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and was then reported favorably; yesterday (Monday) a rule was adopted for the consideration of the bill by the House on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday of this week, wl o the final vote will be taken.

The House Commerce Committee reported in favor of substituting the House Nicaragua Canal bill for the bill passed by the Senate. The House Committee on Military Affairs reported a bill for reorganizing the Army and increasing the enlisted force from 25,000 to 30,000, at an estimated increased expenditure of about $1,200,000 yearly. In the Senate the credentials of W. R. Reese as Senator from Alabama, signed by R. F. Kolb, who claims to be Governor of the State, were presented, as a basis for contesting the seat of Mr. Morgan.

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THE School of Applied Ethics, which has held three summer sessions at Plymouth, Mass., announces a winter session of eighteen lectures and conferences to be held at Washington, D. C., beginning February 13 and continuing seven weeks. The course will deal with Social Problems of the Day, with special reference to the labor question."

THE Obio Wool Growers’ Association, at Columbus, adopted resolutions declaring that “the free wool provision of the Tariff act of August 27, 1894, reversing a policy wbich has continued for more than seventy. eight years, is a colossal political crime against the industries of the whole American people, and is an odious, unjust discrimination against wool growers.”

THE Executive Committee of the National Farmers' Alliance, in Chicago, adopted resolutions practically indorsing governmental control of transportation lines; against the repeal of the anti-Pooling law; in favor of the anti-Option bill, and for female suffrage.

Philadelphia Record: Nobody was scared by the revelation from Des Moines, to the effect that during the railway strike last summer it was proposed by some of the hare-brained leaders to seize a Populist State and set up a provincial government; for every one knows that there is too much sturdy loyalty among the bone and sinew of the country to countenance any such treasonable schemes.

Good Government (Civ. Serv. Ref.): The great double-page cartoon in a recent issue of Puck, illustrating the attitude of the two leading politi. cal parties toward civil service reform and the folly of their lamentation at seeing President after President raise the barred gate higher, is a study in satirical art. It is one of those appeals to the common sense of the average citizen which reaches its goal more swiftly than a dozen editorial leaders full of criticism and argument.

Cincinnati Journal and Messenger: Some of the religious papers, in commenting on the bill introduced by the Lexow Committee in the New York Legislature, have made the mistake of confusing bi-partisan and DOD-partisan. Nothing is worse than a bl-partisan commission, and this is what most corrupt legislatures give us when we ask for non-partisan. A bi-partisan commission merely provides that members be taken from both political parties. The result is that in cities the bosses of the two parties divide the appointments between them, and we get the worst men of both parties. A non-partisan commission is one appointed without regard to party, and consists of men opposed to the bosses of both.

CONGRESSIONAL SUMMARY. [From Tuesday, January 29, to Monday, February 4, inclusive.) In the Senate, debate during the past week has shown a constant tendency to turn upon the financial situation, whatever the question actually before the Senate. Mr. Vest (Dem. Mo.) bitterly attacked the President's financial plan, declaring that its purpose was to weld the gold standard upon the people, and that he must now company with the President. Mr. Sherman (Rep. Ohio) urged the Senate to take the financial qnestion from the Finance Committee, where action was hopeless by reason of a tie: he arraigned the free silver advocates for pushing their demands to the point of paralyzing legislation; he advocated the issue of bonds in such form that people of small savings might invest in them. Mr. Gorman (Dem. Ma.) declared that the Senate would provide some financial remedy, if necessary adding it as a rider to an appropriation bill. The Bankruptcy and District of Columbia Appropriation bills were considered, without action. The House bill to establish a National military park at Gettysburg was passed. The Japanese treaty was ratified, with an amendment providing that the treaty may be abrogated upon one year's notice instead of requiring eleven years' notice. Mr. Mantle, the new Republican Senator from Montana, took his seat; the Senate now consists of 86 members, of whom 43 are Democrats.

In the House, the bill repealing the discriminating duty of one-tenth of a cent per pound on sugar imported from countries paying an export bounty was passed, 239 to 31. The Agricultural Appropriation bill and the Senate bill to revive the rank of Lieutenant-General of the Army for the benefit of General Schofield, were passed. The bill to fund the debt due the Government from the Union Pacific and Kansas Pacific Railroads with 3 per cent fifty-year bonds was discussed at much length, and was finally re-committed (practically defeated) by the unexpectedly large vote of 177 to 108. Messrs. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, and Heard, of Missouri, engaged in an altercation during debate, and Mr. Breckinridge struck at Mr. Heard, but later both apologized. The Springer financial bill, embodying the recommendations of the President's special message, was amended in some features by the Committee on Banking and Currency,

DOMESTIC NEWS SUMMARY.

