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the government, and diffused throughout the nation, so that citizens of all the states and graduates from all the schools may fall into line, and prove it true that "in union there is strength."
The donation of lands made by Congress was in furtherance of this general design. Attention is now called to a plan, set on foot under orders from the War Department, and about to be submitted for the action of Congress, so grandly national in design, so comprehensive in scope, so minute in detail, as to invite at once the approval and the co-operation of this institution in carrying it into effect.
Under special orders of the War Department, No. 167, issued April 4, 1867, Major J. H. Whittlesey, of the United States army, (retired from active service,) an officer of great merit and ability, was detailed to proceed to West Point, New York, and to such of the principal colleges of the United States, as will enable him, after consultation with the college authorities, to report a method of introducing a suitable system of military instruction into such of the colleges of the United States as shall desire it.
In a personal interview with the Acting Secretary of War, in October, the chairman of your committee found that officer deeply interested in the subject of popular military education, and was, by him, referred to Major Whittlesey, for consultation. Correspondence with him has brought to the hands of the committee full reports and explanations, accompanied by a draft of a bill to be submitted by Gen. Grant for the action of Congress.
Under such auspices, and urged by a public sentiment so fully instructed by recent events, it cannot be doubted that the National Legislature, at its approaching session, will adopt this plan substantially as presented, as the basis of an enlarged and truly national military establishment.
The Illinois Industrial University, having been created and designated by the Legislature for the purpose of applying the land grant to a course of education, of which military science and practice shall form a part, comes within the provisions of the bill. It is proposed
1. To establish a bureau of the War Department, in charge of a director-general of military education, whose duty shall be to inspect and supervise military academies, secure uniformity of instruction, and enforce faithful compliance with the laws and regu. lations on those subjects.
2. That when any institution designated shall have capacity sufficient to educate, at one time, one hundred male students in a complete course of liberal studies, with grounds for military exercises, there shall be detailed a competent officer of the army, to act as military professor, with an assistant; the military professor to supervise the prescribed course of military studies and exercises to be taught, and enforce general regulations for the government of the officers so detailed, but without infringement of the rights of self government of the institution.
8. That each college which shall have established a course of instruction in military studies and exercises, in conformity to the act, shall receive the necessary text books, ordnance and ordnance stores, and camp and garrison equipage, with a detail of one ordnance sergeant and two musicians, at the expense of the United States.
4. That the Faculty of Arts of such college may, each year, recommend to the Presi. dent of the United States a list of one-tenth of the graduates distinguished for general proficiency in the collegiate course, special attainments in military science, and skill in military exercises, of good moral character, and sound health, whose names shall be pub. lished in the army register, and of whom one from each college shall be commissioned in the army, as in the case of graduates from West Point.
5. That each college thus comprising military studies and exercises in its course of instruction, shall receive from the U. S. treasury two thousand dollars, to be expended under the charge of the Director of Military Education in the purchase of the necessary books of reference, maps, models and text books; also, ten thousand dollars, to be expended in constructing a suitable building for the purpose of an armory, and for use as a drill hall, in inclement weather.
The foregoing brief outline indicates, with sufficient clearness, the general plan. The government assumes the necessary expenses, and provides all the means of efficient military instruction, so as to make it an absolute gratuity to students. Your Committee suggest the same general plan of military education, whether the bill proposed by the War Department be adopted by Congress, or whether the University is left to carry existing laws into effect with its present means.
The course of military studies should comprise the theory of ordnance and gunnery, military engineering, including the attack and defense of works; the art of war, illustrated from military history; military law, with the practice of courts martial; and the theory of military discipline, police, and administration. The method of illustration will be by recitation and lecture, with suitable text books for study and reference, corresponding, in all chief features, to the theoretical course of military science at West Point, during the last year of study-modifying and reducing the full course, when expedient, so far as consistent with the mastery of the fundamental principles of military science; thus accomplishing all that the limited time will allow in obtaining sound general views, and an ample foundation for future study and improvement. This course will require a recitation or lecture of one hour daily, on four or five days of the week.
The equipment of the lecture room will not be costly. The maps and drawings can be easily purchased or copied, and will serve all the essential purposes of instruction. It will be desirable to collect, as opportunity offers, models of the most important instru. ments, engines and appliances of war, to include matters of ordnance, fortifications, devices for attack and defense, mines, bridges, etc. They will greatly aid the lecturer in imparting instruction, and the student in obtaining clear views on these subjects; and will be more necessary in consequence of the modification of this course to a university standard.
The course of military exercises would comprise practical instruction in infantry tactics, through the school of the soldier, company and battalion, with skirmishing, the forms of parade, and the duties of guards, and, when practicable and desired, in fencing, and the sabre and bayonet exercise.
