Hearing on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-long Learning of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, Hearing Held in Washington, DC, May 9, 1995, Volume 4

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The subcommittee met to discuss and hear testimony on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, a law designed to prohibit sex discrimination in intercollegiate athletics at federally funded education programs or activities. Among issues addressed were the means by which universities demonstrate that they are in compliance with Title IX as well as the achievements and benefits of the legislation in the 23 years since it was passed. Witnesses who appeared in panels to testify included House Representatives Hastert and Collins and representatives of the Office of Civil Rights at the Department of Education. Also appearing were representatives of universities including the president of Brown University, Vartan Gregorian, and president of Eastern Illinois University, David L. Jorns. They were either troubled by the direction of Title IX enforcement or felt that current enforcement allows an appropriate level of flexibility in achieving compliance. Representatives of several organizations in the athletic community appeared including the National Association of Collegiate Women Athletics Administrators, the National Wrestling Coaches Association, Women's Sports Foundation, the College Football Association. These offered differing opinions on the impact of Title IX on their sports and athletes. Extensive additional material that was submitted for the record is included. (JB)

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Page 328 - In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority...
Page 11 - No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Page 89 - ... to grant preferential treatment to any individual or to any group because of the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin of such individual or group on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of any race, color, religion, sex, or national origin employed by any employer...
Page 333 - Unequal aggregate expenditures for members of each sex or unequal expenditures for male and female teams if a recipient operates or sponsors separate teams will not constitute noncompliance with this section, but the Director may consider the failure to provide necessary funds for teams for one sex in assessing equality of opportunity for members of each sex.
Page 155 - I will be happy to answer to the best of my ability any questions you may have of me.
Page 42 - Education, girls who participate in sports are three times more likely to graduate from high school, 80 percent less likely to have an unwanted pregnancy, and 92 percent less likely to use drugs.
Page 235 - Each Federal department and agency which is empowered to extend Federal financial assistance to any program or activity, by way of grant, loan, or contract other than a contract of insurance or guaranty, is authorized and directed to effectuate the provisions of section...
Page 409 - FERC certified that the rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
Page 46 - ... fully and effectively" accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex.
Page 336 - The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated because employment opportunities in any occupation or profession are or may be more limited for handicapped persons than for nonhandicapped persons.