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for instruction. In 1914 the Smith-Lever Act was passed establishing the system of cooperative extension services to bring to adults the benefits of current developments in the field of agriculture. Thus, over a period of little more than half a century these institutions, designed to foster a program of education suited to the needs of the agricultural and industrial classes, had been established on a foundation of research, and encompassed a program for both the youth on the campus and the adult population throughout the rural areas of the State.
Throughout recent decades numerous acts have been passed expanding the scope and increasing the support of all three aspects of their programs-research, campus instruction, and extension education. Now in addition to the income from the original land-grants the appropriations of Federal funds to aid the States in the maintenance of the land-grant institutions amount to more than $40,000,000 annually. Of this the amounts for the year ending June 30, 1951 were: For campus instruction, $5,030,000; for experiment stations, $12,266,208; and for extension education, $32,174,388.
These funds are distributed to the States on a variety of bases. Some funds go in equal amounts to all States, some to the States on the basis of their farm populations, etc. The funds for campus instruction are distributed and administered by the Federal Security Agency, Office of Education. The funds for experiment stations and extension education are distributed and administered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
In the Morrill Act of 1890 the Congress included a clause requiring that land-grant colleges make no distinction of race or color in their admission requirements. The law permitted a State in satisfaction of the foregoing stipulation to maintain one college for white students and one college for Negro students, and authorized the legislature of such State to propose to the Secretary of the Interior1 a just and equitable division of the fund between the two colleges. In consequence of this authorization, 17 of the States now maintain separate land-grant colleges for Negroes. Thus, there are now 1 land-grant institution in each of the 48 States and the 3 territories (Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico), a second institution in Massachusetts, and 17 separate colleges for Negroes, a total of 69.
It is not easy to appraise in brief space the services of these land-grant institutions. They have broadened the base of higher
1 The Office of Education was part of the Department of the Interior at that time.
education bringing it within the interest and attainment of vastly larger numbers of people than would otherwise have been reached. The whole realm of higher education in this country, and to a lesser degree even in some other countries, has been profoundly influenced by the developments of the land-grant colleges and universities in popularizing higher education. They have demonstrated the partnership of the Federal and State Governments in the maintenance of a system of higher education which is designed to fulfill Federal, State and local needs. They have spread widely the concept that higher education is something in which all the people have a stake. They have, therefore, a place of deep affection in the hearts of the people. They are growing in strength and influence with each passing decade.
Procedures for Administering Federal Funds for Instruction
AS PREVIOUSLY STATED, the funds for instruction are administered by the Federal Security Agency, Office of Education, and the funds for experiment stations and extension services by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The following paragraphs will be concerned only with the funds for instruction on the campus.
Federal funds from two sources are used to help the States maintain instruction on the campus. First, the income from the original land grants or scrip (and in some States from subsequent land grants). This income now amounts to about 2 million dollars per year. While about a third of the States still have some of the original land remaining unsold, more than four-fifths of the annual land-grant income is derived from investments of the sums received from the sale of the land or scrip.
The income from the original grants differs widely in amount among the States. Minnesota derives more than half a million dollars annually, while several States derive less than two
thousand dollars. Only three States derive more than one hundred thousand dollars a year.
The handling of these funds is left to the States, subject to the conditions prescribed in Section 5 of the 1862 Act. (See Sec. III for text of the law.) Reports concerning the condition of the fund and the annual income derived are received each year by the Federal Security Agency, Office of Education.
The second source of Federal aid for instruction is the so-called supplementary Morrill Funds for which the Federal Government appropriates $5,030,000, annually. By the second Morrill Act of 1890, each State and the territories of Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, receive $25,000. A like amount is provided by the Nelson amendment of 1907. By Section 22 of the Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935, as amended June 1952, an additional $20,000 was provided for each State and the territories of Alaska and Hawaii, plus variable amounts from a total of $1,501,500 distributed on the basis of population. The 1890 and 1907 acts are "continuing" appropriations, requiring no congressional action each year. The 1935 act authorizes appropriations which Congress must act upon each year.
The procedure followed involves the following steps:
1. In the annual budget submitted by the Federal Security Agency, items are included covering both the continuing appropriation and the appropriation requiring congressional action.
2. After the budget is acted upon by the Congress, the Federal Security Administrator submits to the Secretary of the Treasury a certificate indicating the amount to which each State is entitled and the name of the officer or officers in each State to which the check or checks should be sent.
3. The Secretary of the Treasury sends not later than July 31, the checks for funds for the fiscal year ending on the following June 30.
The expenditure of these funds by each land-grant college or university is subject to the conditions appearing in the acts of 1890 and 1907. Expenditures from the funds are limited to instruction and facilities for instruction in the departments of agriculture, mechanic arts, English language, mathematics, natural and physical science, economic science, and teacher training.
Since these funds constitute such a small fraction of the amount used for instruction in the institution, this limitation is of little significance. Each institution utilizes teachers paid from
other funds side by side with those paid wholly or in part from Federal funds. The objective of the Act in 1890 was to assure the support of departments believed to be essential for an institution maintained under the provisions of the 1862 Act.
At the close of each year each institution submits to the Office of Education on forms provided by the Office, a report certified to by the treasurer and the president of the institution. This report indicates the amount of the funds spent for salaries and for teaching facilities in each of the allowed departments.
Allotments to the several States, which give effect to the June 1952 amendment to the Bankhead-Jones Act, follow:
Variable grants from Bankhead-Jones Act as amended June 1952, as indicated in this tabulation, being a distribution of $1,501,500 on basis of population, 1950.
The Second Morrill Act and the Nelson Amendment make continuing appropriations. The Bankhead-Jones Act authorizes appropriations; the appropriations are made annually by the Congress.
* Uniform grants to each State, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico from Second Morrill Act, 1890, ($25,000); Nelson Amendment, 1907, ($25,000); and uniform grants to each State, Alaska, and Hawaii from Bankhead-Jones Act, 1935, as amended June, 1952, ($20,000); total for each, $70,000.
1 The Negro land-grant college in this State receives a stipulated proportion of funds. 2 Puerto Rico does not participate in appropriations authorized by the BankheadJones Act of June 29, 1935. as amended June, 1952.
Federal Laws and Rulings Relating to Federal Funds for Instruction for Land-Grant Colleges and Universities
FROM THE PASSAGE of the Morrill Act in 1862 to July 1, 1939, the administration of Federal funds for instruction in the land-grant colleges and universities was carried on by the Department of the Interior. By the Reorganization Act of April 3, 1939, and the President's Reorganization Plan of April 25, 1939, effective July 1, 1939, the Office of Education was transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Federal Security Agency. All the functions of the Secretary of the Interior relating to the administration of the Office of Education were transferred to the Federal Security Administrator. Hence, the legal authority for the administration of the Morrill Act of 1862 and its several amendments and supplements appropriating funds for instruction rests with the Federal Security Administrator. Apart from the certification of grants, the Administrator exercises this authority through the U. S. Commissioner of Education and the Specialist for Land-Grant Colleges and Universities in the Office of Education.
Act of July 2, 1862 (First Morrill Act)
[Providing for the Endowment, Support and Maintenance of Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts]
[AN ACT Donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts]
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That there be granted to the several States, for the purposes hereinafter mentioned, an amount of public land, to be apportioned to each State a quantity equal to thirty thousand acres for each Senator and Representative in Congress to which the States are respectively entitled by the apportionment under the census of 1860: Provided, That no mineral lands shall be selected or purchased under the provisions of this act.