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We are very anxious to get these farms occupied by good northern farmers or good agricultural immigrants just arrived in this country. We prefer these farms to be at work instead of being idle, and we offer them rent free for the first year to the right class of farmers.

We have been informed that you are in touch with the class of farmers we would want, and are taking the liberty of writing you and asking if you would he interested, and if so, please advise me. Yours very truly,

ROBERT E. L. SPENCE, President.


New York City, December 28, 1923. DEAR SIR: We have been considering for some time the question of settling upon Potter Farms and Broad Acre Ranch property some Dutch immigrants. Recently it has been brought to our attention that you are interested in the same general question in connection with your properties near Wilmington.

I should like very much to meet you and discuss the subject, as it might be possible that some cooperation between us could be established. The reason for writing you at the moment is to say that I am planning to be in Belhaven, N. C., for a few days the second week in January, that is, from the 6th to the 9th. If you are to be in Wilmington, I shall be glad to come to Wilmington to talk the matter over with you if this plan meets with your approval. It is also possible that you occasionally get to New York, and, if that is so, I would appreciate your letting me know so that I can call upon you here.

I expect to leave New York on the second of January and shall not be back before going to North Carolina. Perhaps you will pardon me, therefore, for inclosing an envelope addressed to me at my up-town address, so that your answer will come the more quickly.

Like many other people who are connected with North Carolina enterprises, I have been very much interested in the remarkable work which you have done for the State, and it will be a pleasure to meet you. Yours very truly,

J. H. SEARS. Hugh MACRAE, Esq.,

Wilmington, N. C.

CHARLOTTE, N. C., January 19, 1924. Mr. Hugh MacRae,

Wilmington, N. C. DEAR SIR: I am taking the very great liberty of writing you and askins your opinion about matters on which you may not care to express 'an opinion. If you do not care to advise me or if you can not furnish the advice without trouble, I shall, of course, understand perfectly.

I find myself more or less actively engaged in the management of a farm in Cabarrus County. This farm has about 10 tenant houses, and I am finding it most difficult to secure desirable negro tenants.

It has occurred to me that every year some rather desirable immigrants come to this country from northern Europe, and I was thinking of what could be done toward securing three or four families of these, who would make satisfactory farmers for small farms on the tenant plan.

My friend, Mr. W. R. Taliafferro, of this city, tells me that you have had experience of more or less similar nature to my proposal, and I am writing to ask you if you won't be so kind as to tell me what you think of my scheme, and what sort of farmers and citizens you have found these immigrants to be, and what nationality you would advise me to try to get as tenants.

I understand perfectly that the above is rather a large order and a point on which none other than a close personal friend may care to express themselves. Furthermore, you may not be able to answer my questions without considerable trouble.

If you feel that you would not care to offer advice, or if the matter would cause you any inconvenience whatever, please disregard this letter and I shall understand perfectly. If, however, you can furnish me the above information, shall greatly appreciate your courtesy.

Thanking you for the attention which you have already extended me by reading this letter, I am, Very truly yours,



Atlanta, Ga., January 29, 1924. Hon. WILLIAM C. REDFIELD,

Executive Vice President, New York City, N. Y. DEAR SIR: Yours of the 22d instant to Col. S. G. McLendon has been referred to us for attention. Colonel McLendon will also write you within the next few days.

We have read with intense interest the brief address made by you on the 17th instant, and what you say concerning South Carolina appertains to Georgia, except we believe a careful and scientific analysis will prove that we are more in need of skilled agriculturists, which means that we can offer greater opportunities to get them.

Truly there exists a “human vacuum " in Georgia, and for the reason, I, together with Mr. E. S. Center, jr., agricultural agent of the Georgia Railroad, visited the Dutch ambassador in New York and presented our claims to him. At the conclusion of this conference we realized that we preferred the Dutch inimigrant above other classes of people, since an amalgamation of them with our people would soon reflect an era of prosperity which could not be accomplished otherwise, and to that end we secured pledges from United States Senators, our governor, and all the higher State officials to cooperate with us in our plans.

No doubt you will be interested to know that the Dutch consul general, Dr. W. B. Montijn, visited Georgia some two months ago, and I believe was very favorably impressed. At that time we were endeavoring to get our lands sold immediately to the Holland immigrant, but this was objected to by Doctor Montijn, who explained that his Government would discourage any purchase of lands by their people until their subjects had actually demoustrated that the lands and locality was what they wanted. We therefore have been at work securing options on desirable lands at low prices and for a period of one and two years, allowing a prospective purchaser to become a tenant on reasonable share basis, instead of requiring an outright purchase. You will observe that this meets the wishes of Doctor Montijn, and we are in a position to tender to the Dutch Government, when the time is propitious, concrete plans.

