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Table 24.-FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED FOR AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, FOR THE 1951-52 SCHOOL YEAR1
The Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 authorized appropriations for marketing research and service work. Since State agricultural experiment stations are specifically mentioned among the agencies authorized to obtain funds from this appropriation, a small percent of this appropriation has been allotted to State stations for marketing research. Unlike the funds provided by the preceding five acts, these funds are allotted on the basis of specific project proposals which must be approved by the department. The amounts allotted to State agricultural experiment stations were $229,967 in the 1950-51 school year and $241,600 for 1951-52.
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
This is a service that is provided cooperatively by the agricultural colleges and the United States Department of Agriculture. It was first approved through the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 which became operative in 1915. At the present time the law provides for permanent or continuing annual appropriations of $10,000 for each State and an additional $4,100,000 for allotment to the 48 States in the proportion which the rural population of each State is to the total rural population of all the States. The allotments are made by the Secretary of Agriculture. States are required to provide amounts each year which are at least equal to the respective shares of the $4,100,000. By special enactments, the three Territories of Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, receive the benefits of this law. The total amount of funds involved is $4,725,150.02.
Under the Clarke-McNary Act, passed in 1924, and amended in 1949, an amount not to exceed $500,000 may be appropriated annually to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to cooperate with "the land-grant colleges and universities of the various States or, in his discretion, with other suitable State agencies, to aid farmers through advice, education, demonstrations, and other similar means in establishing, renewing, protecting, and managing wood lots, shelter belts, windbreaks, and other valuable forest growth, and in harvesting, utilizing, and marketing the products thereof. Except for preliminary investigations, the amount expended by the Federal Government under this section, in cooperation with any State or other cooperating agency during any fiscal year, shall not exceed the amount expended by the State or other cooperating agency for the same purpose during the same fiscal year, and the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make expenditures on the certificate of the appropriate State official that the State expenditures, as provided for in this section, have been made." Funds totaling $88,180 were allotted to 44 States and to Puerto Rico for this purpose for the 1951-52 school year. The average amount per State was $1,960. Ten States received $3,240 each.
A law was passed in 1928 "to provide for the further development of agricultural extension work between the agricultural colleges in the several states. . . This law, known as the CapperKetcham Act, authorizes an annual appropriation of $980,000 to be made each year to pay the expenses of the cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics and to be allotted in equal amounts to the 48 States and the Territory of Hawaii. Special laws extend the benefits of such aids to Alaska and Puerto Rico. In addition it provides that $500,000 may be appropriated annually to be allotted, subject with certain exceptions, to the conditions and limitations, which apply to the additional amounts appropriated under the original Smith-Lever Act. In order to participate, each State is required to provide an amount each year that is at least equal to its share of the $500,000. For the 1951-52 school year the 48 States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were allotted $1,531,828.
ADDITIONAL COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
In addition to appropriations already noted, other funds have been provided in the annual appropriation acts for the Department of Agriculture to broaden the benefits of cooperative extension work. One such fund is designated "Additional Cooperative Extension Work." Allotments are made to the States and the Territory
of Hawaii, and in such amounts as the Secretary may consider necessary. Since the approval of the Agriculture Organic Act of 1944, 24 States and the Territory of Hawaii have received annual allotments of such funds totaling $555,000.
Funds for the further development of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics were authorized to be appropriated annually by the Bankhead-Jones Act of June 29, 1935. Beginning with $8,000,000 for 1936, the law provided for an increase of $1,000,000 each year until the amount was $12,000,000. Accordingly, the amount was $12,000,000 for each of the 2 years, covered by this report, plus $408,000 for Puerto Rico and $20,808 for Alaska by special enactment. Of the amount provided each year, $980,000 is paid to the several States and the Territory of Hawaii in equal shares of $20,000. The remainder is paid in the proportion that the farm population of each bears to the total farm population of the 48 States and Hawaii. The States and the Territory of Hawaii are not required to raise funds of their own to match those provided by the Federal Government for cooperative agricultural extension work under the Bankhead-Jones Act. However, the allotment of funds under this act to any State or Hawaii for extension work is made only if such State or Territory has complied with the provisions of other acts which do require that the Federal Government funds for agricultural extension work be matched by State or Territorial funds. The Act was extended to Alaska on October 27, 1949.
The Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935 was amended by an Act of June 6, 1945, known as the Bankhead-Flannagan Law, as follows:
In order to further develop the cooperative extension system . . there are hereby authorized to be appropriated... (1) $4,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, and each subsequent fiscal year; (2) an additional $4,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year; and (3) an additional $4,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.
Funds authorized by the Bankhead-Flannagan Law are allotted to the States and the Territory of Hawaii in the same manner as those authorized by the Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935. However, funds authorized by the former Act must be matched, whereas, those appropriated under the Bankhead-Jones Act, do not. The Act was extended to Puerto Rico and Alaska on October 26 and 27, 1949, respectively. Total amounts allotted under the law for the 1950-51 and 1951-52 school years were $12,290,862 and $12,322,364, respectively.
Data in table 25 indicate that total funds expended or allotted to the States under the various acts have increased gradually. In
1947-48 the total allotments to the States and Territories for cooperative extension work amounted to $27,179,764. In 1951-52 total allotments amounted to $32,057,930, an increase of $4,878,166, or 18 percent, in the 5-year period. Increases and decreases in allotments under specific authorizations are evident in the tables. Table 25.-FEDERAL FUNDS FOR COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORK, 1947-48 TO 1951-52
Table 26.-FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED FOR COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK, FOR THE 1951-52 SCHOOL YEAR
Table 26 provides figures on the amounts granted to the States for cooperative extension work during the 1951-52 school year. More than one million dollars of Federal funds were expended
for the year in each of 9 different States. Similar figures for 1950-51 are given in column 4 of table 4.
Reports from the States and Territories indicate that matching funds and other funds to the extent of $36,938,923.43 and $42,914,920.01 for the 1948-49 and 1949-50 school years have been expended on these extension programs. All of these figures have been received from the Extension Service of the Department of Agriculture.
REVENUE FROM NATIONAL FORESTS
Usually, the funds allocated to the States for educational purposes are appropriated by Congress from any general revenues that are available. But in at least one instance, an earmarked source is used and the amounts granted are definitely related to the amounts collected. In this manner, portions of the revenues from National Forests are transmitted to the States. These amounts are small in proportion to other funds used for public education, but in a few States they are significant and they are growing rapidly under the management of the Forest Service. This growth is evident from the figures in the accompanying tables.
In 1907, Congress enacted a law which provided for the payment of 10 percent of all moneys derived from grazing, timber, and other rights and uses of national forests, to the State or Territory in which the reserve is located. A substitute law was enacted in 1908 which raised this to 25 percent. These funds are to be expended as the State or Territories legislature may prescribe, for the benefit of public schools and public roads in the specific counties in which the national forests are located.
Funds collected by the Forest Service in one school year are available for allocation to the States the following school year. Receipts from National Forests for the 1950-51 school year were gathered from 42 States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico in the amounts listed in table 29. These will be available for distribution to the same States and Territories during the 1951-52 school year.
Amounts for 3 States, California, Oregon, and Washington, constitute about 64 percent of the total for all States and Territories. Figures presented in the tables on revenues from National forests have been obtained from the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. The Federal offices have no information regarding the apportionment of these funds between roads and schools, made by the various legislatures.
ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO
In considering revenue from national forests it should be noted that the enabling acts for Arizona and New Mexico provide that