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two kinds of research: (1) Research to solve a particular problem, such as one dealing with reactor design or isotope separation, and (2) Basic research undertaken to add to the general fund of knowledge applicable to atomic energy development. On such assignments the Commission seeks the services of specific scientists and usually pays the full costs.

A procedure has been adopted for submitting proposals to the Atomic Energy Commission for research under the management of universities and colleges which have capable scientists who desire to expand, continue, or initiate a research program. Approvals of proposals are given if projects are of interest in the development of atomic energy and provided they meet other criteria set by the Commission.

A proposal to the Commission for the mutual support of a research project is studied by Commission scientists who consider many factors before making a decision that the work should be supported by Commission funds. Such factors are: (1) Scientific achievements already made by the institution and scientist concerned, and the probability of continued research performance; (2) importance of the proposed project to atomic energy development; (3) general need of the AEC for more persons trained in a particular field of study; and (4) extent of participation of the institution in the work to be undertaken.

FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM

Through the 1951-52 academic year, 1,060 fellowships have been awarded at a total cost of approximately $4,250,000. This program was started in 1948.

Since the National Science Foundation is sponsoring a broad fellowship program beginning with the 1952–53 school year, the Atomic Energy Commission has determined to offer only a limited number of fellowship awards in the specialized fields of radiological physics and industrial medicine. As a means of providing an orderly termination of the earlier and more substantial program, renewals of present fellowships in the physical and biological sciences will be offered.

OPERATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS

In addition to the educational activities of the Atomic Energy Commission described here, the Commission also operates or arranges for the operation of public education programs for children residing near places where large numbers of people are engaged in atomic energy developments. Figures on these exependitures for operations or for contracted educational services have not been secured for this report.

CANAL ZONE A system of public schools is provided in the Canal Zone. Instruction is offered for children from kindergarten to the 12th grade in elementary and secondary schools. It also operates an apprentice school to provide training in the skilled trades and the Canal Zone Junior College at Balboa Heights. About 170 students are enrolled in the college which provides instruction in the 13th and 14th grades.

The entire cost of the educational services is paid by the Canal Zone Government from funds appropriated by Congress. However, the Panama Canal Company, under the provisions of Public Law 841, approved September 26, 1950, is required to reimburse the United States Treasury as nearly as possible for the net costs of the Canal Zone Government, including public education.

Funds to reimburse the Treasury are obtained from tolls and from license fees and other payments made to the Panama Canal Company by the various commercial activities. These funds have been sufficient to restore to the Treasury the full cost of the Canal Zone Government, including public education. Consequently it would be proper to indicate that the expenditures listed in table 44 come from the Panama Canal project rather than from Federal taxation. Figures have been obtained from the Panama Canal Company. Table 44.-FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED FOR EDUCATION IN THE CANAL

ZONE, 1942-43 TO 1951-52

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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE A variety of educational interests are apparent among the offices of the Department of Commerce. Programs receiving substantial attention include those related to weather, aviation, international relationships, small business, the merchant marine, and graduate study in the physical sciences. Expenditures for some of these educational programs are not separable from those for the total service of the bureaus and consequently they are given here for only two programs.

The Department of Commerce maintains essential services to the Nation through its program of studying and reporting on weather. In this connection, funds are provided for in-service training of employees, for sending selected employees to the colleges and universities for special training in meteorology, and for contracts with certain universities to conduct research in meteorology. The Department of Commerce has also assisted with the training of Philippine Government employees in meteorology.

AVIATION EDUCATION

The Office of Aviation Training of the Department has developed a cooperative program of aviation education for the public schools, vocational schools, and institutions of higher learning. These services are provided at the request of State and local school authorities. In the program, conferences with school authorities are held, addresses are given, and prepared materials for instruction are supplied. In a similar manner the Department has been requested to provide assistance in aviation education to the Army Air Force, Navy, and other Federal agencies. The purpose of the Department in offering aviation education is to develop air-age interests in the young people of the Nation.