The writer heard the report of the Congressman from Mississippi. given to our local chamber of commerce some months ago, immediately after his return from the European investigation trip. There is nothing in your brief which ('onflicts with his report and recommendations to us for a selective type of immigrants, which shall be done at the port from which they are sailing; and I am confident that you will find both of our Senators, Messrs. Harris and George, ready to support the bill. These gentlemen are tremendously interested in building up agricultural Georgia, and strenuous effort must be made in obtaining the Dutch type of farmer, which class of people would be acceptable to most Georgians.

We regret that your letter did not arrive in time for us to get in communication with our Senators, in order that they might aid you in any way possible.

We have made a rather exhaustive study of our situation, and also the labor situation of Holland, and we frankly believe that our State and the Dutch Government can be of mutual assistance. Especially do we seek proper opportunity of presenting our credentials, warranting the statement that nowhere else in the United States is there such opportunities offered thrifty agriculturists as here in Georgia.

We are exceedingly anxious to be of every possible service to you in your endeavors as outlined in your brief, and we stand ready to cooperate with you to the fullest, if you but direct us as to your wishes.

In conclusion, may we state that our motive is not the exploitation of a landdevelopment scheme, but we are anxiously seeking a practical solution of our abandoned farming district being put upon a profitable income basis, and the earnings distributed to the various channels of business, we naturally expecting to get our share. Very truly yours,

BEN. R. PADGETT, General Manager.

ABERDEEN, N. C., January 21, 1924. Hon. Hugh MACRAE,

Wilmington, N. C. DEAR MR. MACRAE: I wish you well in your idea of bringing emigrants taking the bold stand your amendment contemplates.

I and my son jointly own 2,000 acres of land in Scotland County. Two years ago we took the matter up with Senator Overman, and requested him to ascertain if it would be possible for us to settle young Scotch families on this land, say a family to evry 40 or 50 acres.

It was our plan to go to Edinburg and secure these emigrants and convey to each family 40 or 50 acres of land in fee simple, and require no payment for the first two years; then they should pay one-tenth of the value of the land every year until finally paid for.

We had an idea if the land were sold in this way before the emigrants came over the immigration law and foreign contract law would be evaded, but Mr. Overman thought it would be impossible, and we were forced to let the matter drop.

To be sure, this is all beside the question, but it will go to show that other people have recognized the necessity of the relief contemplated in your amendment. Very sincerely,


Per J. McN. JOHNSON. Senator COPELAND. Mr. Chairman, may this letter, written to Mr. Johnson, chairman of the House committee, from Mr. Redfield, formerly Secretary of Commerce, be inserted in the record ?

The CHAIRMAN. Certainly.
(The letter is printed in full, as follows:)

MARCH +, 1923.
Chairman Committee on Immigration and Naturalization,

House of Representatives, Washington D. C. DEAR MR. JOHNSON: I regret that I did not receive your letter of the 9th ultimo in time to call upon you as kindly suggested in the final paragraph. Since that time I have been prevented by illness from giving the matter further care.

Speaking as one who realizes the necessity of wise restriction upon immigration and who approves broadly the principle of selective immigration, I venture to think that sufficient weight has not been given in current discussions upon the subject to certain clearly known facts which can easily be confirmed from official sources. Having said this, let nie add that facts are stubborn things and make themselves respected without regard to opinions or enactn:ents. Therefore I am on firm ground in placing before you facts rather than fancies or preferences for consideration.

It is a fact that millions of acres of arable land have gone back to wilderness in some of our Southeastern States for reasons that are widely known, to wit, the boll veevil, the lure of the mill, and the negro exodus.

It is a fact that untouched areas in Virginia and North Carolina and deserted farms in Michigan and other States call for culture.

It is a fact that the authorities of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and responsible business hodies of Michigan will confirm these state ments.

It is a fact that the price of farm products, such as vegetables and fruits, in our great cities is high and shows no present sign of falling while the demand is increasing.

It is a fact that we have no population on which we can draw, trained in the cultivation of garden truck for which the territories named are specially suited and for which the markets of our great cities call. Transportation is at hand in all these areas but not production. There is a social human vacuum here which we have no means of filling.

It is a fact that in the Netherlands (possibly elsewhere, but I speak from knowledge of the Netherlands) there are thousands of self-supporting small farmers trained in the cultivation of garden truck, all of whom have been taught the English language, whose coming offers the means, and the only visible means, of meeting the vacuum described.

It is a fact that an official committee exists in the Netherlands to make such careful selection of these proposed immigrants as will satisfy the most exacting demands.