The attainment of a uniform course of study and exercise throughout all military schools, being a leading object, the general plan pursued at West Point should be followed, as nearly as practicable. As the military professor will, of necessity, be a graduate of that institution, and our text books and methods of instruction the same as there em ployed, this object will be accomplished, as a matter of course. The corps of students will be organized into companies of moderate size, from fifty to sixty strong, so as to gire an even number of companies for the University battalion. This will be the babitua. organization for infantry drills and general parades. The battalion staff, and the company officers, will be taken from the senior class; the staff sergeants, and the company sergeants, from the junior class; the corporals, from the sophomores; with such modifications as may suit the case of students on shorter or longer courses. All these grades should be taken by detail for limited periods, so as to give to all, as far as practicable, the advantage of practice in all positions. Students, not on duty as officers, and all the freshman class, will do duty as privates, the classes being intermixed in companies in definite proportions. Details for duty as officers should be based, not only on proficiency in this particular department, but have reference to superior excellence in all others, and to general deportment. For this and other reasons, the details, if made by the military professor, sbould be approved by the University faculty, or by the Regent, as might be expedient. Whenever possible, in the course of practical instruction, expert members of the superior classes should be employed in drilling the lower, as well from the necessity for such assistance, as for the benefits to students so employed. In this way, military habits and routine will be transmitted from class to class, with each succeeding Fear.
The studies and recitations of classes will proceed, uninterrupted by changing seasons ; bat exercise and drill will require the drill room during inclement weather. This will insare steady progress in military practice, and alsoafford to all students a due degree of physical exercise. The experience of other institutions shows that, in thus cultivating a martial spirit among our young men, and affording proper means for its development, we supply, in a great degree, the place of the gymnasium, and withdraw students from a class of amusements scarcely beneficial, sometimes injurious. The drill room will serve for an armory for the deposit of arms and accoutrements, when not in use.
The necessity for field music, the drum, fife and bugle, is obvious. It is indispensable to discipline, and will lend a cheerful and inspiring influence to the routine of college life. Whether furnished by the government, under the proposed bill, or provided by employment in the usual way, a volunteer band, composed of students, could soon be organized, fully competent to the service.
It is recommended that there be adopted a uniform, to be worn by students, a style or fashion of dress which will be genteel, comfortable and economical for all occasions, of suitable material--that for summer use being of a lighter texture. A University button, with appropriate devices, should be manufactured expressly for the purpose. Economy would dictate that the uniform be the babitual costume of students, since it would save the expense incident to variety and change of fashion. It would secure personal neatness, and place all students upon a footing of republican equality-the sons of the rich and the poor meeting upon a common level, with nothing in their apparel to stimulate the pride of the one, or wound the self-respect of the other. The experience of all institutions which have adopted the uniform shows that the distinction which is thus conferred awakens an honorable ambition to excel, refines the manners, gives a manly tone to the character and, in some sort, makes each individual student feel that the reputation of his class and the bonor of the institution are in his keeping.
It is recommended that the course of military study, in classes, etc., and the required drill, field exercises and parades, be established by University authority, and enforced by the usual marks of merit and demerit, which shall stand to the credit or discredit of the student, and be taken into consideration, as in other departments, in fixing his grade as a scholar, on examinations for advancement and graduation.
The term and extent of theoretical studies should be subject to modification and abatement, at the pleasure of the Faculty, in deference to the time which students expect to remaiņ in the institution and to their chosen occupations in life. The daily martial exer. cises should, however, be rigidly enforced, except when remitted by the Regent, by reason of conscientious scruples or physical debility. The reason for this is found not only in the necessity for uniformity in hours of practice and the value of the discipline which military drill imparts, but that every student may, at proper intervals, be drawn from his dormitory and his overwork of brain, and put through a course of physical effort, healthful and invigorating, which will rescue him from the rust of inaction, and secure the "erect carriage, the firm, graceful, manly bearing, the expansion of chest, the harmonious action of every limb and muscle; in fine, that perfect physical development, without which mental vigor, in its highest type, can never be long maintained.” The race of wretched dyspeptics, consumptives and hypochondriacs, which crowd the learned professions and go trembling to their graves before the work of their lives is half done, are eloquent witnesses agaiust that system in which the education of the mind is sought in violation of the laws of health. It is time that this glaring defect in academic education is remedied. Athletic and gymnastic sports have, in many institutions, been resorted to with success. By substituting military exercises, we accomplish the same end, aid college government, and furnish the militia of our State with men of their own housebolds, able to make soldiers of them when the country calls them to rally round the fag.
It may be already inferred, that it is intended to place the institution so far upon a military footing, as to bring all the students under the care of the professor of the military department, whose duties and authority shall be that of military commandant-this authority not to include the time devoted to classes, nor to come in collision with other departments of study. Its recognized subordination to the authority of the Regent, and its subjection to proper rules, will make the workings of this department easy. The usual regulations of the camp, as to exercise, recreation and sleep, the reveille, the roll call, the call to and from duty, the tatoo-all in their regular order, can come into place, without disturbing, but rather aiding and directing the observance of college duties and discipline.
It is due to the dignity of this institution, and to the expectations of the people, that in this, as in all other departments, we fix a high standard in the outset, and work up to it as we can. The committee would include in the general plan, artillery and cavalry, as well as infantry study and drill; but have, for the present, purposely omitted the two first named, until success in the last, and sufficent resources, shall justify attention to them.
