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lower classes of society in the union, such as stagedrivers, masters of sloops, keepers of ale-houses, low mechanics, retail tradesmen, and labouring peasants. It is not, indeed, pretended by any of the advocates of American character and claims, that among these classes of the community can be discovered any very great refinement of breeding, or any very extensive information, or any very profound reflection.

Another set of travellers in this country have come hither with letters of introduction to some very respectable gentlemen in the United States ; and, in consequence, have been received into their families, and the families of their friends and acquaintance; and, in every instance, have been treated with hospitality and kindness. These men have gone away to Europe, and published anecdotes of private families, have given to the world accounts of mere domestic incidents, such as could only have been imparted in the moments of unsuspecting confidence; and the relation of which can serve no other purpose than to sadden the heart of those who have been betrayed, and stamp, in characters of lasting infamy, the baseness of the being who could thus drag into painful notice individuals wishing to pass their lives in the privacy of cultivated retirement, occasionally diversified by the more select intercourse of the social circle.

On the height of this bad eminence stand the Marquis de Chastilleux, and the Duke de la Rouchefaucault Laincourt, who have repaid the kindness of American hospitality, by descanting on the vulgarity of American manners, and by detailing to the world occurrences and conversations which they could never have known, had they not, unfortunately, been mistaken for gentlemen by those whose civilities and confidence they thus abused. But, surely, private individuals, who do not. obtrude themselves upon the public, but rather shun the eye of vulgar observation, are not fit subjects for a traveller's merriment, or satire. In a world, bursting with vice and folly, there are always knaves and coxcombs, in sufficient number, to exhaust all the



of ridicule and invective, and these are the only legitimate objects, against which the laugh of the wit, and the declamation of the moralist, ought to be directed.

The well-known poet, Mr. Thomas Moore, when quite a young man, published a book, made up of prose and verse, in which he, very unmercifully, abused and misrepresented the people of this country. Some little time since, however, he addressed a letter to Mr. John E. Hall, the editor of the Port-Folio, in Philadelphia, in which he expresses his deep repentance for having slandered America, and swings into the opposite extreme of unmeasured praise, representing it, now, as the only land where freedom, and happiness, and so forth, are to be found. It would, indeed, be superfluous to descant upon

the credulity of Mr. Weld, who, in enumerating the perilous wild beasts of this country, gravely asserts, and, as he says, upon the authority of General Washington, that the moschetto of the United States is so terrible in its attacks as to bite through the thickest boot. Now, the moschetto, which is a species of gnat, is no more troublesome or offensive here than the gnats are in the feņs of Lincolnshire, or the lowlands of Essex, in England. Besides, General Washington merely told Mr. Weld, that the moschetto will bite through the thickest stocking, above the boot-top, when there is any space between the boot and the knee-band. But Mr. Weld has substituted the word boot for stocking; and thus, very reasonably, alarmed all cautious people with a tale of terror, respecting the dreadful ravages of the moschetto tribe of North America upon the human body.

Still more insufferable would it be to dwell upon the meagre, miserable trash, that is occasionally foisted into the Monthly Magazine, of London, under the signature of a little obstetrical Quixote, at Alexandria, in the district of Columbia; and, by a singular misnomer, called “ Information as to the United States."

But the character of M. Brissot de Warville, the leader of the Gironde revolutionary faction in France, is too notorious to permit his observations on the United



States to be passed over in silence. In a printed book of his, on the commerce of this country, he very profusely praises the Americans, and calls himself a Quaker. Brissot had led a very wandering life, and had written an incredible number of books on politics, none of which were over-wise. He had been a subaltern in the police, under the old French monarchy, and had been sent to London on some service, in the line of his vocation, by the lieutenant of police in Paris. The revolution in France, of course, raised him to the level of his merit, and he became the doer of a newspaper, an office of high importance in all revolutionary societies. He was, however, a better disorganizer than philosopher : for, in a manuscript volume of his, now, or lately in the city of Philadelphia, in the hands of some elderly Friends, or Quakers, to whom he sent it for the express purpose of being published in this country (a step which his more prudent correspondents declined), he solemnly maintains that the character of the American people can always be known, infallibly, by the course of the rivers throughout the union.

