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Again, & comparison of the rates of the shows the in Vermont Road from Vermont points Railroad Sew York, with the interstate rates of the correspon ingo & Alton Railroad, the Chicago, following kriukee & St. Paul Railroad, and the plained ingy
, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, statement
dons on Miles to Rates Rates C. & A.R.R. Rates TRR N.Y. 1st class. 1st class.
1 C. V. R. R. Miles. Rate. Mi 234 30 234 64 22 248 30 248 65 23 273 30 273 70 27 279 34
70 28 290 45 290 70 29 Letary, 306 54 306 72 30 agoa, 340 55
75 34 Dons, 380 60
37 as Point
, . 404 60 404 78
The ste a tropped off at all Vermont points at the
State Ta a competing rates. This has been the du for years, and has been done to en
1884 and pe other industries in the State.
INTERSTATE COMMERCE REPORTS—THE COMMISSION.
New York. -Rates for the Six Classes.-
27 24 17 rt, Passumpsic. 339 68 58
35 32 28 gton, C. V. R. R.
45 38 27 22 17 bury,
324 66 56 47 35 31 27
303 62 54 45 34 29 26 insbury,
53 44 34 29 26 te,
50 43 33 28 rd,
262 58 48 41 32 27 ch,
238 52 45 37 31 26 on, C. V. R. R.
264 45 40 35 27 19 16 nd,
247 30 27 22 18 15 15 last two rates above are about 40 per | in Connecticut and New York on the line of ess, for about the same distances, than the New York, New Haven & Hartford Road, es from Bradford and Norwich on the shows that these rates are considerably higher, mpsic Road,
distances considered, than the rates from Og. An examination of the rates existing be- densburgh, St. Albans, and other Vermont
Vermont points and points in Massa- points to Boston, as is shown by the following tts on the line of the Connecticut River examples taken from Mr. Chittenden's state
and between Vermont points and points I ment: ion. Destination.
Road. Distance. Rate 1st Class, sburgh, Northampton, Conn. R.
- 369 Hartford, N. Y., N. H. & H.
298 Boston, C. V. R. R.
408 Ibans, Northampton, Conn. R.
58 Hartford, N. Y, N, H, & H.
55 pelier, Northampton, Conn. R.
55 e River Junc., Northampton, Conn. R.
A reference to the table of that com. New York, compare most favorably with the
by the Central Vermont Road on the districts, though the character of the country
those of the Delaware & Hud- that their cost of construction and operation is Canal Company's for corresponding points necessarily small as compared with that of he west side of the lake; and in many in roads of the Central Vermont. A comparison ces the rates of the Central Vermont for of the rates from points on the Central Veresponding distances are considerably less. mont Road to Boston with the Interstate rates instance the Delaware & Hudson Canal of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, northwest pany's rate from Westport to Boston, a of Woodhouse, where prices are graduated by nce of 298 miles, is sixty cents, while the distances, shows the following: ral Vermont's rate from Alburgh to the point, a distance of 284 miles, is only -five cents. ations on
Rates, 1st Class Interstate Rates on
C. V.R.R. C. & A. R. R., for
same distance. tford, Vt.,
146 ron, 157
611 th Royalton, 162
62 ntpelier, 207
681 ex Junction, 240
64 con, 251
66 Albans, 264
68 use's Point, N. Y., 288
70 densburgh, N. Y.). 
 (See Mr. Chittenden's Statement.)
Year. a ther state taxes raised in the same 1880
ce the biennial taxes of ten cents on the 1870 fill the grand lists of 1883 and 1885. 1860 a ma in 1883–1884, $162,710.58 (4—$81,- 1850
1895-1886, $171,011.26 (1–$85,505.- 1840 Tidag the total taxes raised by the State 1830
1885. tendency 12:36 $288,577.05 $286,141,33
this is no prosperity
farming & material prosperity of the people of comparati
bas been steadily on the increase and New be introduction of railroads into the follows:
al shown by the following statistics 1840. palation, the wealth, the condition of 32.0 dures, and the condition of the agri- to square laterests in the State, taken from the
J. Again, a comparison of the rates of the Central Vermont Road from Vermont points to New York, with the interstate rates of the Chicago & Alton Railroad, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad,
Miles to Rates Rates C. & A.R. R. Rates M. & St.P.R.R. Rates C.B. & Q.R.R.
(See Mr. Chittenden's Statement.)
