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I would either "summer fallow" it or break it up as soon after harvest as possible ; let it be until as near the 20th of September as you may, harrow twice, roll, harrow again once, roll again, and then drill from three-fourths to one and one-fourth bush. els per acre, between the 20th and 26th of September. The more thoroughly the ground is prepared, the less seed is required. I begin cutting wheat as soon as it has gone into the dough. I use the Marsh harvester, which, with a driver and two binders standing on the machine, will cut from 6 to 12 acres per day, averaging, perhaps, 7 or 8 with moderate work. It will require, say, a man and a boy to shock it up. I put about 15 sheaves in a shock, including two cap sheaves, which are prepared by breaking down and spreading heads and butts, and laying on the shock. If winter wheat is well shocked it will go through a long rain without damage, provided the caps which blow off are occasionally replaced. I have usually stacked my wheat after it had stood in shock a couple of weeks, but the last two years have threshed directly from the shock with very favorable results--one year, one hundred acres, the next year, seventy-five.
D. Gove-Grains--the best varieties of corn that I have tried are known among farmers as large white, with a small seed cob, kernel very broad and deep, ripens well of a good season ; I also grow a medium-sized yellow variety, which I like for feed. ing cattle better, as it is very productive and is not so hard for stock to masticate as the white. Of wheat, I like the white May best; it stands up well, ripens from the 15th to the 20th of June, and yields well and brings the best price in market. The black oats seem to do best with us, in as much as they do not grow so tall, and are less liable to fall. Our experience has taught us that the all-important thing about raising a wheat crop with us, is the preparation of the ground. I do not deem it essentially necessary to plow quite so deep as for corn, but it should be done thoroughly, and in August, if possible; then harrow and roll until we have all the soil thoroughly pulverized and packed, so that the roots of the young plant has a good chance to throw out its roots in all directions, and obtain a good hold on mother earth, so that the cold of winter can not kill it, nor the freezing and thawing of March can not release its hold upon the soil. I have no experience with spring varieties of wheat.
I like the Brown corn planter best of any that I have tried, and the MeSherry wheat drill suits me best for putting in wheat; drilling wheat is much the best, and our best time for seeding is generally from the 15th to the 25th of September, and our best time for planting corn is about the first of May. I like what is known as the Scotch harrow best, nd the best roller that I hare used is one of my own constructing, the heads or ends are of cast iron, with wrought iron spindles, the drum is framed of 8x4-inch plank, mitred together and bolted to the ends, and dressed round and smooth; the frame is made strong, aud is so constructed that it can be loaded to any desired weight; it also has a seat for the driver; the drum is 21 inches in diameter, a small roller of the same draft does much better work than a large one, in consequence of less surface on the ground at the same time. I have tried the different kinds of riding and other corn cultivators, but the cheapest and best are the double plows and double shovel. Our time for harvesting small grain is, for wbeat, the last half of June, and for oats and bay, the first half of July. For barvesting, I have used both header and reaper, the header is the more speedy of the two, and the cheapest per acre; but when we consider the loss in weight and quality in the berry when it gets dead ripe, as it must do to be safe to head, it is a question, and a question of great importance, too, whether it is really cheaper in the end to head or reap; my own opinion is, that, when labor can be had at reasonable rates, it is the soundest policy to reap, and to do it when it will yield the greatest amount of No. 1 flour. My average yield of wheat for 20 years, has been about 20 bushels per acre, and the largest yield, about 30 bushels.
J. G. Swann. —Large, yellow and flint white corn; red and white early May wheat; beardless. For fall wheat, double breaking fallow ground; harrowing, rolling and drilled. McSherry's drill; A harrow; wooden rollers. Corn planted four feet square and cultivated with double shovel plows five times ; three stalks in a bill; cutting corn, 20 hills with eword knife. September. Wheat and oats stacked. Yield of wheat, 20 bushels ; of oats, 40 bushels.
