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Table 6.-SUMMARY OF FEDERAL FUNDS ALLOTTED TO THE STATES FOR EDUCATION, FOR THE 1950-51 SCHOOL YEAR
State or Territory
District of Columbia
609.482.57 2,931,944.82 82,581,195.92 5,872,844.07
7,456,103.72 44,349,512.40 2,958,094.78 33,152,988.44. 2,373,753.64 20,105,827.34 2,404,377.70 48,667,621.70 3,916,029.73
1,612,027.49 606,602.19 3,650,454.96 53,079,324.07 2,537,426.76 58,762,343.44 6,027,419.89
14,816,534.79 1,887,442.24 182,428,328.71
$2,550,642,812.95 $171,719,847.34 $161,658,175.90 $2,120,215,751 897,049,038.71
Funds administered by the USDA (table 4)
370,383.90 2,541, 539.16 5,520, 761.81 1,029, 270.87
5, 270, 580.53 3,386, 710.62 2,787, 460.80 2,334, 256.64 4,957,690.97
5,784, 156. 17
998, 814.36 1,593, 449.67 3, 142, 195.31 5,446,447.55
318,979.41 656,498.01 2,318, 916.82 1,346, 129.55 7,676,850.21
574,725.88 4,521, 993. 17
Funds for the
Other Federal funds for education (chs. IV and VI)
0 67,665,838.58 1,642,641.00 23,040, 741 2,466,187.00 15,767,910 22,426,439.00
GENERAL AND SPECIAL AIDS FOR EDUCATION
Federal grants for education made to the States beginning in 1802 were for the express purpose of establishing and supporting common schools. This kind of aid is usually regarded as general aid since it is to be used for the general program of public education and does not specify a particular service or some limited part of the educational program for which it must be used. Other types of Federal aid, including early grants to universities, to seminaries of learning, and to normal schools are considered to be special aids because of the special purposes described in the congressional enactments.1
Both classes of Federal aid were approved in early legislation, but in the years following those first grants, Congress has given much more attention to special aids than to assistance for the general program of education. Now, in the middle of the twentieth century, after years of experience with special aids, it appears that national attention is turning to general aids again. Evidence of this is to be found in the many bills which have been introduced in recent years, proposing Federal aid for the total program of education, to be used as directed by State and local boards of education.
This Federal trend in authorizing general and special aids for education is similar to the development in many State aid programs. Early State aids were general and were allocated to all school districts in proportion to census figures. They were intended to help with the establishment and operation of a total program of education without specifying certain preferred subjects or particular elements of the educational services. Later, special aids for well-defined and limited purposes were approved, and they increased in number. Some States had as many as 30 or 40 of these special aids to promote specific purposes or to support school functions which might otherwise be neglected. State legislatures designated certain items of the local school budgets to be assisted by the State money. Some of these special purposes are listed here to indicate the extent that State appropriations for education have offered assistance to local boards of education in planning school budgets.
1 Keesecker, Ward W. Digest of Legislation Providing Federal Subsidies for Education (Office of Education Bulletin 1930, No. 8). Washington, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1930.
Special Purposes for Which State Legislatures Appropriate Funds to Local School Districts
Teacher sick leave
Abandoned building aid
Board and lodging for
Consolidation of schools
Military camp grants
Capital outlay aids
Education of specific
Army camp children
Classes for the deaf
Foster home children
Transportation of handi
Tuition for orphans
A reversal of this trend on appropriating special amounts for particular purposes has now been noted. Recently, State legislatures have been enacting foundation program laws which provide State funds for comprehensive programs of education without specifying amounts for certain items of the budgets. More and more, legislatures are depending upon the local boards of education to approve reasonably proportioned budgets. Under this trend toward a preference for general aids, the special aids in many States are declining in number and amount.
Federal funds for education allotted in the years following the early granting of lands were limited chiefly to those for education of college grade. Since 1917, however, funds have been provided regularly for vocational education at the secondary school level
and, after 1933, emergency funds were provided for various levels, including nursery, kindergarten, elementary, secondary, higher, and adult education. These Federal aids have been for special purposes which were well-defined in the congressional acts. The remainder of this bulletin is devoted to a presentation of the various aids for education allocated by the Federal Government during the 1950-51 and 1951-52 school years.