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DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Modern defense of a nation requires the training of military personnel. This preparation for possible participation in war activities is a major function of the Department of Defense. An analysis of the purposes for which expenditures are made would indicate that a portion of the necessary expenditures could be regarded as Federal funds for education.
Federal funds expended in giving basic or specialized military training to all recruits are not reported here. However, portions expended in providing academic training of personnel at civilian schools and service academies have been summarized and are presented in table 46, for recent years. These funds are expended to improve the effectiveness of military personnel and a significant portion of such training continues to be useful to dischargees in later occupational pursuits.
In addition to these programs in the civilian schools and service academies the Department of Defense expends large amounts for research and development. Total figures for these research programs in all Federal agencies are given in table 2. However, no detailed figures are presented in this section because of the difficulties of separating these items from the total Defense budget.
Table 46.-FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED FOR ACADEMIC TRAINING OF MILITARY PERSONNEL AT CIVILIAN SCHOOLS AND SERVICE ACAD. EMIES, 1946–47 TO 1951-521
Figures do not include military pay and allowances.
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Education for citizenship is a program in which the Department has shown interest through the years. Small amounts of Federal money expended on this activity yield impressive results. The citizenship education program is conducted by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Funds are used largely to employ personnel for the operation of the service and to prepare citizenship education materials for use by citizenship classes arranged in the various cities. In addition, the Immigration and Naturalization Service expends small amounts for the training of border patrol and special agents.
Other functions of the Department of Justice, operated through the Bureau of Prisons, are the extensive educational and vocational training programs in the 30 Federal penal and correctional institutions. For these important services, general and academic education is provided at Government expense from funds appropriated by Congress to the Bureau of Prisons. Due to the nature of the program, however, and due to the conditions under which courses are taken by the men and women, it would be difficult to itemize amounts to give an accounting of funds expended for education alone.
Reasonable acceptance of the general and academic educational programs is acknowledged by the fact that there were 617 class groups with an average attendance of 9,645 during the 1950-51 school year. Of these classes, 231 of them provided instruction below the fifth-grade level. This is strong evidence on the need for this type of work.
About 75 percent of the students take courses ranging from the fifth grade through the secondary school. This work is planned so that the inmates may secure elementary and secondary school diplomas upon satisfactory completion of the work at the respective levels. About 3,000 of those attending completed their courses, and 266 had attained sufficient credits to receive either gradeschool certificates or highschool diplomas. Others take work through correspondence courses in areas of instruction which are not offered by the penal institutions.
Many of the inmates of the Federal penal institutions interested in vocational work than regular academic study and for this group the Federal Prisons Industries, Inc., provides important educational services. This body is an incorporation of activities which makes it possible for the inmates of the Federal penal institution to find an outlet for the products which they manufacture or produce in their prison work activities. It is also of interest to note that this program is financed with income from the operation of the shops managed in conjunction with the schools. Some of the Activities of the vocational training program are commercial work; construction; trades; farming; cooking and baking; airplane repair; auto maintenance; typewriter repair; machine, tool, and die making; radio and television repair and service; drafting; and a whole range of others from which interested personnel may choose and profit. Statistical details relating to the program of vocational education include these figures.
Vocational and General Education in Federal Penal Institutions for the 1950-51
School Year Number of training courses offered-
599 Number of participants enrolled -
11,653 Number completing unit of training
6,796 Certificates issued by State, county, and city vocational boards--- 1,560 Number placed in jobs on release--
1,250 Expenditure for vocational education..
$389,093 Cost per student for the completed course, including placement. $57.25
DEPARTMENT OF STATE A program of international educational exchange has been developed by the Department of State in cooperation with the Office of Education and other agencies of the Federal Government. The purpose of the exchange program, in the words of the authorizing congressional legislation is “to promote a better understanding of the United States in other countries, and to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries.” A part of this program provides opportunities for Americans to pursue educational activities abroad and for foreign nationals to undertake similar projects in the United States.
