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to advance or transfer from one stratum to another. The supply of vitality is drained off fast. Race suicide with us is not a prediction but a fact. The mental and moral inferiority of the second generation among families who have had what we call advantages is the occasion for painful observation and pessimistic forecast. The social problems of the day are among the older stocks.
Certainly we are shortsighted to depend upon Americanization of the national groups under nonimmigrant auspices and leadership. The best of it is being done under leaders within these groups, which is essentially American. Men fresh from Europe coming into their national groups here have a special qualification. They are familiar with conditions abroad. This gives them a basis of comparison. They like America better. They attribute the superiority of conditions to superiority of institutions. They are enthusiastic for the institutions which bring about the conditions. They do not take the condtions for granted or lightly support proposals to tear down the institutions. Revolutionary leaders in the United States have been largely natives, sometimes of recent but often of older stock, and having in the main Nordic names. The immigrant groups usually reject their leadership. The decided drift, persistent through several presidential elections, is for the States with the highest foreign-born percentage of the population to cast the lowest socialist percentage in the vote and vice versa.' Groups of nationals follow not native agitators, professional or leisured, but their own solid men. The assailants of representative government were mostly born in America, often to riches, or have been here a long time, in any case forgetful of our advantages and reckless about blasting away the foundations. Most of the newcomers whom these seek to mislead are industrious in their vocations, steady in their tendencies and looking for examples to the ablest and most successful of their people. These successful men are gradually assimilated into the community life. This furnishes an example and an ambition to the whole group. To cut off the supply from a given country will keep out undesirables, but this can be done by quality restrictions without excluding those in every country who wish to come and whom we badly need.
We require a steady increment of selected desirables from every available source to bring up the level of the national groups, and to replenish the stratum of simple solid citizens who will have solid children and provide material for leaders in every field of our American life. Increasing the number from Germany and Great Britain will strengthen us but it will not leaven the Italian-Americans.
One effect of discrimination against certain nationals and religionists is to drive together on this side the corresponding groups; retarding, not accelerating, assimilation. No country can safely proclaim a third of its population undesirable. Minorities are becoming potent.
On the economic aspect, we speak only of the phases with which our members are familiar in their own business. From material to finished product, industries a large part of whose product is consumed directly or indirectly by the railways are estimated to employ when busy about as many men as the railways themselves, or something near 2,000,000. These employees range from unskille common labo to those most highly skilled in the shop, in the office and in selling, and further on to the supervisory and executive forces. This army of men is engaged in promoting the advance of civilization and raising the standard of living in the United States. Progress in that direction requires progress in rail transportation. Progress in rail transportation rests upon the existence of cognate industries, constantly moving forward toward new levels of excellence in serving the railways.
Take an illustration. One of the blackest blots on our civilization, one of the most deplorable obstructions to improvement in the living standard, is periodical unemployment. One of the causes in the past has been the breakdown of railroad facilities. Industrial and agricultural prosperity at times overwhelms the railroads, bringing about congestion of freight. Industry is shut off from supplies and material. Farms and industry can not reach market. Labor is unemployed. Suppose one of the deficiencies was in locomotive power. This could be increased by enlarging the percentage of locomotives in good order. The requisite would be the more rapid installation of modern machinery in the shops and roundhouses to speed up repairs and a supply of labor to operate them.
There we have a definite task—to postpone or avoid an industrial shut-down accompanied by industrial unemployment. The requirement is faster repair of locomotives. Better equipped shops, if manned, will do it. But men are essential to make the machine tools. The machine tool builder employs skilled
mechanics. In Europe such work descends from father to son, generation after generation. Boys are born to it and die in it. In America the mechanic's son does not become a mechanic. He goes to high school and takes a white-collar job. Where are the mechanics to come from? They are developed from unskilled labor. But certainly if American boys can not be tempted into skilled trades they will not do rough labor. There is only one source-Europe.
Something has been said about the substitution of machinery for labor in order that we might stop immigration without industrial distress. Such subsituation is wide spread and rapid. But the machinery comes from the machine tool builders. And how can the country progress toward larger use of machinery if the works where it is invented, developed, and made, find themselves cut off from their supply of unskilled labor and hence their supply of skilled labor also?
What has been said about machine tool builders applies to every branch of the railway equipment industry. If the supply of qualified immigrant labor is to be curtailed this industry will suffer a loss in productive capacitynot only in quantity production but in the development of mechanical progress for railway advance in safety, efficiency, and economy. To permit the industry à supply of qualified workers wherever found in Europe will furnish the basis for development of men capable of promotion to every grade, mechanical or official.
Upon the energy and drive, the character and skill of these railway equipWient and appliance industries depends the quality of their service to the railways and hence the part played by rail transportation in the advancement of civilization and the elevation of living standards among all our people.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, Mr. Kinnicutt, we will hear you.
STATEMENT OF MR. FRANCIS H. KINNICUTT, 1 WEST FIFTYFOURTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY, REPRESENTING THE IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION LEAGUE (INC.).