[From Tuesday, January 29, to Monday, February 4.] TUESDAY. - The Arkansas Legislature re-elected United States Senator Berry --- The Legislature of Rhode Island passed a bill prohibiting poolselling in that State---Judge Bradley, of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, issued a mandamus directing the Commissioner of Pensions to restore Judge Long's pension to the original figures ---Receivers of the Distilling and Cattle Feeding Company (Whisky Trust") were appointed by the Federal Court at Chicago. It was discovered that the will of the late ex-Senator Fair had been stolen from the County Clerk's office in San Francisco---C. M. Hughes, Jr., ex-cashier of the First National Bank of Lima, Ohio, was arrested, charged with misappropriating $140,000 of the bank's funds---Mrs. U. S. Grant, widow of the general, stopped at Atlanta on ber way to Florida, and received a delegation of Confederate veterans.

WEDNESDAY.-Kansas farmers are happy because the ground is covered with two inches of snow, which practically insures a wheat crop this year---President Eliot, of Harvard, said in his annual address that foot. ball had degenerated so as to be a game unfit for colleges ---The defalcation of the late cashier Abbott, of the Dover (N. H.) National Bank, has been found by the Bank Examiner to be $97,595.50.

THURSDAY. - The National Board of Trade in session at Washington called upon Congress to pass a financial bill, and, failing in that, to provide for a financial commission---Masked robbers held up a Southern Pacific train near Wilcox, Ariz., blew open the express company's safe and secured $10,000 in Mexican silver---The 27th annual convention of the American Woman's Suffrage Association began at Atianta, Ga., Susan B. Anthony presiding---Henry L. Einstein bought the New York Press, and employed Congressman Lemuel E. Quigg as editor and publisher---Ward McAllister, the New York society leader, died of grip.

FRIDAY.-Congressman John L. Wilson was elected United States Senator by the Legislature of Washington---Lawrence Maxwell, Solicitor-General of the United States, resigned, and Holmes Conrad, of Win. chester, Va , was appointed in his place ---The California Senate has adopted a resolution urging the California Congressmen “to oppose every measure to debase silver as money, and to advo: ate and vote for free and unlimited coinage at the ratio of 16 to 1"---The Japanese Minister says the Japanese treaty, as amended by the Senate, will not be acceptable to Japan - The National Military Park at Chickamauga, Tenn., will be dedicated next September---Col. N. H. R. Dawson, United States Commissioner of Education during President Cleveland's first term, died at Selma, Ala.

SATURDAY. - Assistant Secretary Curtis, of the Treasury Department, conferred with representatives of foreign bankers in New York City relative to the terms of the new bond issue---A request by President Norton, of one of the Brooklyn trolley lines, for permission to arm all his employes was refused; more violence was reported ---The Labor Arbitration bill, as amended and reported to e House by the Labor Committee, is indorsed by Commissioner Wright and a number of prominent labor leaders---Ex-Congressman M, D. Stivers died at Middletown, N. Y.

SUNDAY.- A canvass of the Senate has been made, which shows that upon any legislation along the lines asked for by the President there would be 39 affirmative votes and 47 negative--- The New York State Commissioner of Labor, in his annual report, says that recent improve. ments in labor-saving machinery, especially in the printing trade, have caused a decrease in the number of employes from 20 to 664 per cent.-At a large meeting of the Order of Railway Conductors at Chicago it was resolved to recommend that all members be expelled who refuse to renounce all connection with the American Railway Union--- There were a few minor assaults by strikers, and some arrests were made, but Brooklyn trolley-cars moved more freely than on any day since the strike was called.

MONDAY.—The President submitted another batch of Hawaiian correspondence, declaring that the State Department had no information of arms being furnished to the royalists by British subjects; in the correspondence was the suggestion by the Hawaiian Minister of the necessity of a United States warship at Honolulu---At Brooklyn 2,000 strikers assembled before the City Hall and petitioned that the franchises of the trolley companies be annulled; the Board of Alderman passed the desired resolution by a vote of 10 to 8.- The United States Supreme Court has repdered a decision adverse to Broker Chapman, the recalcitrant Sugar Trust witness.

CIVICS. ** This space will be devoted each week to the promotion of the object of the American Institute of Civics, “Good Government Through Good Citizenship."

***A twenty-page pamphlet, giving details for the organization of current topic clubs, and valuable suggestions as to methods of work will be sent for ten cents. Address, Extension Department, A. I. C., Box 348, Washington, D. C. For further particulars concerning the work of the clubs see page ii.

**The articles written for the Extension Department appear in print for the first time on this page.

AN OPEN LETTER FROM COMMISSIONER WRIGHT. DIRECTOR EXTENSION DEPARTMENT,

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CIVICS,

Office of Public Opinion, Washington, D. O. DEAR SIR: In accordance with your kind invitation to contribute some thoughts relative to arbitration for the Civics page of PUBLIC OPINION, I take pleasure in sending you what I have to say in brief on that subject.