The educational exchange is essentially international in character with specific foreign policy objectives. Improvement of international relations is the primary purpose. Progress is achieved through the use of personnel and facilities of educational institutions, both in the United States and abroad. Fundamentally, it is an outstanding example of democracy in action. Through education, the exchange fosters the free interchange of thought and experiences by students, teachers, lecturers, and leaders, as they engage in study and exchange information at the various schools, colleges, and universities, in many countries. Education is again recognized as the most essential tool for the preservation of democracy.
Activities in the field of exchange of persons are of two general types: the administration or supervision of programs providing financial grants-in-aid for exchanges, and nonfinancial services designed to foster desirable exchanges sponsored by American and foreign organizations and institutions, international agencies and foreign governments.
The principal programs under which financial grants-in-aid are awarded to students, teachers, lecturers, research scholars, leaders and specialists are conducted under the authority of the SmithMundt Act (P. L. 402, 80th Cong.) and the Fulbright Act (P. L. 584, 79th Cong.). Many of the grants under these two programs are made in combination with each other, or with those obtained from other sources. Other grants are provided under the Convention for the Promotion of Inter-American Cultural Relations, special programs with Germany and Austria, the Chinese Emergency Aid Program, and a special program for educational exchange with Finland.
During the 1950–51 school year, 7,158 persons received grantsin-aid for exchanges between the United States and 70 foreign countries. Of these, 5,630 were invited to the United States for study, teaching, observation, or research; to see for themselves how American democracy functions; and to provide advanced preparation in special educational fields to assure that improved instruction, standards, and techniques, will be used in many subject matter fields abroad. A total of 1,528 Americans received grants-in-aid to undertake similar activities abroad through which they carried the truth about America to foreign lands. Tables 47 and 48 indicate the number of these exchanges with each major geographical area and a breakdown of costs under the various program authorizations.
The Educational Exchange Service of the Department of State assisted 464 organizations, including educational institutions, private businesses, other Governmental agencies in the United States and abroad, and the United Nations, through whose programs approximately 4,800 persons were exchanged. Types of assistance ranged from the designation of exchange-visitor programs, thereby encouraging the admission of foreign nationals desiring to visit the United States for educational purposes, to actual aid in selecting, placing and orienting persons brought to this country, and providing advice and counsel to groups and individuals in the planning of programs.
The exchange program is conducted in cooperation with public and private agencies, including the Office of Education. Services performed by these agencies, under contract of working-fund agreements, include assistance in disseminating information about exchange opportunities, receiving, reviewing and recommending applicants, as well as providing placement and counseling services.
Table 47.-NUMBERS OF PARTICIPANTS FROM OTHER COUNTRIESTENGAGED IN EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS, FOR THE 1950-51 SCHOOL YEAR
Table 48.-NUMBERS OF PARTICIPANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES ENGAGED
IN EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS, FOR THE 1950-51 SCHOOL YEAR
Table 49,-FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED FOR THE EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE
PROGRAMS, FOR THE 1950–51 SCHOOL YEAR
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
The Institute of Inter-American Affairs has important responsibilities related to education in other countries. This is a plan under which the relatively well-developed nations of the world are assisting the less-advanced countries to improve their economic and cultural situation. Improvements in school systems, agriculture, health, industry, mining, and communications are accomplished through education and consequently it is reasonable to consider portions of expenditures for the technical assistance program as Federal expenditures for edudcation. These expenditures are for the purpose of promoting improved international relationships.
In the under-developed countries illiteracy ranges from 40 to 90 percent. Efforts to assist these nations are directed toward the reduction of this illiteracy and toward the promotion of a type of education bearing directly on economic and social advance. Programs of mass education for adults have been established and school systems are being improved. There are elementary, secondary, and vocational schools which offer all the literacy subjects as well as trades, agriculture, and other vocations. The Institute of Inter-American Affairs has been operating the technicalassistance program since 1943 and the impetus added by Point IV is developing the functions of the Office into an important force for improving world relationships. Federal appropriations for recent years are given in table 50.