Mr. KINNICUTT. Mr. Chairman, I notice that there are a great number of witnesses here. I just wanted to ask if I might have a little more time than you indicated. If your committee is to adjourn now, I would like to know if I could have a little more time to-morrow morning. I have a matter which I think touches one or two of the questions before the committee that are really, perhaps, of major importance; nothing that is academic at all. I have some figures here that I think will interest the committee. I think I should like to have 25 or 30 minutes; but I will try to reduce it to 20 minutes.
The CHAIRMAN. We have had a pretty long session to-day. I will give you an opportunity in the morning.
Mr. PATTEN. Mr. Chairman, I have some statements here which I desire to make to the committee. It seems that it will be hard to find time to present them. Might I hand them to the reporter, to be incorporated into the record ?
The CHAIRMAN. That may be done.
STATEMENT OF MR. J. H. PATTEN, WASHINGTON, D. C., REPRE
SENTING THE PATRIOTIC ORDER SONS OF AMERICA.
Mr. PATTEN. I appear on behalf of the Patriotic Order Sons of America, whose traditions and principles go back to the Sons of America of 1776. The order is a patriotic, fraternal, beneficial organization. It cares for its sick, buries its dead, looks after their widows and orphans, provides insurance, is a strong advocate of the public-school system, and believes in the freedom of religious worship, being nonsectarian and nonpartisan.
Its membership is scattered over the entire country from coast to coast and border to border. Its members think America and Americans, whether native born or naturalized, should come first; and consequently it resents foreign intermeddling with our affairs and particularly the progress of bills such as immigration legislation.
Its national camp in session last year reiterated the many previous demands of the membership for increasing the present quota restriction, and this action was preceded by and has been supplemented by similar action on the part of the various State and local camps.
Among the many reasons for this attitude are the following: As at present constituted the population of the United States was, according to the last census, composed of 58,421,900 native whites of native parentage; 36,398,900 foreign born or persons born of foreign born or mixed foreign and native-born parents; and 10,463,000 negroes.
Our feeling is that there are here now too many foreign-stock persons for our forces of assimilation to Americanize, and that a breathing spell is needed; 72 per cent of the population of Chicago is foreign stock; 80 per cent of the population of New York City is foreign stock or foreign born; 69 per cent of the population of Rhode Island, 66 per cent of the population of Massachusetts, 64 per cent of the population of Minnesota, and 59 per cent of the population of Wisconsin are foreign born or born of foreign-born parents.
The foreign born in the United States represent 32 racial divisions or subdivisions, 37 different nationalities, come from 45 different countries, and speak 40 different languages. They maintain several thousand foreign-language newspapers in 40 different languages.
Congregated in foreign colonies, principally in seven Northeastern States, they have simply swamped our powers of assimilation and Americanization. There are many foreign provinces, such as Hamtramck, within big northwestern cities, as that town is situate in Detroit, Mich., that we consider conclusively show the urgent need of further slowing down immigration, estimated last year by the authorities under the present temporary quota law which expires June 30 next to have been from all sources about 650,000 aliens.
Something has been said about the necessity for alien labor to develop our resources. No other nation has to depend on imported alien labor for the development of its resources. This certainly is not true of the southern part of the United States. As proof of that I cite a statement taken from Senate Document No. 251, Sixtysecond Congress, second session, as follows:
This, taken from the Tradesman (Chattanooga, Tenn.), one of the leading trade papers of the South, shows that the South has not suffered from its lack of foreign immigrants--their not going there to any large extent-and that in population, labor supply, out of its own loans, banks deposits, railroad mileage, and in every material and commercial way, the South has increased at a faster percentage than the North, with all its influx of aliens, where there is race suicide, etc.
South in 1900
31,000,000 25,000,000 $253,000,000 $745, 000, 000 30,000
62, 000 15, 173, 000 67, 700,000 884, 474
2, 743, 000 $333, 570,000 $557, 242, 000 5,035, 000
8, 615, 000 $16, 159,000,000 $15, 500,000,000
The 18 Southern States and Territories have received practically no foreign immigrants during the last 50 years, only a few hundred going to each State or Territory; still its total population, either white or black, or both, has increased at over 30 per cent per decade, while the population of the North, the labor supply, has not increased quite as fast. The native birth rate in the Northeastern States, where the bulk, about three-fourths, of the present alien influx settles or is destined, has fallen off until it almost equals the death rate in some localities--race suicide. Forty per cent of the present influx of aliens goes back within a few years with its savings; three-fourths of it is male adults, unmarried, and does not come back again after returning to its native lands, as is shown by official statistics, which show that only about one-tenth of the number that comes has ever been here before.
Take North Carolina in particular. Something has been said here about that State's need for immigrants :
The foreign population of North Carolina is seven-tenths of 1 per cent. North Carolina is one of the most prosperous States in the Union. It stands sixth among all the States of the Union in the annual gross value of farm crops. Although only fourteenth in population and twenty-seventh in area, it is first in per capita value and per acre value of the annual area planted. A generation ago it was twentieth. Figures show it to be among the most law-abiding States of the Union. Its courts enforce the laws without fear or favor. It is doing this with less than 1 per cent of foreign stock.