Your committee, cordially approving the plan prepared by Major Whittlesey, recommrend that a proper expression be made by the Board of Trustees, and our Senators and Representatives in Congress requested to aid in its passage into a law, and that we stand prepared to avail ourselves of its benefits, by entering upon the organization of the militry department, according to its provisions.
It is deemed good policy, however, to put the students in uniform, and inaugurate a system of military government, instruction and drill, on opening the University in March, or at all events at the fall term of 1868.
The office of Military Professor can be temporarily filled by the incumbent of another chair, and, if necessary, a competent drill officer employed to organize the first company and commence with the usual simple exercises. Brigadier General Haynie, Adjutant General of Illinois, has given encouragement that the necessary arms and accoutrements may be obtained from the State Arsenal. Indeed, we can, by organizing as volunteer companies under State laws, become entitled to arms, as well as to the commissioning of officers.
In this way a beginning can be made, almost without cost to the Institution, and we can go forward in compliance with the law, prepared to adopt the great national plan, when enacted, or to proceed independently under existing laws. It is proper to say here, that in either case, the military department will fall quietly into place with other branches in no wise interfering with them; it being particularly provided in the Congressional bill referred to, and in the lucid explanation of Major Whitilesey, that officers detailed by the War Department shall act in subordination to the Regent and observe the regulations established for the government of the University, not departing, of course, from the plans prescribed by Congress. It is designed, and eminently desirable, that the conLection be perpetual; but the officers and aid of the government will be withdrawn whenever the authorities of the University so determine.
In preparing this report, resort has been freely had to the text of the very able communication, made to the Secretary of War, by Major Whittlesey, wbo with great cour. tesy, promptly supplied the committee with valuable information on all the points here presented.
To give effect to the foregoing views, the following resolutions are respectfully reported for the consideration of the Board.
M. BRAYMAN, Chairman.
1. Resolved, That in compliance with the laws on that subject, the military department of this University shall be established as part of the regular and necessary means of education.
2. Resoloed, That there shall be appointed, as soon as the same shall be needful and proper, a Professor of Military Tactics and Engineering, and such assistants as shall be Decessary in his department,
3. Resolved, That all students shall be taught in the branches appropriate to this department, to such extent, and with such modifications and exceptions, as shall be provided in the code in force for the regulation of studies.
4. Resolved, That in order to secure neatness and economy, and to distinguish the students of this University, a uniform shall be prescribed and worn, of material known as cadet gray, appropriately made, and furnished with a University button, having apt devices, and a University cap, in such form as shall be prescribed.
5. Resolved, That the Military Professor or the officer or person baring, for the time being, charge of the military department, shall have the authority and perform the duties of military commandant, and shall, under authority of the Regent and Faculty, enforce such rules and orders as are usual at West Point and other military schools, comprising the regulation of hours, personal deportment and intercourse, and in such manner as shall insure order, obedience and discipline, and promote the general objects contemplated; and that suitable music, consisting at least of the drum and fife, be provided. These duties to be so arranged in rules and regulations as to comprehend the entire police and administration of the University, and subject to such control and supervision as will promote harmony and efficiency.
6. Resolved, That the Regent, the Chairman of the Military Committee, and the Treasurer, be instructed to procure from the proper authorities of this State such arms and accoutrements as shall be necessary for use of students in drill, and such books of tactics as may be required to begin iostruction in military exercises.
7. Resolved, That these regulations be put in torce as far as feasible on the opening of the institution in March next; but that the University uniform may not be required to be worn by students until the fall term, when it shall be worn by all.
8. Resolved, That this Board cordially approve, and respectfully recommend to the favorable action of Congress, at its coming session, the bill and general plan reported to the War Department by Major J. H. Wbittlesey, U. S. A., for providing a system of National Military Education in colleges, and earnestly request the Senators and Representatives from this State, to support the same.
9. Resolved, That this University will hold itself in readiness to adopt fully the proposed national plan, and make the same a part of the permanent system of instruction in this institution, as the best means of securing to the people the benefit of military education, and for establishing upon an enduring foundation the cherished institutions of our State and common country.
Mr. DUNLAP moved to accept the report.
Mr. DUNLAP moved the adoption of the resolutions contained in the report.
Mr. Galuse A moved to amend the resolution requiring “all students” to wear a uniform dress, by inserting the word “male;” so that it shall read “male students."
The ayes and noes were called for on the proposed amendment, and taken, as follows:
Members voting Aye, were Messrs. Cunningham, Dunlap, Edwards, Galusha, Harding, McMurray—6 votes.
Members voting No, were Messrs. Allen, Bateman, Blackburn, Brayman, A. M. Brown, Burchard, Burroughs, Cobb, Flagg, Goltra, Hayes, Johnson, Lawrence, Mahan, McConnell, Quick, Scroggs, Topping and the Regent—19 votes.