Steamboat, Car and Trans. Cos',
National Car Company,
Home Insurance Companies
Substantially all the corn, wheat and flour consumed in Vermont comes from the West, and is dropped off at all Vermont points at the Boston competing rates. This has been the practice for years, and has been done to encourage other industries in the State.
shows that the rates of the Central Vermont Railroad are much the lowest for the same or corresponding distances, as is indicated by the following table, which will be more fully explained by a reference to Mr. Chittenden's statement:
1883. 1,398.71 597.60 504.58
Year. The other state taxes raised in the same 1880 time were the biennial taxes of ten cents on the 1870 dollar of the grand lists of 1883 and 1885. 1860
State Tax Commissioner for the years 1883, The state taxes assessed and collected by the 1884 and 1885, were as follows:
This was in 1883-1884, $162,710.58 (-$81,- 1850 355.29); in 1885-1886, $171,011.26 (-$85,505.-1840 63); making the total taxes raised by the State each year as follows:
1885. $ 1,401.08
a. The population of Vermont since 1830 is shown by the following figures:
Per cent of In-
$280,692.36 $286,577.05 $286,141.33 THE CONDITION OF VERMONT INDUSTRIES.
The material prosperity of the people of ermont has been steadily on the increase since the introduction of railroads into the State, as is shown by the following statistics of the population, the wealth, the condition of manufactures, and the condition of the agricultural interests in the State, taken from the official figures of the last United States census.
to square mile in Vermont;
Though the percentage of increase shows a tendency to grow smaller in the last 40 years, this is not necessarily an indication of less prosperity, for the density of population in Vermont had about reached its limit for a farming State in 1840. This is shown by the comparative density of population of Vermont and New Hampshire since 1840, which is as follows: 1840. 32.0
1850. 1860. 1870. 1880. 34.4 34.5 36.1 36.4
Number of Acres of Im-
Making the same allowance for the state of the money market in 1870 as has been made above, a marked and almost steady increase is shown.
in 1870 on account of the state of the currency Allowing 15 per cent as the extra increase in that year, the figures for that year would stand $27,356,909, showing an increase of True Value. nearly 75 per cent between 1850 and 1860, of $92,205,049 nearly 100 per cent between 1860 and 1870, 122,477,170 and of about 15 per cent between 1870 and 235,349,553 1880.
The number of persons engaged in agriculture in Vermont in 1880 was as follows:
Total persons engaged, 55,251; males, 55,037; females, 214.
Ages: 10 to 15-male, 1,670; female, 10; 16 to 59-male, 44,356; female, 160; 60 and over -male, 24,249; female, 883.
(The membership of the Vermont State Grange is about 2,000, composed of both male and female members.)
Census, estimates that the increase of valua tion due thereto was 20 per cent. With these allowances the value of property in the State shows on the whole a decided increase.
c. Manufactures have also increased steadily in Vermont. The value of manufactured products in Vermont for the years 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880, is as follows: 1850 $ 8,570,920 1860 14,637,807 32,184,606 31,554,366
d. The condition of agriculture in Vermont also shows a marked improvement since 1850. The number of farms, the number of acres of improved land, the value of farm lands and the value of improvements and machinery used thereon for the years 1850, 1860, 1870 and 1880, is shown by the following table:
2,823,157 3,073,257 3,286,461
12,137,980 15,900,357 17,844,396
Number of Acres of
Value of Farm Lands. $63,367,227
94,289,045 139,367,075 109,346,010
The productiveness of Vermont farms compares favorably with that of the farms of other States. Following is given the number of acres of improved land in 1879, in the States of Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine and Iowa; the value of the farm products of each of these States in the same year, and the average value of products per acre:
2,308,112 3,484,908 19,866,541
Value of Imp. and
Since 1850 the amount of agricultural prod- | the production of butter, milch cows, horses, ucts annually raised in Vermont has in- live stock, hay and barley. The amount procreased. There has been an increase in the duced of the last six named articles for the number of swine, oats, buckwheat and cattle years 1849, 1859, 1869 and 1879 is given as folannually produced; also a marked increase in lows: Butter, lbs.
Live Stock, Milch Cows, bound to see that justice is done. So much
Value. Number. for that, which I will again say was quite un. 1849
$12,643,228 146,128 necessary for my clients.
Scope of the Interstate Commerce Act.