It is a fact that the officials of the States named, or of counties and towns within them, are prepared to specify definite localities where these men are wanted.

It is therefore a fact that an officially ascertained demand exists for which there is an officially ascertained supply, and this supply is of trained men accustomed to institutions similar to ours, who have been taught our language, and whose sole purpose in coming would be to become citizens.

What reason can there be on any principle of restricting immigration to exclude Hollanders, taught our tongue and eager to do the work for which we ourselves officially admit our need? Surely this situation in which the facts are officially known on both sides of the sea should be favorably considered in pending legislation if for no other reason than that our interests demand it. Yours very truly,


President the Netherlands-America Foundation. The CHAIRMAN. We will hear Judge Freschi.

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Mr. FRESCHI. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I want to thank you for the opportunity you have given me of coming here and presenting the views and work of the Italian Welfare League; and also of the advisory committee of the league, of which I have the honor to be chairman.

I do not intend to make a speech, Mr. Chairman, because as a judge for the last 12 years, I am not given much to speech making, but more to listening, and then I make my speech after the others have concluded, usually in one or two sentences. And it all depends on the character of speech whether it meets with disapproval or commendation.

I am here, Mr. Chairman, as a native-born American. My father came here in 1849, after he had fought in the rebellion of 1848. If my memory serves me right, his first vote was for Abraham Lincoln. It has been my good fortune in America to be honored by my fellow citizens. I have been serving them in Senator Copeland's city for a long time. And I was favored by the nonpartisan party, and the Republicans with the nomination for a place on the supreme court bench, but the people could not see me as they saw the other candidate. So I am out and he is in; but I am still holding the job.

I am here, not in favor of or against any quota law. I suppose that had there been a quota law when my father came over, I might not be here to speak to this committee to-day.

I am here to say just a word, in the few moments allotted to rne, respecting the sentiments of the Italian Welfare League, which is a social service organization. It has a branch office on Ellis Island, which devotes its energies and its time to the welfare of the incoming immigrants, in no way antagonizing the policy of the Government as at present administered.

The Italian Welfare League has had experience with families in Greater New York and vicinity. And they told me to tell you that in every case that has come to their notice they have found that where the immigrant in America has left his wife and children abroad, the hardships are many. I will not bore you with details. They appreciate, and no doubt you do, that the primary object of legislation along this line, as so well expressed and forcibly and eloquently expressed by the chairman of this committee, is to make a good American citizen out of the immigrant; good financially, good economically, good industrially. We hold, and we therefore submit to you that there ought to be an exception or an exemption over the quota in this proposed statute so as to include within the exception the wife and all unmarried children under 21 years of age, of the immigrant.

Senator WILLIS. Judge, will you permit me to interrupt you just there, so as to be very sure we understand each other? I have before me this bill pending before the committee, and section 4 reads as follows:

Mr. FRESCHI. What page? Senator Willis. Page 5. [Reading:] In the issuance of visé certificates preference shall be given to an immigrant who is the unmarried child under 21 years of age, the husband, or the wife of a citizen of the United States.

Mr. FRESCHI. Yes, sir.
Senator WILLIS. Does that section meet with your approval?

Mr. FRESCHI. I do not think that meets the situation I have in mind, Senator. I have this supposed case: Mr. A comes to this country, and he remains a certain length of time; he either becomes an American citizen, or declares his intention to become such. If the monthly quota as fixed in your proposed law is exhausted, that man will be unable, as I understand it, to bring in his wife and his unmarried children under 21 years of age.

Senator COPELAND. Judge, there was a reason why we did that. If there was a quota which was exhausted in any one month, she could be given a preference the following month.

Mr. FRESCHI. Well, I am told that frequently an Italian immigrant who is a thrifty individual, has often been prepared to bring in his family at certain times of the year. Now, we know that as time goes on that fund of his may become exhausted, or used up. And unless he can use it immediately to bring in his family, there may be a possibility, or in fact a probability that that family may not be able to come in in the succeeding month, or any other period.

When you find in this country an immigrant with his wife and his family of children, you have the best kind of a combination to make the best type of American citizen, and to make out of him a useful factor in this country, an economic as well as a political factor in this country. It tends to his happiness. It tends to place him in that class which Mr. Trevor speaks of in his preliminary study of the immigration problem. It makes for economic standards and their preservation. And I think it will meet just exactly the spirit of this paper of his when he speaks of impartial justice and national welfare.

Senator Willis. What amendment then do you suggest to this bill?

Mr. FRESCHI, I think the statute proposed should in section 3, under the head of " Definition of immigrant'" contain a clause, after the word “except” on the 17th line of the bill—a clause that will put in that exemption the wife and all unmarried children under

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