For instance, says this profound observer of men and things, when he illustrates this notable proposition," in the Northern and Eastern States, the rivers are violent and irregular in their progress, and so is the character of the inabitants of these States.”- Alas! for the people of New England, who have always, hitherto, been deemed the most sober, orderly, steady, and persevering in their habits and manners of all the Americans ! “In the Middle States," continues Brissot, “the rivers are strong and majestic, and so are the people. In the Southern departments, as Virginia, the two Carolinas, and Georgia, the rivers are muddy, slow, ebbing, and flowing capriciously; and, accordingly, the people on these states are dull, stagnant, and fickle.”

This consolatory mode of determining the national character of a people was never equalled, but once, in the annals of philosophism. An obscure madman, called William Gilbert, in the year 1797, published, in London, a poem, entitled “'!* Hurricane, a theoso

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phical and western eclogue ; to which is subjoineu, a solitary effusion in a summer's evening.” In the notes appended to this solitary effusion, Mr. Gilbert assures us (I quote his own words), “ First, that all countries have a specific mind, or determinable principle. This character may be traced, with as much satisfaction, in the vegetable as in the animal productions. Thus, strength, with its attributes, namely, asperity, &c. is the character, or mind of England. Her leading productions are the oak, peppermint, sloes, crabs, and sour cherries. All elegance, all polish is superinduced; and primarily, from France, of which they [Query, who ?] are natives. Secondly, that a country is subdued when its mind, or life, (its prince, according to Daniel,) or its genius, according to the modern easterns, or its principle, according to Europeans, is either suppressed or destroyed, or chymically combined with that of a foreign country, in a form that leaves the foreign property predominant, and not till then. And this cannot ensue but upon suicide, upon a previous abandonment, on the part of a nation, of its own principle. For when the Creator made every thing very good, he also made it tenable on the one hand, and on the other complete ; consequently, without the necessity, without the desire of encroaching; and also without the capability, except under the penalty of surrendering, with its own complete roundness, its own tenability.

“ Thus,” continues Mr. Gilbert, “ I arrive at a primary law of nature, that every one must fall into the pit that he digs for others, either before or after, or without success. Thirdly, that in the European subjugation of America, the American mind or_life, only suffered under a powerful affusion of the European ; and that, as the solution proceeds, it acquires a stronger and stronger tincture of the subject, till, at length, that which was first subdued, assumes an absolute, unexpugnable predominancy, and a final; inasmuch as the contest is between the two last parts of the world, and there is no prospective umpire to refer to; but it must be decided by the possession of first principles, or the


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highest mind in the hierarchy of minds; and the European possession of mind, having previously arrived at perfection, from her long intercourse with Africa and Asia, and not being able to rescue her from the present grasp and predominancy of American mind, the question is now settled for ever, and Europe yields to the influence, mind, and power of America, linked in essential principle with Africa and Asia for ever. Besides, Europe had full success in her encroachments ; she succeeded in throwing America into the pit ; and, of course, it must be her own turn to


she depopulated America, and, now, America must depopulate her.”-Q. E. D.

It would be unjust not to recommend the work of M. Beaujour, late Consul from France, residing at Philadelphia : his view of the commerce, policy, finances, agriculture, manners, and habits of the United States, is written with great spirit and intelligence; and cannot fail to repay an attentive perusal with a rich harvest of instruction and amusement.

To which may be added M. de Marbois's preliminary discourse to his account of Arnold's conspiracy, where the United States, their institutions, and people, are spoken of in terms of high eulogy, and ardent admiration. For a splendid and interesting account, and an excellent translation of this work, the reader is referred to the second volume of Mr. Walsh's American Register. Mr. Volney's “ View of the Soil and Climate of the United States of America ;" and Mr. Schultz's “ Travels on an inland voyage through the States of New-York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, &c." may also be consulted with pleasure and profit.

Much useful information, conveyed in a plain, unostentatious style, may likewise be derived from Mr. Mellish's “ Travels through the United States, in the years 1806, 1807, 1809, 1810, and 1811;" a work which is particularly valuable for its account of the Western States, and for the candour with which it treats, generally, of the country, its people, institutions, habits, and manners. The reader will also find « Tras


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