This Act in its
Let us see where we are. 1879
16,586,195 217,033 The amount of Indian corn produced in first and second sections seems to be couched 1879 is about the same as that produced in in language that is very plain to the unsophis
ticated mind. It appears to be intended to 1849. The only leading agricultural products of which the annual
production has decreased regulate and control, according to good methare rye, hops, wheat, cheese, sheep and wool. of interstate commerce by railways and water
ods, and consistent with justice, the operations The decrease in the case of many of the last communications connected with them. So far named articles, and especially in the case of sheep and wool, is to be attributed to circum- as it was possible for Congress, within its constances other than the influence of railroads. stitutional power, to reach every agency en.
(See Compendiums of the 9th and 10th United gaged in those transactions, it was to be exertStates Census.)
ed. The object was beneficent and the nature
of the Law was intended to reach, and, so far ARGUMENT OF HON. GEORGE F. EDMUNDS as language can go, I think does reach every FOR THE VERMONT STATE GRANGE.* operation of interstate commerce that is car
ried on by no matter how many agents or conIshall, if it please Your Honors, occupy only necting local lines, so that they are engaged in a very few moments of your time in discussing a continuous transmission of men or things by this matter. First and principally, because I any "arrangement," as the Law says, between do not believe it necessary to you, or to the them in relation thereto. There can be no esjust disposition of this case; secondly, because cape from the provisions of the Law by any I do believe it necessary that my honorable op railroad in the United States, unless it is reponents and I should get the train and go stricted by its charter and operations to purely home this evening.
local state business. Every road that provides The Grangers.
facilities for the business of connecting roads,
and engages in the taking of goods out of its First, then, as to the grangers, my clients, in own State on to a railroad in another State, by respect to whom my Brother Fifield and the any sort of communication or arrangement, gentlemen on the other side have, from time to or combination, or understanding, by what. time, made observations altogether uncompli- ever contrivance or form it is reached, comes mentary, as to their being "mythical,” “non. within the scope of the operation of this Law. existent persons," and so forth. All I have to When the States have undertaken to interfere say in reply to that is, that the farmers need with the abuses and wrongs that have been no defense from me. They are a good deal committed all through the country, the sumore numerous than any other part of the preme court, much against its wishes and will, people of the United States. I happened to I believe, was obliged to decide that it was see in a newspaper this morning
an account of within the purview of Congress alone. So that a meeting of 45,000 of them in Pennsylvania, I insist the language of this Act shall be given the other day. There are a good many of the most liberal and benigo construction, in them everywhere, though they do not ali be order to work the good effects it was intended long to organized granges, for the grangers' to accomplish. It is not to be construed like associations do not embrace all the farmers of a criminal statute, but every interpretation and the country, any more than the law associa construction that can aid and reach the great tions embrace all the lawyers. There are a object Congress had in view should be given great many persons who have been admitted to it. Enough for that, because I am confident to the bar who do not belong to any law asso- | Your Honors will all agree with me. I do not ciation; still we are supposed to be entitled to need to resort to any strained interpretation to the same rights and privileges as those who are apply it to this case. I only make these obmembers of a law association. And the farm servations to etate my views of its general purers of this country,
and of this state, therefore, pose and effect.
Provisions of the Act.
In this case we find certain facts sworn to the Knights of Labor, or any other members by Mr, Porteous, although he seems to know of the community, so that I need not take up a good deal less when he is on the witness any time in vindicating them as standing bestand than he does when he is off from it-as fore you and asking justice at your hands un careful men sometimes do—and his superior der the law for the classes of industry that they officer, Governor Smith, seems to be affected represent. You are here as a public tribunal with the same malady, unlike Mr. Mellen, who of investigators, before whom any citizen, or spoke fully and frankly, as did Mr. Mills, and any set of citizens, having a well founded these other gentlemen. As I said, we bave ground of complaint, may come and state their the facts sworn to by Mr. Porteous, as you grievances. They are entitled to be heard, and will see when you read over the reporter's it a wrong is being done to them, you are notes, that in respect to the transmission of
business between the places on the line of the From stenographic notes of John H. Mimms, Boston & Lowell Road (and by that I will inEsq., St. Albans, Vt.
clude all from Boston to White River Junction,
azce as I do for the longer distance of which the i form a component and "arranging" part. pro
prio Excusing Circumstances and Conditions.
late Now, then, we come to the only question in pert is case, that is under section 4, as to whether circ ti made out that the circumstances and con. who
ditions are such that you are bound to find, er, arought to find fairly and justly, that these bust smpanies ought to be relieved from this duty. mor
Jill say something later upon the question road nder the other part of the statute. The first by I
saco they urge as an excusing circumstance doul ate length of their line. I respectfully sub- ulen At that the length of line over the same line sume te which the freight goes any short distance must
long distance is no different as to these Wha nads tban it can be on any other line in the abov. matry
. So that length of line only enters as becau element in the matter of competition at or up e distant point of the system, and in no deny le respect whatever.