There is no way to settle labor troubles so effectually that they will not recur at intervals. The development of industries brings new complications constantly, brings into play a different set of elements, economic and ethical, and of course differences of opinion will constantly and

ever arise. There is, therefore, I repeat, no one method and no series of methods which can be adopted to en. tirely do away with such controversies, nor, in fact, would it be desir. able, could such results be accomplished. Progress depends upon mental friction, upon discussion, and upon the general adoption of im. proved processes, etc., etc. The constant effort of industry to adapt itself to these improvements and changes creates of itself an ever-shifting labor question.

The most effective method, however, of reducing the severity of labor controversies and of reducing their

number, too, lies in the people involved. If they are willing to meet each other on a business basis and consider the variety of differences which come between them, they can, if they will and if they are men of suficient moral character, adjust all such matters wiih yut strikes and lockouts. If they are not willing to do ibis, the State has some rights in the matter, and can furnish the means by which some of the controversies can be adjusted. This can be done torough the method known as industrial conciliation and arbitration. Arbitration has been called at times the "coupling” between labor and capital. This definition does not cover the case, it seems to me. It is, more properly, the “buffer” between the two forces, preventing damage and a crush. If it were a coupling, as alleged by many, it would effectually unite labor and capital; if it is a buffer, it prevents clash, and at the same time enables the two forces to get on together.

The principles underlying industrial arbitration are both economic and ethical. They are economic in the sense that they prevent waste of energy, waste of funds, losses in various directions, and preserve the integrity of industrial enterprises; they are ethical in the sense that they adjust the moral relations of men on a fair and equitable basis, recognizing the rights of each in the adjustment. Political economists of the older order contend that ethics can have little or no weight in economic matters, and yet they claim that certain legislation is essential in many directions, and would advocate the passage of bills restricting or extending certain conditions. Whenever a law is enacted which in any way restricts or extends the conditions of trade, commerce or transportation, it becomes at once ethical in its effect, because it infuences, regulates, and establishes the relations of men to each other and to society. Whenever this occurs, however it occurs, it is ethical. So industrial arbitration, the moment it comes into play, whether through the voluntary action of the parties involved in a controversy or through the efforts of the State, commits the State to ethical action. There should be no antagonism to such ethical action on the part of the State, because the whole machinery of the courts, every action of the Government relative to the settlement of any difficulties, controversies or claims, is an ethical

action in its influences and in its results. Arbitration is no more than this, except it would be impolitic and, to my mind, impossible for the State to indulge in any methods of arbitration along compulsory lines. It can and should esta blish the machinery to which parties can resort for the settlement of their difficulties, but it should not make such resort compulsory, nor should it compel the enforcement of the award of a board.

The chief value of industrial arbitration, it seems to me, lies in a provision for a board, permanently established, to take immediate action, from its own motive, in all great labor controversies, so that the facts may be brought to the attention of the public and the responsibility for the difficulty fixed by official action. It does not seem wise to wait for a fight to be on before a board is established. In such cases there must be more or less partisanship-not of a political nature always, but of a nature which partakes of interest in one or the other of the parties engaged. A permanent board would avoid this and secure the other benefit of having a tribunal ready to act at a moment's notice As it has been expressed by Mr. Kingston, Premier of South Australia, in an exceedingly able and interesting article on arbitration, a government might as well wait for a conflagration to occur before organizing its fire department as to wait for labor troubles to actually exist before provid. ing some means for their adjustment.

The chief reason why arbitration should be provided by the State lies in the view that the public has an interest in the perpetuity of peace and its business welfare. Private strikes, those purely local in their nature, do not interest the public greatly, but strikes involving transportation from State to State and resulting in the paralysis of business are those in which the public bas a right-a right far superior to that of either of the parties to the controversy. So while I do not believe in compulsory arbitration, nor in the idea that any arbitration, compulsory or voluntary, can effectually do away with strikes, lockouts and boycotts, I do believe that such arbitration constitutes a great and powerful balancewheel which preserves the stability of industrial forces and helps to sccure more thoroughly peaceful relations between the elements, labor and capital, and the public.

The measure now pending in the Congress, known as the McGann bill, provides for three things, each important:

1. That a National board of arbitration sball be constituted for the purposes of conciliation whenever its good offices can be utilized.

2. For the broad investigation of interstate strikes, that the public may be correctly and promptly informed of the facts.

3. For the submission in writing by the parties to a controversy of the difficulties and questions between them to the board for final and effective adjustment.