Training of foreign nationals.—The Department has also cooperated on a program of training Inter-American aviation personnel. This is done as a part of the program for "Cooperation with other American Republics," sponsored by the Department of State. The selection and training of aviation personnel from the Republic of the Philippines is another educational service provided by the Department of Commerce. EXTENSION SERVICE FOR SMALL BUSINESS

The Department has had a cordial relationship with university schools of business and bureaus of business research in the several States. Through these agencies an extension service of providing information and intructional materials on the establishment and operation of small businesses has been provided by the Office of Small Business. Counseling for "small business” proprietors is one of the services provided in local communities throughout the Nation.

Using funds transferred from the Department of State, the Department of Commerce provides subsistence and tuition for technicians included in the Inter-American Exchange of Persons program. Other funds transferred from the Department of State have been used in the rehabilitation of Philippine schools.

MARITIME ADMINISTRATION

The President's Reorganization Plan No. 21 created the Maritime Administration in the Department of Commerce and abolished the former United States Maritime Commission on May 24, 1950. This administration operates the United States Maritime Service, a merchant marine cadet-officer training program and, in addition, supervises State marine and civilian nautical schools.

Federal schools. There are 3 federally operated merchant marine schools for the training and upgrading of officers and seaman for the merchant fleet. The United States Maritime Seryice Institute enrolls about 9,000 men and offers to them correspondence and extension courses for licensed and unlicensed personnel of the merchant marine. In addition, an average of about 900 cadet midshipmen are in training at the United States Merchant Marine Academies.

State Marine Schools.-As nearly as 1874 the Secretary of the Navy was authorized to furnish, if requested by a State governor, a fully equipment vessel for use by colleges. The State Marine School Act of 1911 promoted nautical education by authorizing Federal aid "to be used for the benefit of any nautical school, and any school or college having a nautical branch" in any of 11 seaport cities named in the Act. Navy personnel could be furnished for supervision or instruction in the schools and Federal funds were appropriated. The Act required that the Federal funds be matched by a State or municipality, but the Federal money could not exceed $25,000 for any one school per year. Later legislation increased this $25,000 limitation to not to exceed $50,000 per school year, conditioned on the admittance to training of cadets from out-of-State.

In 1941 the supervision of these schools, which are known as State Maritime Academies, was transferred from the Navy to the United States Maritime Commission. Four States have such academies at the present time-California, Maine, Massachusetts, and New York. Pennsylvania closed its academy several years ago.

A summary of the expenditures for the education of merchant marine personnel during the past 10 years is presented in table 45. These figures show all costs of education including training obtained through correspondence courses. They were supplied by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Maritime Administration.

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS GRADUATE SCHOOL

This Graduate School is the oldest of the several advanced educational programs sponsored by governmental agencies to provide educational opportunities primarily for employees. It was established in 1908. The School provides educational services in the TABLE 45.-FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED FOR THE EDUCATION OF MER

CHANT MARINE PERSONNEL, 1942–43 TO 1951-52

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Bureau's zone of scientific responsibility--the physical sciences. Experts from the Bureau's staff are readily available as instructors and laboratory facilities are available for demonstration or student use. All classes are held after the working day.

The Graduate School of the National Bureau of Standards is not a degree-granting institution, but course work toward a degree is transferred through the registrar of the university concerned. The growth of extension activity in American universities and the increasing emphasis on science have brought about a gradual change in the school, in that many of the courses which are given at the National Bureau of Standards are sponsored by some recognized university in which the students register and receive residence credit, as well as academic credit. The selection of the course and the instructor is made jointly by the National Bureau of Standards Graduate School and the university concerned.

More than 150 doctor of philosophy degrees have been obtained by students who have used either course or dissertational work done at the National Bureau of Standards as a partial fulfillment of the requirements. The School is a non-profit organization with courses planned and administered by the Educational Committee composed of senior staff members who serve without reimbursement other than regular salary. A tuition charge of $8.00 per semester hour for courses is used to reimburse professors for after-hours instruction. Approximately 500 students are enrolled each academic year. The National Bureau of Standards provides classroom and laboratory space, library facilities, and instructional material, but no appropriated funds are specifically spent for the administration of the educational program and the operation expenses are paid from the student fees.

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