J. Balsiger.-I plant the common white and yellow Dept corn ; have tried other kinds but found these best and most productive. No spring wheat is sowed here, as it is too undertain. The kind of winter wheat we mostly sow up to this time, is what is called the “Yay wheat,” a red, early kind, with a small kernel; but new kinds are introduced now, which are growing much in favor. The Tappabannock white is an excellent kind, doing well and selling better than May wheat because of its color, its greater weight and larger grain. Another kind, the Walker or Zimmer. mann wheat, amber color, presents about the same advantages, except that it is later, The oats we raise are the common' white oats. Rye, barley and buckwheat are hardly ever sown in this neighborhood, wheat and oats bringing surer crops and greater profits For corn and oats (except if corn stubble) the ground is plowed, if possible, once late in fall or through winter and then again in spring for oats as early as possible. The seed is then sowed broadcast at the rate of about 14 bushels per acre, a id then well harrowed in. Corn land when plowed is harrowed also, then laid off both ways at four feet distance, with a corn-marker-a kind of sled with 2, 3 or 4 runners, drawn by a pair of horses—then the corn is plauted where the lines made by the marker cross each other, 4 to 5 grains to the hill Some plant it by hand in the old way, and some with hand corn planters. Brown's two-borse corn planter is much used also, particularly by large farmers. For this the land is laid off but one way. There is much time and work saved by these corn planters, but if the seed is carefully dropped by hand, the number of kernels in each hill can be more exactly regulated, and it will often, in wet springs, especially, come up better. This is the cause why small farmers, and some large ones, have not yet abandoned hand-planting Some use an implement for covering the corn planted by hand, with a horse, which does the work of 2 or 3 hoes,
It resembles, somewhat, a small harrow, and runs astride on the row. On the forward part are two harrow teeth for pushing aside cornstalks and other trash that might be in the wav, behind these are two cultivator teeth, somewhat turned toward the row, and running close to it, covering it up, and at the hind part is adapted a small wooden roller, which crushes the clods ibat might have rolled on the corn. This corn coverer works very well with a steady horse and on clean land. When the corn is up it is cultivated commonly with a one-horse corn plow, or the single or double shovel plow. The two-horse cultivators are not much used yet. The corn is commonly cultivated four times, crossing each time the furrows previously made. The first two times the soil is turned from the rows, and the two last times they are hilled. Corn is cut up for fodder when the ears are ripe, but the stalks and leaves yet green, or if an early frost kills it too soon, then without delay after the frost, before the leaves have had time to dry and be blown off by the wind. Some think the corn fodder in this case to be of as good quality as that cut before frost. I do not see any great difference myself. As soon as cut up (with common corn knife) it is set upright in large shocks or stooks, which are tied with a band of some kind in order that the wind may not blow the stalks off. Each farmer cuts up as much cora for fodder as he thinks he will want for feeding, corn fodder being rarely sold ; the rest of his corn is left in the field till dry, and then, commonly in December, the ears are gathered in wagons and hauled home into the crib. Some farmers then drive their cattle in the fields for the purpose of letting them glean whatever food there is left for them, consisting of a few ears and nubbins that may have been left over, the dry leaves and smaller parts of the stalke, or raiher the tops. The dead cornstalks left are broken down some cold day in winter, when the ground is bare, by dragging a heavy pole, to which a pair of horses are hitched by long chains, cross-ways over the rows. Before plowing (corn stubble is commonly plowed but once before planting) some rake the stalks together and burn them; some plow them under.
For wheat, the ground, if oat or wheat stubble, is plowed shallow as soon as the crop is bauled off, and then again early in September, rather deep, say 7 or 8 inches or deeper if the strength of the team permiis it. Then the field is harrowed and the seed drilled in at the rate of one and one-fourth to one and three-fourth bushels per acre. I have not observed any considerable difference in the several drills I have used or seen. They all do their work about equally well. Last fall, when the soil was so dry and cloddy, some rolled their land after harrowing and before drillo ing. The rollers used here are common wooden ones, single or double. The karrow used by some is the old triangular one ; others have quadrangular ones—the hind part a little wider than the fore part, with cross bars. They possess a greater number of teeth and mıke the ground finer. Wheat is ripe here commonly towards the end of June or first of July. Many-and I believe they are right-pieser cutting their wheat before it is dead ripe, i. e. before the grain is hardened and while the straw is still a little green, it will be of betier quality. Also for oats, the straw of which makes it better fodder for cattle or horses. Oats are ripr from one to two weeks after wheat, the latest about the middle of July. Some of my neighbors, though very few, use headers. They do more work than reapers, but there is greater risk of loss in case of sudden showers while the stacks are building—barns or sheds for grain not being much in use yet. Sometimes there is also considerable loss if the stacks are not well finished or covered, if wet weather sets in before th:y are threshed. On the field there is also more wheat lost if it is of uncqual lieight or some of it lodged. They need the same number of hands as reapers. Many farmers here use Kirby's reaper and are well satisfied with it; it is also a good mower. Others prefer McCormick's.