It does not provide in any sense for compulsory arbitration. It aide, beyond these points, the incorporation of labor organizations, and follows along the lines of the patriotic message of the President in 1886, wheu be called the attention of the Congress specifically to the neces. sity of a permanent board of arbitration, a board that could act quickly and without waiting for the heat of a contest. The French Government, by the law of December 27, 1892, has crystallized these principles into its code relating to industrial arbitration, and it is gratifying to the advocates of these measures to know that the law is working with fairly satisfactory results. The measure pending in the Congress of the United States is one which should receive the cordial indorsement of both employers and employes, because it is thoroughly fair to each and does not in any way infringe upon the rights of contract, but its provisions tend to the establishment of the rights of the public in matters relating to transportation, while preserving the integrity and the independence of employer and employe, so far as they should be preserved, in quasi-public matters. The bill, should it become a law, would inevitably result in changing the status of railroad employee from purely corporate employes to quasi.public servants. This is essential for the preservation of peace in transportation.

I am, very respectfully,

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WASHINGTON, D. C., January 16, 1895.

ily; but rockets were sent up at frequent intervals, and it is obvious enough, apparently, that these other vessels should have had no difficulty in keeping out of the way. The steamer which caused the collision was seen by the lookout on the Elbe, and additional rockets were sent up as a precautionary measure. But the steamer, which was at uncomfortably close quarters when discovered, paid no attention to the warning; and before the speed of the Elbe could be checked or her course changed she was struck abaft the engine room. The water poured in; the room filled;

the ship settled, and in 20 minutes it had sunk. These bare details [From Tuesday, January 29, to Monday, February 4, inclusive.]

illuminate the awfulness of the situation without comment. Editorial Of several important events abroad during the past Two points in this dreadful story there are which need particular week, the most thrilling and touching is the steam

attention in the inquiry which must follow. One is the condition of the Summary ship disaster off the coast of Holland, involving,

water-tight bulkheads with which the ship was provided. Were these according to the steamship company's latest official

bulkheads closed at the time of the collision ? What is the use of prostatement, the loss of 835 lives. All accounts thus far agree in laying the

viding safety devices, indeed, if they are to be made no account of ? blame mainly, if not entirely, upon the officers of the Crathie, and loud

Possibly the force of the collision in which the Elbe was lost was so and deep is the denunciation of their action. That such a disaster should

great that nothing could have saved her. Yet there are cases in which appeal strongly to the sympathies of mankind everywhere is natural.

disasters have been averted which at first blush appeared to be as And yet, considering the great number of steamers and sailing vessels

unavoidable as this. The second point of especial importance in the that are crossing the ocean continually in all directions between Europe

story of the disaster is the conduct of the captain of the Crathie, the veg. and America, their courses intersecting at a multitude of places, the most

sel which is supposed to bave run into the Elbe. The Crathie, as has surprising fact about it all is that there are not a hundred disastrous ocean

been shown, was perfectly able to make port unaided. Yet it did not collisions where one actually occurs.

stand by the injured Elbe, nor, so far as is known, undertake in any way Wei-Hai-Wei has fallen, and the Chinese peace commissioners have

the rescue from a horrible fate of the unfortunate on board. This is been sent back home by the Japanese Government because their creden

inbumanity of the most inexcusable sort. There does not seem to be tials were defective. These two short statements sum up the progress of anything to relieve the accumulation of horrors in the story of the loss of the Japanese and Chinese conflict during the past week. But although the Elbe. the statements are short they tell much. It is reported that there was hard fighting at Wei-Hai-Wei, but after all the Japanese have captured

THE ARMENIAN QUESTION. the great Chinese stronghold with ridiculous celerity and ease, and their way is now open to Pekin without any important barrier to stay their THE Armenian question, if it ever be settled at all, must be taken out victorious march. Moreover, the Japanese are pursuing their campaign

of the Turk's hands, whether he like it or not. The Armenian ques. in midwinter apparently as successfully as in the warmer months, not- tion is emphatically not-as a great many excellent English men believe withstanding the prediction that they would never be able to withstand it to be-a religious question. The Turk, with all his faults, is not intolthe rigors of a Chinese winter. In diplomacy the Chinese cut quite as erant. The Armenians suffer, not because they are Christians, but ridiculous a figure as in war. They have sent peace commissioners to because they are the subjects in a portion of an empire which knows not, Japan not clothed with full powers to conclude peace, and the Japanese or ignores, the first elements of government. They do not suffer more have promptly declined to treat with them. Japanese victories and than the Turkish peasant. But his wrongs it is no one's interest to talk exhibitions of Chinese incompetency have grown too monotonous to be about, and his wrongs are therefore unknown, though they are identical longer interesting.

