such adverse claimant this problem. Some have gone into gov enters peaceably, openly, and in good ernment operation. But those who are faith, prospects the claim and first disnearest to us in institutions and ten covers minerals, thus perfecting his locadencies have found that in a new country, tion, his title is superior and he disposwhere there must be large development

sesses the original occupant. and higher rewards for enterprise, the

On the other hand, in some of the safest practicable method is to lease the fields large areas are held indefinitely by land, the government taking a modest assessment-work which makes little preroyalty and retaining some measure of tense of exploring the claims or developcontrol over operation.

ing them. Useless roads which make the

claims no easier of access, drilling rigs OUR OIL, PHOSPHATE, AND POTASH DE

incapable of reaching the oil sands, buildPOSITS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED

ing-stone locations where no building The United States is beginning to ap stone is to be found, and locations on preciate the extent and value of its oil worthless deposits of gypsum are among deposits, and for the disposition of these the subterfuges adopted to hold posseslands no better plan has been suggested sion of lands prospectively valuable for than one analogous to that offered as to oil. coal lands.

Thus, where occupancy without discovI would call your attention to the ery is respected, large areas are withheld absurdity of applying the placer mining from exploration and development, and law to the development of petroleum where such occupancy is not respected lands. This law, which was based upon the oil prospector must assume undue


Photo from F. 1. Kleinschmidt

This bcar, whose skin measured 12 sect 8 inches in length, was killed near Kodiak, in Alaska, for the collection of the Carnegie Museum at Pitts

burgh. The man and the large St. Bernard dog bring out the great size of the skin

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The cub hangs on to the mother's tail and is towed along: Sometimes the mother objects to this, and, turning round, severely cuffs the baly or

takes it by the neck and puts it under water

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