than Then you come to the difficulty of weather State
di dimate. Is that an element that makes a be de prial circumstance and condition over the the p
naming the concerns that compose it), bans, etc.; and the reason it did not combine from Boston or any place between was that it had no interest in that matter. Il it and White River Junction, on busi- you take the proposition. in the reverse, the g into the State of Vermont, that the Boston & Lowell would have no interest whats have arranged and agreed upon a ever and could have nothing to do and would on which that business shall be done have nothing to do with the question of rates prices which shall be paid for it; an on freight from Toronto or Detroit to Monthent and understanding was arrived pelier, although that would have come from & onsummated between the agent of the foreign country to the United States. The ion of the Central Vermont Railroad only way, on that theory of the Law, that you y, on the one hand, and the agent of could have the fourth section operate at all oration of the Boston & Lowell Rail. would be between two roads in adjoining npany, on the other, and perhaps some States who made an interchange, each agreeing her roads in the route, but mainly be that it would charge as a common carrier, so e two I have named. That arrange much into the other State, and would collect s made in advance as to what rates the carriage money and pay it over. This e charged for that joint business, and would bring them within the operation of the sion that was to be made from the Law, I think you will be satisfied, as I certainly n of those rates, as shown by the di. am. Take the Boston & Lowell, where Mr. st put in evidence. If this is not a Mellen swears they got once and a half or angement (which is more than the Law twice as much for carrying a car load of chairs , if it is not an "arrangement,” to use from Boston to White River Junction, for use language of the Law, for the carriage there, as they would if the chairs were going s from one State into another over a to Montreal or beyond. They are hauling the line, then there is no language that same goods over the same line in the same aken out of our English tongue that direction, and the same distance in one case, omplish it. And I leave that. That is for less than half what they get in the other. h to say about that.
Putting such a construction upon the business The National Despatch Line.
as is urged here, there is not a single road in
the world, not even between two States, that as to this National Despatch Line. would be under the provision of section 4, and just the same only it is done in a dif- could not be. But this is the position they srm. We have learned from the evi- take. It is the philosophy and dialectics of this case what this National Despatch sopbistry that people who feel the hand of the
As some of the witnesses stated, it is law and are conscious of doing injustice, re.
ihrough business together; by which tion to the case where the Boston & Lowell,
do in respect of the charges that are then I fly directly in the face of the Law. Al. ade between Boston and West Lebanon, though it does not appear on my tables, yet te River Junction, or between Boston as a matter of fact I make an arrangement by hite River Junction, Montpelier, St. Al. I which I get twice as much for my short dis
linet If I live in the tropics, where anyo betis Do SDOW at all, is it to be said that be petiti et is hotter at one place on the line than quest bet another point on the same line, there is value teen for making a difference in the rates stand lease respective points? Of course not. If are b line in the Arctics, as we do here in the win. (men te does it cost a railroad any more to haul a
Bu um distance through the snow and get its const na ut of the snow banks than it does to baul ly, o w binger distance over the mountains in the tions, et! It must costs less, under the cir- althoi sances, for the shorter distance. The the ve therefore, that the snow or the grades into I
a has anything to do with this question of objeci ring more for a short distance than for of the sager one ofer the same line, is preposter-treme with all respect to the honored gentlemen not b
The Ober side.
the w Two Sides to the Question. There are two sides to the subject of money whon ping and profits, it might be added. These either frais appeal to you
to allow them to make railro se proát, as much as they fairly and reason. friend 42. That is proper enough. But they But de same duty to their customers, and you suppo the same duiy to their customers. The consid her is no coider for the railroads in Ver-then,
shan it is for the farmer. It is no colder here? * Perment in the winter for the railroad, than lines i Wer be manufacturer, or the passenger, or fic; th pady else. They are all under precisely the St: se conditions on the same line, as of to the les must be. Therefore, all those con- East a baikas fail
, entering for what they are say the a merely into the consideration of com- plianc Sop
, lben, I submit with great respect, and line, il bat it will turn out to be so in the next ten form a
bol upon any supposed construction of paralle olar that you may make, or upon any too same r Scaled a construction of it, but as a fact in Centra sercial economics of this country, resting agains bir hastice which gives to every man his due I am i
at a distant point.
et play to all, that every service that a I must
se public regulations, and of which he is not I strong