Outline of Practical Sociology: With Special Reference to American Conditions

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1898 - Sociology - 431 pages
 

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Contents

Races 29 Geographical Distribution of Races
56
Parent Nativity
59
Population according to Colour
60
Internal Migrations
63
Part II
65
Tendency to Association
66
The Family
67
Size of Families
68
The Integrity of the Family
70
The Church
74
Church Government 40 Secular Societies
76
Patriotic Societies
80
Clubs
81
Benevolent Associations
82
Labour Organisations
83
QUESTIONS RELATING TO STRIKES AND LOCkouts
84
Legal Obligations of Social Units 46 The Influence of Societies 75 76
86
Political UNITS 47 References 18 The State
88
Sovereignty 50 Ordinary Units of Government
90
Local Political Units in the United States
91
The Town or Township 53 The County 54 The City
92
The State in the Union
97
Territories and New States
99
The National Government
100
Political Parties
102
Public Opinion
103
Part III
105
Industrial Distribution of Immigrants
106
Immigration and Illiteracy
108
Restrictive Laws on Immigration
110
Relation of Immigration to Increase of Population
112
URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION 66 References
115
Apprehension from Alleged Congestion of Cities
116
Redistribution of City Population
119
Density of Urban Population
123
Vital Statistics of Cities
124
SPECIAL PROBLEMS or City LIFE 72 References
125
WaterWorks
126
Lighting of Cities
127
Streets and Sewers
129
The Police
132
Wages under Public and Private Contract
133
Rapid Transit nsit
136
The Question of Municipal Ownership
139
The Slum Question 81 Housing of the Poor
144
Rented Houses
147
Public Baths
148
References
150
QUESTIONS OF THE FAMILY PAGE X MARRIAGE AND Divorce 85 References
151
Causes of Strikes and Lockouts
152
Cost of Strikes and Lockouts
153
Marriages Compared by Races
154
The Contract Theory of Marriage
155
Solemnisation of Marriage
157
The Annulment of Marriage
159
Divorce
161
State and Federal Relations of Marriage and Divorce
163
Statistics of Divorce
165
Legal Causes of Divorce
166
Children
167
The Evolution of Divorce
168
The Reasons for Divorce
170
Reformation of Divorce
173
EDUCATION 100 References 101 The Duty of Education
177
The Kindergarten a School for Youngest Pupils
180
142
183
The PublicSchool System below the High School
185
The American High School
186
The Normal School
187
Imperfections of the PublicSchool System
189
Compulsory Education
191
Industrial Education
193
ManualTraining Schools
195
J11 Trade and Technical Schools
199
THE TEMPERANCE QUESTION continued
202
Results of Technical Education
203
Colleges and Universities
205
Part V
223
ARE THE Rich GROWING RICHER AND THE POOR POORER?
224
Are Money Wages increasing?
227
The General Increase in Money Wages
232
Cost of Living
234
Hours of Labour 238 129 Sunday Labour
240
The Unemployed
242
The Tramp 115
245
The Sweating System
246
General Benefits to Society of the New System of Labour
249
APPLIANCES OF THE MODERN LABOUR SYSTEM 134 References
250
Proportions of Skilled and Unskilled Labour
253
Does the Use of Machinery degrade Labour ?
256
The Saving of Human Labour by Machinery
260
The Inspection of Factories and Workshops
263
Employers Liability
265
Legislation affecting the Employers Liability
267
Compulsory Insurance of Workingmen
269
References
271
Relations with Unions
274
Cooperation
277
ProfitSharing
281
State Regulation
285
es and Lockouts
293
Number of Persons involved in Strikes 155 Industrial Conciliation
294
Industrial Arbitration
297
Boycotts
300
Injunctions
302
Conspiracy
305
Part VI
307
Earnings and Wealth
309
Individual Wealth
311
Savings Institutions
315
Building and Loan Associations
316
Insurance and Mutual Benefit Associations
318
Poverty 167 References
322
Pauperism and Relief
324
203
325
Organised Charities
327
ChildSaving
330
THE RELATION OF ART to SOCIAL WELLBEING 172 References 173 Art and Ethics
331
Art and Industry
332
Art and the People
334
Art and Social Unrest
336
Art in Invention
337
Art as a Source of Wealth
339
Public Art
340
The Effect of Ugliness
341
References
343
Wealth not Stationary
345
Use of Wealth
347
Effects of Modern Competition 548
348
Part VII
350
Is there an Increase or Decrease in Crime? 189 The Statistical Method applied to Penology
355
Effect of Local Conditions on Crime
357
Crime in Great Britain
359
Causes of Crime
361
Economic Conditions in Relation to Crime
362
How to prevent Crime
364
Crime and the Labour Problem
366
THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIME 196 References 197 Classification of Punishment
371
Lynchings
374
Prison Labour and the Reformation of Convicts
378
The Ethics of Prison Labour
381
Systems of Prison Labour
382
Solution of the Prison Labour Question
385
THE TEMPERANCE QUESTION 203 References
390
Public Revenue from the Liquor Traffic
393
Prohibition
395
License
396
Local Option
397
Systems of State Account
398
The Influence of Intemperance upon Crime
400
REGULATION OF ORGANISATIONS
404
Part VIII
417
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Page 337 - Property is the fruit of labor; property is desirable; is a positive good in the •world. That some should be rich shows that others may become rich, and hence is just encouragement to industry and enterprise. Let not him who is houseless pull down the house of another, but let him work diligently and build one for himself, thus by example assuring that his own shall be safe from violence when built.
Page 259 - Where, after the commencement of this act, personal injury is caused to a workman (1) By reason of any defect in the condition of the ways, works, machinery, or plant connected with or used in the business of the employer; or (2) By reason of the negligence of any person in the service of the employer who has any superintendence entrusted to him whilst in the exercise of such superintendence...
Page 294 - Section 1 provides that every contract combination in the form of a trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is hereby declared to be illegal.
Page 74 - Societies of men who served in the armies and navies of the United States in the war of the Revolution, the war of...
Page 13 - States useful information on subjects connected with labor in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially upon its relations to capital, the hours of labor, the earnings of laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material, social, intellectual, and moral prosperity.
Page 259 - ... the same right of compensation and remedies against the employer as if the employee had not been an employee of nor in the service of the employer nor engaged in his work.
Page 94 - To regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the several States, and with the Indian tribes.
Page 368 - Whenever this effect shall be produced among us; whenever the vicious portion of population shall be permitted to gather in bands of hundreds and thousands, and burn churches, ravage and rob provision stores, throw printing presses into rivers, shoot editors, and hang and burn obnoxious persons at pleasure, and with impunity; depend on it, this government cannot last.
Page 16 - Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire. New Jersey, New York...
Page 13 - Agriculture, the general designs and duties of which shall be to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with Agriculture, in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate and distribute among the people, new and valuable seeds and plants.

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