with the Armenian's. All the exciting stories about the maltreatment of Ex-Queen Liliuokalani has been arrested by the government at Hono- Christians because they will not embrace Islam are pure moonshine. I lulu on charge of being implicated in the recently discovered plot to do not say that when Turkish soldiers are ordered to shoot Armenians overthrow the government. It is expected that she will be exiled. Amer. down, the fact that the victims are Giaours does not increase their satisican newspapers show a disposition to comment facetiously upon the faction, or does not diminish their reluctance. But that is the beginning arrest of the ex-Queen, but still the comment is along the well known and that is the end of the religious aspect of the difficulty, so far as the Administration and anti-Administration lines that are followed in treat- Turk is concerned. None the less, the religious element is made the ing of anything that concerns Hawaii.

most of by the powerful Armenian societies which exist in Russia, EngCzar Nicholas has at last definitely spoken, and has declared his pur.

land and elsewhere. They know that the surest way to enlist the sympa. pose to uphold autocracy. The British Parliament meets to day (Tues. thies of Europe is to raise the cry of religious oppression. And they day), with strong indications that the Rosebery government will not be make the most unscrupulous use of the knowledge, pouring their emissaable to survive many weeks, if indeed it escapes defeat at the very open

ries into Asia Minor deliberately to foment disturbances and to encourage ing of the session. The situation as to Mexico and Guatemala is regarded resistance to what by the sheerest irony is called law, to the end that they as somewhat more hopeful, although the war cloud has not yet been dis- may have a pretext for their cry. The Turk realizes that, for all our pelled.

nagging, we shall take no active means to enforce our demands.

In the case of Armenia the conditions are particularly favorable to the THE LOSS OF THE ELBE.

application of the sole romedy which, in the opinion of those entitled to

speak with authority, is likely to be effective. Let us discount all the The North German Lloyd steamship Elbe, from Bremen for New York, vla Southampton, and the British steamer Crathie, from Rot

exaggerated statements of the rapprochement between Russia and Engterdam for Aberdeen, collided in the North Sea, off the coast of Hol.

land, of which the cordiality of the relations between the Czar and the land, at 6 o'clock A. M. on Wednesday of last week. The Elbe car

Prince of Wales were the outward and visible signs. Yet the fact remains ried 855 persons, of whom about 50 were cabin passengers, about 150 that the relations between Russia and England are better than they have steerage passengers, and the rest officers and crew. All except 20 were been at any time since that ghastliest among human blunders, the Crilost.

mean War; and this not from sentimental reasons, but as the result of Providence Journal: The loss of the Elbe is a disaster the force of material considerations, upon which it is impossible, as it would be undewhich nothing can mitigate. In all the history of steam navigation there sirable, to enter now. Russia wants a free passage through the Dardahave been few records of a greater sacrifice of human life. When the nelles. For a long time she coveted this privilege for herself alone; but Atlantic went down in 1873, no less than 585 persons perished; 563 were there is the best of reasons for believing that she would now gladly conlost in the Utopia in 1891, and many years ago, in 1954, 480 were lost in sent to the opening of the waterway to all the world. The Sultan would the City of Glasgow. What such a calamity as the loss of the Elbe object, because the flashing of British and Russian search-lights on the means is hard for any one not an eye-witness, except by a stretch of

bedroom window of the Yildiz would be more than a hint to him that imagination of wbich most of us are iucapable, to appreciate. The stories the Powers could compel him to set his house in order, if he were of the survivors are full of horror. The accident took place at an early unwilling to undertake the task himself. But his resistance would be hour in the morning, when practically every one on board except the abortive in the face of the pressure of combined Russia and Great Britain. watch on deck was asleep. So far as our present knowledge extends, it His enforced acceptance of the demand would be of infinite advantage to was brought about by no negligence on the part of the officers of the him—though this, perhaps, he can hardly be expected to realize. Elbe. The morning was dark, and there were many vessels in the vicin- “Oh! but”-the cry will come from the old Jingo party-"the Rus

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sians must not have Constantinople for we do not want to see them in the Mediterranean." To which the simple and effective reply is this: “My good friends, every military expert in Europe will tell you that Constantinople is not worth an bour's purchase if Russia is determined to possess herself of it, unless we are prepared to send a fleet beforehand, and to stake our existence on a fight with Russia.” Are we prepared to take that step? and, if we are prepared, are we so sure that the Sultan would welcome our presence? He trades upon the unnatural jealousies of the two Powers; but he does not want to see the fleet of either anchored off the Golden Horn. And as for the presence of Russia in the Mediterranean, who doubts that the moment it becomes essential to her interests that her navy should be there, there her navy will be, with or without our consent? There is a point in Asia Minor where our imperial interests might conflict with those of Russia; but that point could not be reached for many a long day yet, and might never be reached at all. To the diplomatist, at any rate, “sufficient for the day” is a good working maxim. And we have an opportunity now, which may never come our way again, of settling a difficulty which, if allowed to develop much longer, will prove more fruitful of mischief than any with which we have been confronted for a generation or more. We shall have to choose between the old policy and the new; but the choice must be made by diplomatists and not by journalists, because it is given to the latter only to see the backs of the cards.—Diplomatist, in the Ner Review, London, January.

