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Most of the schools in this group have a 4-year gymnasium. Some have a 3-year gymnasium; and 3, a 2-year gymnasium for gifted pupils. The total number of pupils in these 3 schools in 1948 was 55, and the maximum number of pupils per class ranged from 15 to 20.

Curricula and plan of studies

The gymnasium, according to the Statute for secondary schools, aims to give a broader and more deepened civic training and at the same time lay the foundation for scientific knowledge to be developed further at the university and other institutions of university rank. Study at the gymnasium as expressed in subjects and number of hours a week

per

school year is given in tables 5 and 6.

During the first 2 years of the 4-year gymnasium and during the first year of the 3-year gymnasium all subjects of the prescribed curriculum are compulsory. The classes of the last 2 years of the gymnasium have a system of electives and comprise the "differentiated gymnasium" (differentierade gymnasium).

Differentiated gymnasium

The differentiated gymnasium had its origin in the secondary school statute of 1928 which provided for required and optional subjects in the two upper classes of the gymnasium. The required subjects for all pupils were religion, Swedish, history and civics, a modern foreign language, plus Latin in the Latin line, and mathematics in the reallinje. The three

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Physics in Gymnasium Class III at the Solna Secondary School of Stockholm.

Table 4.-Number of pupils in the gymnasium, fall semester 1948

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Table 5.-Curricula for the 3-year Latin and Realgymnasium

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1 Totals not fixed since the programs are adjusted to fit the student's ability and desire for specialization.

optional subjects could be selected as the pupil wished from among the remaining subjects of his line of study. In 1933 the selection of optional subjects became somewhat restricted.

The present method of selection dates from 1946 with religion, Swedish, and history including civics as required subjects for all pupils. In addition, Latin and French are required subjects in the Latin line, and English and mathematics (general course) in the reallinje. In the Latin line the pupil selects his electives from among 1l prescribed subject combinations, and in the reallinje from among 7 similar subject combinations. The prescribed subject combinations for each line and the percentage of elective frequence for the fall semester of 1948 may be seen in table 7. With the consent of the rector (principal) of the gymnasium and subject conference, the pupil may take an additional supplementary subject (tillägsämnet). Student examination (Studentexamen)

Completion of the gymnasium is marked by a certificate of having passed the student examination. In the Latin line the written examination includes Swedish, Latin, and French; in the reallinje, Swedish, English, and mathematics (general course). If he wishes, the examinee in the Latin line may take a written examination also in German, English, and mathematics. The examinee in the reallinje may do the same in German, physics, and in either French or special mathematics. The oral examination is concerned mainly with the work of the last 2 years and includes 4 or 5 subjects. At least one-quarter but not more than one-half hour is devoted to each subject.

Examinees from secondary schools not authorized to give the student examination may be examined as privatists (privatister) before a special examination committee. One who has passed the student examination may take a supplementary examination according to the requirements of the student examination. The supplementary examination may cover a subject already included in the student examination to raise the mark made, or it may be taken in a subject not included in the original examination.

Table 6.-Curricula for the 4-year Latin and Realgymnasium

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Totals not fixed since the programs are adjusted to fit the student's ability and desire for specialization.

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Technical Secondary schools (högre tekniska läroverk)

Technical secondary schools include the technical gymnasiums (tekniska gymnasier) and the technical vocational schools (tekniska fackskolor). Admission to either type of school requires a certificate of having passed the realexamen or evidence of equivalent schooling. In addition to a general technical line of study these schools offer instruction also in machine and building techniques, electrotechnics, and chemical technology; and to a less extent in mercantile-technical lines and special lines in teletechniques, in cellulose, textile and dyeing techniques, aeronautics, and shipbuilding.

Technical gymnasiums (tekniska gymnasier).-In 1948 Sweden had 12 technical gymnasiums, one each at Borås, Gävle, Gothenburg, Hälsing

Table 7.-Elective subject combination frequence in the differentiated

gymnasium, fall semester 1948

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1. German, English, geography
2. German, English, philosophy
3. English, geography, biology
4, Greek, German...
5. Greek, English.
6. Greek, philosophy..
7. German, English, mathematics.
8. English, mathematics, physics.
9. Mathematics, physics, chemistry.
10. German, English, biology..
11. English, biology, chemistry.
Total....

Reallinje
1. German, French, geography.
2. German, French, philosophy
3. French, German, biology.
4. German, French, physics.
5. French, physics, chemistry.
6. Biology, physics, chemistry.
7. Mathematics (special course), physics, chemistry.

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Total.....

.6 38. 6 32. 6

.6 37.1 5.7

6 38. 2 25.7

100.0

100.0

100.0

borg, Härnösand, Karlskrona, Luleå, Malmö, Norrköping, Skellefteå, Stockholm, and Örebro. For admission the applicant had to be at least 15 years of age and in addition to the aforementioned requirement as to schooling had to have at least 2 months of pertinent practical work. Completion of the 3-year course offered by a technical gymnasium is marked by the engineer's examination (ingenjörsexamen).

One who has passed the engineer's examination of a technical gymnasium is qualified for admission to an Institute of Technology (p. 45). He also may be admitted to the mathematics natural-science division of a university provided he made at least the mark approved in German and English and has a knowledge of French corresponding to that required for the realexamen.

A final examination taken at one of the now closed tekniska elementarskolor of Borås, Härnösand, Malmö, Norrköping, and Örebro is considered as corresponding to the ingenjörsexamen of the technical gymnasium.

Technical vocational schools (tekniska fackskolor). — These schools are located at Eskilstuna, Karlskrona, Malmö, Stockholm, Vesterås, Örebro, and Filipstad. They aim to give technical training which in addition to industrial experience is necessary for foremen at shops, factories, and other industrial concerns as well as for draftsmen and laboratory assistants in architectural and building construction offices. The course is generally 2 years in duration and ends with the ingenjörsexamen. If the instruction is confined in part or in its entirety to evening courses, it extends over a period of 3 to 4 years. For admission, the applicant must be at least 17 years of age, have schooling corresponding to the requirements of the realexamen, and have completed at least 2 years of practical experience.

Technical lower secondary schools (lägre tekniska läroanstalter). -Mention should be made also of a group of technical lower secondary schools

School

Location

Auspices

Technical Institute of Gothenburg (Göteborgs Tekniska Institut).. Gothenburg..
Netzlers Technical Institute (Netzlers Tekniska Institut)..

do..
Hässleholms Technical School (Hässleholms Tekniska Skola). Hässleholm.
Karlskoga Practical School (Karlskoga Praktiska Läroverk)..-- Karlskoga..
Katrineholms Technical School (Katrineholms Tekniska Skola).--| Katrincholm...
Kristinehamns Practical School (Kristinehamns Praktiska Skola).. Kristinehamn...
Köpings Technical Institute (Köpings Tekniska Institut)..

Köping.
School for Mining Foremen and Technicians (Bergslagernas

Sala.
Verkmästare-och Teknikerskola).
Municipal Technical Evening School of Stockohlm (Stockholms Stockholm.

Stads Tekniska Aftonskola).
Stockholms Technical Institute (Stockholms Tekniska Institut).. do.
Technical Institute of Stockholm (Tekniska institutet i Stockholin). do.
Technical Vocational School (Tekniska tackskolan).

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Municipal-State

subsidized. Private.

Do.

Sundsvall
Municipal Technical Evening School of Örebro (Örebro Stads Örebro...

Tekniska Astonskola).
Örnsköldsviks Technical School (Örnsköldsviks Tekniska Skola)... Örnsköldsvik.

Do.
Municipal-State

subsidized. Municipal-State

subsidized.

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