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whose instruction is based on completion of the elementary school. These technical lower secondary schools offer courses varying in duration from 1 semester to 5 semesters. The 5-semester course closes with the examination for technicians (teknikerexamen). The schools of this type as of March 1948 are given on page 15. Not included are the technical lines of the realskola and the technical middle schools (p. 9).

Commercial gymnasium (handelsgymnasium)

The 13 commercial gymnasiums which were under the supervision of the Royal Board of Vocational Education in 1948 were municipal commercial secondary schools and in some instances private institutions with State subsidy. They offered a 2-year course based on schooling corresponding to that required for the realexamen (p. 7). Some also offered a 1-year course for students, that is, for secondary school graduates who had passed the student examination (p. 13). During the fall term of 1948 they had a total of 1,802 pupils of whom 338 were in the l-year course for students. Table 8 gives the program of studies for the 2-year course in commerce and for the 1-year course for students at the Commercial Gymnasium of Malmö as given in the annual report for 1947-48.

Table 8.-Plan of studies for the 2-year course in commerce and for the

1-year course for students

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of Elementary School Teachers

General Data

Teachers for each of the two divisions of the elementary school receive their education respectively at seminaries for the education of primary school teachers and at seminaries for the education of elementary school teachers. The seminaries are State institutions governed by Royal statutes issued January 21, 1938, for the primary school seminaries and June 18, 1937, for those of the elementary school and by regulations supplementary to these statutes.

The aim of instruction at both types of seminaries— "shall be to educate the students to be skillful, broad-minded, and sympathetic teachers of elementary school children. It shall give the general education and professional information which the students need for their future calling, aim to arouse a desire for further information and skill through continued education, and imbue them with loyalty to their chosen profession."

The school year at both types of institutions comprises a fall semester of 17 weeks beginning in August and a spring semester of 22 weeks ending in June. The school week has 6 days and each hour of instruction, 45 minutes. No student may attend more than 7 classes in any one day. Entrance requirements

In addition to the specific requirements for admission to each line of study the applicant for admission to either type of seminary must be a member of the Swedish Church, have a good reputation as to conduct, be of good health and free of any ailment that would hinder progress at the seminary or be detrimental later to effective work as teacher.

Admission to the first class of a seminary for the education of primary school teachers or to the first class of a seminary for the education of elementary school teachers is open to one who has passed the realexamen not earlier than 4 years prior to the calendar year in which he desires admission to the seminary and in this examination or in a supplementary examination made at least the mark "approved" in religion, Swedish, mathematics, history and civics, geography, biology and hygiene, physics and

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chemistry; or passed with success an entrance examination according to the requirements in force. In addition the applicant must make at least the mark approved in aptitude tests and pass an entrance examination in drawing, penmanship, singing, and manual training.

In 1947 the number of applicants for admission to the seminaries for the education of elementary school teachers for men was 1,630 of which 856 were admitted. The corresponding figures for the seminaries for women elementary school teachers were 1,154 and 662.

Practice school (övningsskolan). — Attached to each seminary and under the supervision of its rector is a practice school. It is coeducational and aims as far as circumstances allow to be a model school as well as a place for the practical education of the students of the seminary. For the 2-year line at the seminaries for the education of primary school teachers it comprises a primary school and the two lower classes of the elementary school. At the seminaries for the education of elementary school teachers it includes a primary school and the elementary school proper, supplemented when possible by a higher division of the elementary school and a continuation school. In the higher division of the elementary school instruction for each pupil shall not exceed 7 class hours a day.

Individual work (enskilt arbete)

General regulations for the two types of seminaries are similar. Thus at both types all students in the 2-year line and in the two highest classes of the 3- and 4-year lines must work out independently a project or individual work suited to his talents and interest in addition to the regular work of the class. In the highest class of the line concerned the individual work comprises a more profound study of some phase of a subject of instruction offered at the seminary.