The Chicago Tribune in December had the following editorial entitled “Hamtramck," describing some of the conditions we urge as absolutely warranting the passage of even a more restrictive bill than the Johnson bill, H. R. 6540, or the proposed amended Reed bill, S. 2576.
The Chicago Tribune says editorially:
Hamtramck, a city of 60,000 inhabitants situated with in the limits of Detroit, is naking a bid for fame. At a recent mass meeting of its residents ciemands were voiced for Polish rule, evacuation of the State police, and removal of all but Polish people from the community. A judge of the Federal court was harshly criticized for an attack on the local liquor situation, and a local justice was hooed into silence when he attempted to speak in English in defense of the Federal court. He was told that only the Polish tongue should be heard.
That reveals a situation which can not be overlooked. The persons responsible for that meeting and its actions are not American in thought, spirit, or practice whether they are naturalized citizens or not. Either something within themselves or something in America has prevented them from becoming Americans and has kept them Poles at heart. It reveals a grave menace to American institutions and democratic government.
It is not a theory but a fact. The question is how to correct it. The normal processes of time would do so, if allowed to operate. Intermarriage with Americans or other races in America, the growing use of a common language, the influence of the public schools and of American social customs upon the rising generation, would eventually break up any such racial conscious, ness and solidarity. But no such influences have operated effectively upon those responsible for the demonstration cited.
That is unfortunate but true. It is also unfortunate but true that resentment of this situation expressed in the ordinary American attitude toward
the Poles, or toward Italians, Greeks, Asiatics, and to a lesser extent toward Germans, Scandinavians, Irish, or British, tends to drive these people still more closely together. That is deplorable. But it does not justify ignoring the fact that an alien-minded community of 60,000 souls, established in one of our greatest industrial cities, violently resents the use of the American language and government under American laws. That is a danger which must be understood if the present Congress is to take essential action toward eliminating such danger.
Time and associations will correct in future generations the evils now apparent in this community. But neither time nor associations will correct the present evil. That can be done only by further restricting the influx of aliens, which has been so great as to build up such communities in the present generation. Even if the next generation is Americanized, the benefit will be comparatively slight if we develop more such communities of new alien immigrants. What we need is time to absorb those we have without the handicap of adding more unassimilable at the same time.
It happens that the Poles of Hamtramck are the inspiration of this discussion. That is incidental. The same thought applies to Italian, Greek, Asiatic, or other racially conscious colonies of alien-minded peoples, wherever located throughout the United States.
Commenting on this editorial, the Manufacturers' Record, of Baltimore, one of the largest trade papers in the country, said, February 7, 1924, under the caption "Drastic restriction of immigration needed to save our country":
The people of this country may well ask themselves whether they want to see the conditions revealed in Hamtramck developed in every part of the United States to a greater or less extent. These conditions do exist to some degree at the present time wherever a large number of southern Europeans are congregated. Among these people are many good, honest men and women who have come to America from high motives, but to a very large extent these alien people feel that they own America; that they can dominate its politics, control its legislation, and run this country to suit themselves. They resent the enforcement of our laws, and they seek to turn our boasted liberty into rank license on their part to do whatever they please, and whenever they please, and in whatever way they please.
Until this element now here has been to a very large extent Americanized and evangelized and educated out of the views which have been bred in them for 1,000 years or more we would be committing an unspeakable crime against this country and all civilization by permitting their increase in America. It is not intended, we believe, by the Almighty that this Nation be deprived of its liberties and its Government by the influx of hordes of aliens. It can better serve the world by upholding its own civilization and Government, and thus setting an example to other nations, than it can possibly do by permitting its influence to be broken down by the lawless alien element which has crowded to our shores from southern Europe, and of which we need no more, regardless of the views that may be expressed to the contrary by employers seeking a larger supply of labor.
Some of the arguments advanced by those who favor increased immigration are wholly without foundation. We regret that the National Association of Manufacturers has recently put forth such an argument. It was intended to convey the thought that in 1921, 194,000 manufacturing establishments had an output of only 56.8 per cent, as compared with their possible production, by reason of a shortage of labor. It is difficult to understand how men of intelligence connected with that organization should have permitted such an argument to be advanced.
In 1920 this country was crowded to the limit of possible profitable production. Its agricultural and industrial interests were prosperous and its people were well employed. But following deflation there came a disastrous shutting down of industrial activities, and we had 5,000,000 people out of employment. The output of the 194,000 manufacturing establishments of 56.8 per cent was, therefore, not in the slightest degree due to shortage of labor, but to the general depression exising throughout the country, for there were millions of idle men and women vainly seeking employment.
We then had from 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 men and women idle because there was no work to be found ; and yet, because 194,000 factories had an output of