Springfield Republican: The ex-Queen of Hawaii cannot be blamed for joining in a conspiracy to get back her throne, nor can the present government be blamed for arresting her for so conspiring. Liliuokalani has never admitted the legality of the present government and never given any pledge of allegiance, or in any way acknowledged her submission to the republic or recognized its suprem:icy. She has remained its avowed enemy, and has made no secret of her intention to overthrow it if she could. So long as her hostile attitude was a passive one, and she committed or prompted no overt act of enmity to the republic, that government probably acted wisely in ignoring her presence in Honolulu; but with her change of attitude and assumption of active hostilities came the warrant for the step the government is said to have taken. Her arrest as one of the active leaders in the recent rebellion is only an act of selfdefense, and if her banishment from the islands follows it can be justified on the same grounds.

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THE JAPANESE IN HAWAII. Hartford Courant: More than a year ago it was suggested in these columns that the ugliest factor in the Hawaiian situation had been almost wholly overlooked by the American spectators. It was never overlooked for a moment by President Dole and his associates. They have known all along that they had little to fear from the easy-going, indolent, shiftless Kanakas of the royalist party. They have now demonstrated their ability to deal with white and half-breed malcontents. The Chinese coolies are, apparently, quite free from any itching to cut a figure in Hawaiian politics. The Portuguese are neither very numerous nor dan. gerous. But the Japanese are both the one and the other. There are a good many thousands of them already in the islands, and there will be more of them there before there are fewer. They have always had a good conceit of themselves; it will not be lessened by the events now occurring in Asia. They are clever, pushing and ambitious. They want to vote, to bold office, to be in all respects on an equal footing with the American and European residents. They are encouraged in these aspirations by the Japanese Government, which has had an attentive eye on Hawaii for years past, and has once (at least) shown a desire to meddle in its affuirs. Honolulu has not to learn what Japanese warships look like. Mr. Hatch, Hawaii's very intelligent Minister of Foreign Affairs, said a thing or two during his recent brief stay in San Francisco which should have an interest for American statesmen. We quote:

It may not be generally known but it is a fact that the Japanese merchants are surely absorbing the trade of the islands and acquiring a position of great com. mercial importance. Already they are driving the Chineso merchants out of business. It is significant to the United States, for Japanese supremacy means the cutting off of valuable trade with the islands and its transfer to Japan. The commercial future of the islands rests with the United States or England. We are only a bandful of people. We can take care of ourselves if let alone, but if Japan makes demands on us we can do nothing unless the United States or England gives us support.

New York Herald: The Jingoists in Washington who have heard with such “profound indignation ” of the little uprising against the Hawaiian Government, and are so eager to express to “the young republic the warmest sympathy,” may find some timely matter for reflection in the dispatch from Mr. Charles Nordhoff, which we print. Mr. Nordhoff cites laws of that "young republic” against personal liberty and the freedom of speech and the press “so unrepublican that their model is not found in the United States, but in Poland, iinder the rule of Russia."

Boston Transcript: The" Hawaiian Annual” for 1895, “the recognized handbook of information pertaining to Hawaii,” merits all that can be said of it as a manual of facts respecting the islands. Their estimated population, July 1, 1894, was 100,374; in 1890, 89,990. Of the population four years ago, the Hawaiians numbered 40,622, foreigners, 49,278. The Americans are enumerated at 1,928; British, 1,344; Portuguese, 8,602; Chinese, 15,301; Japanese, 12,360; Hawaiian-born foreigners, 7,495.

FOREIGN NEWS SUMMARY.

(From Tuesday, January 29, to Monday, February 4.] TUESDAY.—The President's message is approved in London as sound and thorough, but gloomy views are expressed on the probability of action by Congress.. A conference between the Mexican and Guatemalan Ministers at Washington was brought about by Secretary Gresham.-Deputations from the chief Russian cities waited upon the Czar and in his speech to the members he told them that he was firmly resolved to uphold autocracy --- The Australian Federation Conference met---Ex-President Peixoto's friends are stirring up trouble in Brazil.

WEDNESDAY.—The Spanish Senate has passed the modus vivendi placing the United States again in the most-favored-nation column as to duties on imports into Cuba and Porto Rico.---Duties on grain imported into Sweden have been increased, in some cases more than 100 per cunt.--A preliminary agreement for arbitration is said to have been reached by the Mexican and Guatemalan Ministers at Washington---The Chinese peace envoys have reached Japan, and after consultation with their counsel, ex-Secretary of State John W. Foster, they started for Hiroshima -Emperor William sent a message of sympathy to the son-in-law of Marshal Canrobert.