Guidance and direction for each project is given by the instructor of the subject concerned. To allow additional time for the individual work, students of the next to the highest class in each line at the elementary school seminaries are exempt for 12 days from instruction in courses not directly connected with the project; students at the primary school seminaries are exempt in a similar manner for 10 days. Further, students in the highest class of each line at the elementary school seminaries are allowed 4 hours a week throughout the school year for the individual work; those in the highest class of the primary school seminaries are allowed 3 hours a week.

Exemption from class instruction does not include any phase of work or conference connected with practice teaching. A brief statement with reference to the individual work is entered on the certificate of having passed the final examination of the school.

Promotion (flyttning). — Included also among identical regulations for the two types of seminaries are those governing promotion and leaving. At the end of each semester the student receives a report of the marks he has made in conduct, orderliness, and in information and skill in his various subjects of instruction. For promotion the student must make at least the mark "approved” in each of the required subjects of instruction. An exception may be made in one of the subjects music, manual training and, if due to illness, in gymnastics. Promotion to the next higher class is decided by the Faculty Council at the end of the school year for each student. In all lines promotion to the highest class requires, in addition to success in other work, a passing mark in practice teaching.

When the Faculty Council finds that a student is obviously unsuited for teaching but does not come within the prescribed causes for dismissal it may present the case to the Royal Board of Education for final decision.

Seminaries for primary school teachers (småskolseminarierna)

In the fall of 1951 Sweden had 10 seminaries for the education of primary school teachers. Nine, those of Falun, Härnösand, Landskrona, Lycksele, Norrköping, Skara, Stockholm, Strängnäs, and Växjö offered a 2-year line (2-årig linje); and one, that of Haparanda, a 3-year line.

The seminaries for the primary school teachers are open to women only. In addition to the requirements given on p. 17 the applicant for admission to class I of the 2-year line must be at least 17, but less than 28 years of

Table 9.- Plan of studies for the seminaries for the education of primary

school teachers

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age. The corresponding ages for class I of the 3-year line are 16 and 27 years.

Plan of studies.—Some idea of the work offered each year in the 2- and 3-year lines as expressed in subjects and number of hours a week may be obtained from table 9

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Examination for primary school teachers (småskollärarexamen). Each of the two lines of instruction offered by the primary school seminaries closes with the examination for primary school teachers. The examination is given the latter part of April at a time fixed by the Royal Board of Education on the recommendation of the rector of the seminary concerned. It begins with the writing of a theme on one of several given subjects of a pedagogical nature to be completed within 6 hours. The themes are read and graded by at least 2 seminary instructors.

The oral examination and the examination in teaching are supervised and directed by a member of the Royal Board of Education or his representative. The examination in teaching is held at the practice school and includes a lesson in at least one subject. The assignment is made by the rector in consultation with the teacher or teachers concerned and given to the examinee 24 hours before the examination.

Success in all three parts of the examination is marked by a certificate of having passed the examination for primary school teachers (betyg över avlagd småskollärarexamen). In 1950 the examination was passed by 878 women. The total enrollment for the year at the 10 seminaries was 1,856.

A student who has not passed the final examination of a seminary may, if she wishes, receive a term report (terminsbetyg) or a leaving certificate (utskrivningsbetyg).

Seminaries for the education of elementary school teachers (folkskoleseminarierna).

In the fall of 1951 Sweden had 19. seminaries for the education of elementary school teachers. Of the 8 coeducational seminaries those of Jönköping, Kristianstad, Luleå, Lund, and Umeå offered both the 4-year line and the 2-year line for students; that of Hälsingborg offered the 2-year line for students, and those of Gävle and Härnosand the 4-year line. Of the 6 seminaries for men those of Gothenburg, Karlstad, Linköping, Stockholm, and Uppsala offered the 4-year line and the 2-year line for students while that of Växjö offered only the 4-year line. The seminaries for women were located at Falun, Gothenburg, Kalmar, Linköping, and Stockholm and offered both the 4-year line and the 2-year line for students.

The requirements for admission to the 4-year line are the same as those for admission to the 2-year line at the seminaries for the education of

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