As soon as the wheat or oats are bound they are set up in round shocks of from 15 to 20 bundles or sheaves, and covered with two other ones as caps. These are commonly placed crosswise on the shocks, breaking them in the middle and spreading out the buts and ears well, so that the shock be well covered and the wind can not catch them so easily and blow them off. These shocks are left in the field for a few days until the farmer finds time to haul them to the stack yard, where they are put in the common way in round, square, oblong, or oval stacks, laying the outer rows of sheaves slanting, so that they will shed off the rain to the outside.
The largest average yield of wheat is from 20 to 25, rarely 30, bushels, and oats from 40 to 50. The insects which injure the grain are the chinch bug and the
Hessian fly. The former does not hurt wheat much because when the insect appears in great numbers wheat is commonly nearly ripe and out of its reach ; but in oats, and still more in corn, it often causes considerable loss, sucking up the sap of the stalk, and making the plants die before they have perfected their grain. There is Do remedy known here for them, except when corn is near a wheat field infested with bugs, to sow a strip of land between the two fields in oats, which will attract and stop them at least for a time. The Hessian fly seldom does much harm, except in wheat sown too early. If sown about the last week in September it will escape the fly.
J. Y. Bolhwell.—I prefer what is called the Strawberry corn. Plow deep as possible in April and May. Plant a bushel on six acres. Use Brown's Illinois, corn planter. Cultivate with double shovel plow and Stafford's sulky plow. Plow three or four times. Wheat: Mediterranean is the surest crop. Break land in June for wheat, as above. Do not re-break. About the last of August, or sooner if the season is wet and the land gets "foul,” I give it a thorough barrowing with a joint harrow, with teeth two and onefourth inches apart, made of steel and sharp. Commence seeding the first week in September, previous to which give a thorough harrowing. Use a drill. Drill both ways, the first time drill the way I plowed. One-balf bushel per acre. Roll the ground with a large frame roller, then drill the other way. Three-fourths bushel per acre. Let this be the last thing, except cleaning out the furrows between the lands. I use the Buckeye reaper for cutting wheat, and cut when it is in stiff dough. Shock in the field, let it stand a few days, then baul and stack where I want the straw for stock to go to in the winter.
T. Engelmann.-Inasmuch as corn is not raised for market, but for home consumption only, not much care is taken in the selection of seed corn; yet the pure white corn is most generally planted, although the yellow is considered to yield a heavier crop.
Spring wheat is not raised in this neighborhood; experiments made some years ago turned out failures.
The fall wheat most generally sown is May wheat, or Genesee May wheat, white wheat, and Mediterranean, commonly called Bull wheat. The wheat barvest commences about the middle of June; the grain is cut with the reaper or self-raker; headers bave been tried but failed to give satisfaction, and are discarded. The grain is stacked or put up in ricks in the field or yard, and threshed by horse or steam power. Barns of sufficient capacity are not in use.
As soon as the crop is removed from the field the stubble is broken and the ground is again plowed, harrowed and rolled, before it is re-seeded—which is always done with the drill-in wheat. Io former years this was done in September; of late, since the Hessian fly bas made its appearance, it is done later in the season-in the latter part of October and beginning of November. The best yield of wheat is about 33 bushels to the acre; average yield about 22 bushels. Rust and Hessian fly are the drawbacks on the cultivation of wheat; early sowing is considered the best preventive of the former, and late sowing the best remedy against the latter. A dilemma!
G. C. Eis'nmeyer — Vot much can be said on corn. It requires good rich land and very good tillage; the large white corn is here generally cultivated. We have a little red corn which ripens in 90 days and makes excellent fodder.