THURSDAY.-The Japanese bave captured Wei-Hai-Wei, the great Chinese stronghold --- A difference on the tariff question has caused the resignation of the Norwegian Ministry ---After an exciting scene in the French Chamber of Deputies money was voted for a State funeral for Marshal Canrobert by a vote of 288 to 152---The French Senate adopted the Political Amnesty bill---The Colombian rebels have been defeated in a battle with the government troops--- The Peruvian rebels have seized Arequipa --Prof. Arthur Cayley, professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, died, aged 74 years --Paul Mantz, the art critic, died at Paris.

FRIDAY. - The London Statist, commenting on President Cleveland's financial message, says that as the law now stands the United States could not borrow a large sum in Europe because of the President's inability to contract for payment in gold--All the Wei-Hai-Wei land forts have been captured; ihe Chinese lost 2.000 men---No more survivors of the wreck of the Elbe were found; the Crathie's captain said that his own vessel seemed to be sinking and that he thought the Elbe was safe---Guate. mala is said to have conceded practically all the points in dispute with Mexico - Premier Greene, of Newfoundland, resigned his office; Sir William Whiteway will succeed him.

SATURDAY.-Ex-Queen Liliuokalani was arrested by the Hawaiian Government on charges of complicity in the recent revolt---Revolutionists in the United States of Colombia were defeated by government troops ---Premier Ribot, of France, in the Chamber of Deputies, declared that a cessation of the coioage of silver would be regrettable, but the matter could only be settled by an international agreement between the powers--- The Russian Millers' Congress of St. Petersburg adopted resolutions for the establishment of a syndicate to protect the interests of the trade and promote the export of four---Madame Joniaux bas been convicted in Brussels of killing her relatives for insurance and been sentenced to life imprisonment.

SUNDAY. -The credentials of the Chinese peace envoys were found to be imperfect and they were requested to leave Japan at once; a naval engagement is in progress at Wei-Hai-Wei---A party of officers from the United States cruiser Concord, while hunting on the Chinese main. land, accidentally shot a man and a party of natives captured the whole party and carried them into the interior.--M. Henri Rochefort, the noted French journalist who was exiled from France with the late General Boulanger in 1889, has returned to Paris under the permission granted by the Amnesty bill.--The Canadian Comptroller of Customs is considering the question whether electricity conveyed across a river from the United States is dutiable.

MONDAY.-In the elections held in Argentina for members of the House of Deputies the Radicals scored a great victory ---Count Di Vergano, lately Italian Ambassador to Great Britain, has been appointed Ambassador to France in succession to Signor Ressman, who was recently recalled ---Gen. Anniballe Ferrero has been appointed Italian Ambassador to London---By an explosion of firedamp in a French colliery in the Department of Saone at Loire, forty or fifty persons were killed.

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AN APPEAL TO ALL NATIONS FOR PEACE. FOLLOWING are the main points of the address issued by Houzeau De Labaie, Chairman, and H. La Fontaine, General Secretary, of the Antwerp Peace Congress:

The Sixth Universal Peace Congress which met at Antwerp, in the month of August last, and which was attended by delegates from most European countries and from the United States of America, resolved to make an earnest appeal to all who desire the establishment of the reign of peace and goodwill among men.

The voice of reason and humanity grows ever louder in its protest against the excessive military burdens, and against the universal danger created by an armed peace. At the present time there are more than a hundred peace societies in Europe; and petitions in favor of their aims have been signed by hundreds of thousands of persons; while branches of the body entitled “the Inter-Parliamentary Conference" have been formed in almost all parliaments; and the members of that conference, at their annual meetings, decide what resolutions shall be brought before their respective parliaments, with the view of securing International relations between the different States, based upon justice. All these bodies are striving with one accord to remove the danger of war; and to banish as far as possible the misunderstandings and the prejudices which occasion it. To effect this object, these workers for peace appeal, through an active propaganda, to public opinion, inasmuch as the sympathetic support of the public is indispensable to the realization of every great ideal.

Peace among civilized nations is, at the present day, not merely a pious wish or a philanthropic idea; it is an imperative need, and a necessary result of the progress of civilization. The political and moral necessities which compel people of common origin, but divided into small separate States, to combine in those great international unions which form one of the triumphs of our age, will, in the near future, induce nations of one continent to unite for the representation and defense of their common interests. International congresses of every kind, and international agreements for such objects as health, railways, telegraphs, navigation, etc., indicate the tendency of our time—toward the creation of ever wider associations of interests. For this reason war. like sentiments are losing ground every day. The masses of the population know intuitively that every war leaves behind it a sad legacy of bloodshed, sla very and barbarism, while peace contains within it germs of a settlement of every quarrel-based on justice and equity to all men. Even those governments which are least influenced by modern ideas understand the nature of these new aspirations, and lose no opportunity of declaring themselves partisans of peace, and of friendly relations between neighbors.

