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millions, or about four persons to every square mile. The following table shows the population and surface of some of the most important parts of the world ; namely, in round numbers, which is sufficient for our present purpose, to point out the proportion of territory and people between the United States and other sovereignties.

States in 1817.

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Population. Square Miles, All Russia

52,000,000 3,650,000 Italy

20,000,000 100,000 France.

29,000,000 250,000 Austria .

26,000,000 280,000 Turkey

57,000,000 940,000 British Isles

20,000,000 100,000 Spain

14,000,000 150,000 Prussia

11,000,000 96,000 Sweden and Norway 4,500,000 270,000 Denmark

800,000 60,000 United Netherlands 6,000,000 47,000 Switzerland.

2,200,000 16,000 Portugal

2,300,000 28,000 China

200,000,000 1,200,000 United States N. America 10,000,000 2,500,000

Total .. 435,800,000|9,687,000

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So that the United States have the largest home territory of all the nations in the world, except Russia ; and their population is gaining fast upon that of all the European powers. China is laid out of the question, because she is barbarous, helpless, and effete; she can never contend for the sovereignty or controlling influence of the world ; that question must be decided hereafter, between America and the first-rate potentates of Europe. Britain possesses a hundred and fifty

millions of subjects in her colonial empire, and covers a dominion equal to nearly one-fifth of the whole surface of the globe; but her main strength must always dedend upon the resources, intelligence, spirit, and character of her native population in the British Isles. If these fail, her colonial empire will be soon dissipated into thin air. The following table shows the gross population and surface of the four quarters of the world.

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The following tables show how fast the people increase in an extensive country, under the auspices of free and popular institutions. In the year 1749, the whole white population of the North American colonies, now the United States, amounted only to 1,046,000 souls, in the following proportions, as to the respective colonies, now states :

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Virginia, }

Vermont ....

10,000 85,539 154,465 296,450 New Hampshire

9,800 141,885 183,858 302,733 Maine

31,750 96,5401 151,719 318,647 Massachusetts 8,500 378,787 422,845

564,392 Rhode Island

1,700 68,825 69,122 98,721 Connecticut

4,500 237,946 251,092 349,568 New York

54,000 340,120 586,050 1,486,739 New Jersey

6,500 184,139 211,149 345,822 Pennsylvania.

48,700 434,373 602,545 986,494 Delaware..

1,800 59,094 64,273 108,334 Maryland

14,000 319,728 349,692 502,710

75,000 747,610 886,149 1,347,496 Kentucky

52,000 73, 677 220,959 683,753 North Carolina... 49,000 393,751| 478,105 701,224 South Carolina

32,700 240,073 345,591 564,785 Georgia ......

64,000 82,548 102,685 408,567 Western Territories

35,691 45,365 District of Columbia.. 100

14,093 37,892 Tennessee

63,000

105,602

489,624 Ohio 45,000

394,752 Louisiana 49,000

108,923 Indiana :

38,000

5,641

86,734 Mississippi 55,000

104,550 Illinois Territory 66,000

39,000 Michigan do..... 47,500

9,743 Missouri do. 1,987,000

68,794

Total.. 2,814,5503,929,336 5,303,666|10,405,547

What the national capacities of the State of NewYork are, may be inferred, not only from her territorial extent, which is ten thousand square miles larger than all England and Wales taken together, but also from the fact, that she has already, in 1817, outstripped every other State in the Union, in the number of her population ; although, at the close of the revolutionary war in 1783, she did not contain half the number of souls which the States of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, respectively possessed. The following facts will show how rapid has been the growth of some particular places in the United States. In the

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year 1783, the population of the city of New-York' was only 26,000; in the year 1790, 33,000; in 1800, 60,439; in 1810, 93,914; in 1817, 122,000; thug multiplying four times in thirty-four years. Its harbour, formed by the union of the Hudson with the strait of the Sound, called East river, makes a roadstead capable of containing all the navies of the world. Its commerce far surpasses that of any other city in the Union, and in the course of a few years will be second only to that of London. It imports most of the goods consumed between the Raritan and the Connecticut, a coast of one hundred and thirty miles, and between the Atlantic ocean and the lakes, a range of four hundred miles. In the year 1816, the foreign imports into the city exceeded fifty-six millions of dollars.

Fifty years since, no such place as Baltimore existed ; and now it is a city, abounding in commerce, wealth, and splendour, and contains a population of nearly sixty thousand souls.

In the year 1770, there was not a single white inhabitant in all Kentucky; in 1790, there were 73,677 souls ; in 1800, 220,960; and now, in 1817, nearly 700,000. In 1783, the city of New Orleans was inhabited by a few miserable Spaniards, who carried on a small smuggling trade. Now, in 1817, it numbers nearly 40,000 inhabitants : and its exports, during the last year, exceeded those of all the New England States taken together : the steam-boats have been found able to stem the current of the Mississippi ; and henceforth, the struggle to engross the foreign trade of the whole western country will be between New Orleans, New-York, Montreal, and Philadelphia. The difficulty of ascending the Mississippi, had until the experiment of the steam-boats, prevented New Orleans from supplying the western States with foreign merchandise, which was purchased cheaper in New-York or Philadelphia, and carried by land to Pittsburgh, at the confluence of the Monongahela and Alleghany rivers, and thence down the Ohio, to the various settlements on

POPULATION.

19 its banks, than it could be transported - up the Missis. sippi and the Ohio. The chief part of this immense and rapidly augmenting commerce will fall, of course, to that place which can supply foreign goods at the lowest rate; the difference of price depending chiefly on the expense of internal transportation. At present, Montreal seems to have the advantage over her rivals. The single portage, at the falls of Niagara excepted, there is a free navigation for vessels from Montreal to Lake Erie, and the vast extent of waters beyond ; unless, indeed, the canal, to be opened between Lake Erie and the Hudson, may succeed in diverting the trade of the western country from Montreal to NewYork.

The population of New Orleans is rapidly increasing by emigrations from all the other States in the Union, and from almost every country in Europe. The exports of Louisiana already exceed those of all the NewEngland States. Nearly four hundred sea vessels arrive and depart annually. And about one thousand yessels, of all denominations, departed during the year 1816, from the Bayou St. John, a port of delivery in the Mississippi district, and were employed in carrying the produce of the Floridas, belonging to the United States. Six hundred flat-bottomed boats, and three hundred barges brought down, last year, to New-Orleans, produce from the Western States and Territories. Ten millions of pounds of sugar are made on the Mississippi alone. And twenty thousand bales of cotton are exported annually.

If the population of the United States shall increase for the next twenty-five years in the same ratio that it has increased during the last twenty-five years, what European country, single-handed, will be able to compete with them, on the land or on the ocean? or what European power will be able to preserve its American colonies, whether in the West-Indies or on the continent, from their grasp? And why the population should not increase as rapidly, in time to come, as in the past periods, it is difficult to prove; for the extent

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