Wheat is the great staple, and so far has proved very reinunerative, especially during the last few years. Tennessee May wheat, Tappahapnock, and Mediterranean, are the kinds wbich are generally cultivated. The two first named on rich land, the latter on thin and poor land.
The time of sowing is from the 15th of September to the 15th of October. It is invariably sowed with drills, of which there are a great many different kinds, all equally good. It is supposed, and advocated by some, that barrowing wheat in the spring is an advantage to it, but I never see it practiced. The horse hoe for cultivating wheat is not known ased bero. Manny's, McCormick's and Geis & Brosius' roapers are in general uso. Headers are not much used here, and perhaps will never be a popular machine. The largest yield of wheat is 40 to 45 bushels per acre; the average yield 15 to 20 bushels. Wheat is generally cut here between the 13th of June and 4th of July. It is tied in small bundles, set on end in shocks of from 20 to 25 bundles, and stacked or hauled iuto barns as soon as cured, which is in 8 or 10 days.
Insects are the Hessiav Ay, grasshoppers and chinch bugs. We know of no remedy as yet, neither are they very injurious.
1. Root CROPB.—Best varieties of Irish and sweet potatoes, tornips, beots apa carrots: time and method of prepariug ground: mode of pl uting, method and means of cultivation: largest nd average yield: methods of diggiug and keeping:
cost and value as compared with grain crops for leeding: insects and diseases ?
E. Mo88.–Irish potatoes, turnips, beets, carrots, with manuring, raised in moderato quantities.
M. A. McConnell. — We grow all Irish potatoes. The best is the cracker and peach blows. We think rutabagas, carrots and sugar beets the best for stock, especially for sbeep and milch cows. The yield is generally good, and the expense is very small.
H. Pierce. — Early York and peach blow potatoes are the best. Have not tried early Goodrich or Harrison. Yellow and red Nansemond sweet potatoes. White flat Dutch turnip. Sugar and blood beets. No carrots raised in quantity I believe. Potatoes are planted in hills. Do best in full.plowed land. cross-plowed in spring and harrowed deep. Cultivate with horse. Use common plow the last two times, and bill up well as early as possible. Plow out and dig with fork. Ten-lined bug was very bad in 1865, pot so bad in 1866, and nearly gone in 1867.
J. Tefft.—Of Irish potatoes, the peach blow is considered best with us. Taking one year with another they succeed well on new land, or land that has not been long under the plow without rest. Plow deep; plant in hills; cultivate with small plow and hoe.
S. Ryan.—The best variety of potatoes is the long, flat pinkeye. The surest crop is from the Michigan peach blow. The vines are so tough the bugs cannot kill them, and so large and numerous they endure drouth well.
C. E. Birney.-Lay potatoes on well-prepared ground early in the spring, corer them with 10 inches old straw, pitch off the straw after the vines are dead, and pick up the potatoes.
Do not know enough about roots as compared with corn, for feed, to venture an opinion. Sball try turnips for sheep as a sanitary measure.
A. Rankin.--The white peach blow potato is considered the best here. Plow deep, harrow well, and plant from the first to the fifteenth of May.
The long orange carrot is the best for a field crop: they are a sare crop here. I am the only one in the country that raises them as a field. I think every farmer ought to raise them, as I consider them the best possible feed, when used with outs, in the early spring, particularly for cows and all young stock. They can be raised for about 10 cents per bushel; yield 400 bushels per acre. Preparation of ground, same as for potatoes.
Average yield of potatoes, 150 bushels per acre. I raised last year 241 bushels per acre, at a cost of $41 per acre. The presence of bugs added largely to the cost of production, but they never have injured my crop, nor do I think they ever will while I have my health. I shall plant quite a variety this spring. Potatoes and carrots should be kept perfectly clean. I dig both with the potato fork.
G. W. Minier.-Peach bloom and early Goodrich, best of Irish potatoes, and Nansemond for the sweet. Other root crops raised but sparsely. Sometimes get large crops of potatoes. Average yield about 100 bushels. More valuable than any grain crop. Not so valuable as corn fur feeding. The Colorado potato bug is our great enemy. I think he has come to stay. He is now snug in the ground, ready to come. Set the boys to pick