Quite recently a distinguished Minister, Count Kalnoky, appealed to the peace congresses, calling on them to endeavor to suppress those false alarms wbich are chronic with certain newspapers. This is indeed what the peace congresses and peace societies have always done.

We therefore address our earnest appeal to those numerous friends of peace, who, up to the present, may have thought they stood alone. We say to them: “Declare everywhere your principles of humanity. Join us in the good fight for peace! Enter our societies, which have their doors wide open to you; and the century will not close before a benefi. cent breeze has scattered the dark clouds which to-day threaten States, families and individuals 1"

or were they simply the natural results of a vicious electoral system ? In 1892 the total vote polled for Congressmen was 12,032,203, of which the Republicans polled 5,031,860, the Democrats 5,670,148, the Populists 1,046,392, the Prohibitionists 244,726, and 39,577 were scattering. The result of this poll was that the Republicans elected 131, the Democrats

and the Populists 12 Congressmen. That is to say, the Republicans with 41.9 per cent of the total vote secured 36.8 per cent of the Representatives, the Democrats with 47.2 per cent of the vote got 59.8 per cent of the Representatives, the 8.7 per cent of the Populists obtained 3.4 per cent of the Representatives, the Probibitionists' 2 per cent securing nothing.

Nor was the last election less erroneous in registering the will of the people. The total vote for Congressmen in 1894 was 11,281,525 (Chicago Daily News Almanac). Of tbis number the Republicans cast 5,427,124, the Democrats 4,292,089, the Populists 1,354,722, the Probibitionists 182,728, and 24,862 scattering. The result was, the election of 245 Republican, 104 Democrat, and 7 Populist Congressmen. Or in other words, the Republicans with 48.1 per cent of the total vote elected 68.8 per cent of the Congressmen, the Democrats with 38.1 per cent of the vote secured 29.2 per cent of the Representatives, tbe 12 per cent of the Populists obtained 2 per cent of the Representatives, and the 1.6 per cent of the Prohibitionists failed of recognition.

When considered in this light the results of these two elections fail to be impressive—or rather, they do impress the thoughtful student with the gravity of such a haphazard-system of electing Representatives. We now see that the enormous majority of the Democrats in the Fifty-third Congress and the still greater majority of the Republicans in the Fiftyfourth Congress represent each less than half the people. May dot this fact have had something to do with the vacillating policy of the Fifty third Congress? And if so, what are we to receive at the hands of tho Fifty-fourth Congress if the same influence obtains ? Never was the mockery of the single district system of electing Representatives more pronounced. Our small but venerable sister republic, Switzerland, has solved the problem; can we not profit by her example ?

In view of the following demonstration, why should any one object to proportional representation ?

CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION, 1892,
5,031,360 Republican,
5,670,148 Democratic.
1,046,392 People's.
244,726 Prohibition.

131 Republican Congressmen.
213 Democratic Congressmen.
12 People's Congressmen.

CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION, 1894.
5,427,124 Republican.
4,292,089 Democratic.
1,354,722 People's.
187,728 Prohibition.

245 Republican Congressmen.
104 Democratic Congressmen.

7 People's Congressmen.

OHIO, INDIANA, MICHIGAN, ILLINOIS, WISCONSIN, 1894.
1,576,477 Republican.
1,101,029 Democratic.
181,299 People's.
69,274 Prohibition,

74 Republican Congressmen.
4 Democratic Congressmen.

- Proportional Representation Review, Chicago, December NOTWITHSTANDING the agitation kept up by a few in favor of propor. tional representation in elections, the scheme receives little attention from the politicians. It is not unlikely to be adopted in local contests in time, but the plans that have been proposed, and which were indorsed by the proportional representation congress held at the time of the World's Fair, for the election of Congressmen, are too intricate and cumbersome to be made readily popular with either the politicians or voters.—Springfield Republican.

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DISPROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION IN TWO CONGRESSES.

NEVER before in the history of representative government has there been such a splendid illustration of the evils of the single district system of electing Representatives, or such a complete vindication of the claims of proportional representation. Within two years of the great tidal wave of 1892 came the greater tidal wave of 1894, sweeping back to oblivion the tulers who had reigned for a day. If the victory of the Democrats in 1892 was stupendous, the success of the Republicans in 1894 was overwhelming. But what does it all amount to when properly analyzed ? Were these elections in reality great upheavals of an impatient people,

“OLD MAIDISM” AND MATERNITY. For about a year I lived in Japan, quite away as a rule from other Westerns, in purely Japanese households, often for weeks seeing none but Japanese, and the conclusion I have come to; as the result of my observations of Japanese women, is that they are happier in a high degree

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