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PUBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & SON, luxuries, the stability of Institutions, the condition of SoEDITORS AND PROPRIETORS, 395 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y,

ciety, the progress of Civilization, the hopes and happi.

ness of Man. Taking the low rates which the farmer has J. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y.

realized for the products of the last harvest, we should TERMS-FIFTY CENTS A YEAR.–Ten copies of the CULTIVATOR and Ten of the Annual REGISTER OF RURAL AFFAIRS, with one of each like to trace the bushel of Indian corn for which he has free to the Agent, Five Dollars.

received 10 cents in Central Illinois, and find it returning THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-eight years. A New Series was commenced in 1863, and the nine volumes for 1853, 4, 5, 6, 10 cents more to the inhabitants of that State for carriage 7, 8, 9, 60 and 61 can be furnished, bound and post paid, at $1.00 each. to Chicago, and 2 cents there for storage; busying the na

THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal of 16 quarto pages, making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 per vigator of our inland seas, and paying him over again all that year, is issued by the same publishers.

it has thus far cost, to bring it on to Buffalo; leaving its

passing tribute there for another handling, discharging its The Cultivator & Country Gentleman. slender toll on our canals, and amply remunerating our

citizens for its transportation over them; again, in our CONCERNING “A GOOD CROP.”

great seaport metropolis, contributing, a cent or two to

agents, and as much more to insurers, and, finally, freightWe all know that the Farmer is frequently styled, in a ing our vessels for Liverpool, where it sells at last, at a pleasing figure, the "bone and sinew” of the Country. price nine times as large as that at which it was originally We are often assured that a prosperous Husbandry lies at purchased. We should like to point out how it bas put the fountain head of prosperity of every other kind. dividends into the pockets of railroad managers, and enThat Agriculture is the great parent of Commerce; the abled bond-holders, here and abroad, to calculate with cer. real source of general contentment and welfare ; the tainty that their income will be safe. How it has lightened actual mainstay of a government.

taxation in New-York, and busied hundreds of working. But do we pause and think of the meaning that is in- men all along its way to the Ocean, where the shipvolved in these rhetorical outbursts? Do we not rather owner and the capitalist welcome it as the signal of sure wear a knowing smile, as they issue from the lips of the and healthful activity. How it brings back a golden stream, very urbane and affable gentlemen who seek our rustic in turn to be disbursed and distributed, or, through the support at the polls ? Are we not sometimes inclined to skill of the financier, to accumulate as the source of a bay, as we read them in our Agricultural papers or listen to well directed system of credit, and diffuse a beneficial them in our Agricultural addresses—“All very well for sense of confidence and security through every artery of a pretty period, but I wish you had to follow the plow or business intercourse. We should like the thoughtful reaswing the scythe for your living, and try it on!"" Are der on the Prairies, who has accepted the pitiful sum, as we not, in a word, either so suspicious on the one hand it justly seemed to him, for which this bushel of corn was of what Sam SLICK or somebody else bas styled “soft sold,—to go back in mind to the days before the rail. Bawder,” or, on the other, so little accustomed to go be. roads, and consider in what a situation the river blockade yond the limit of our own every-day life, and take a would have left him, without their aid in seeking a market. larger view of the affairs and events around us,--that the We should like him, if a Patriot-we should like any lover often repeated testimony to the vital importance of Suc-of his Country, at the East or West, to ponder the reverse cessful Farming to a Community, to a People, to the of all this picture that has just been sketched—a Nation World, attracts little or no attention from us—is passed entangled in civil war, without food for its armies—a comby as a matter of course—and the next time we happen merce suddenly brought to a stardstill with nothing to sell to want a little greater Governmental encouragement for that others want to buy,—the miseries of Famine, waiting an interest of such surpassing magnitude, are we not close upon the horrors of the battle-field, the losses of the quite contented to meet with our usual reception and re- tradesman and the forced idleness of the mechanic. sults—to be promised, and postponed, and snubbed, and And we should like to have it borne in mind, that, forgotten?

while, with abundant food and no market, there may be Would that we had the space, the ability, and the data, — fewer luxuries,—there is yet little peril of starvation, in the midst of the pregnant illustrations now to be found on That, with scarcity of food—no matter how vast the other every side, of the truth of all that was ever claimed for Agri- resources of a country—its poorer classes must suffer first, culture by its most fuent eulogists—to point out in fitting and, in their suffering, involve at length all others, from terms the manifold channels through which its successes highest to lowest, -as finances are deranged, paupers and failures affect all trade, manufactures, comforts and multiplied, business grows stagnant, and discontent con



stantly spreads. That, with productive harvests and ready THE AGRICULTURE OF NICARAGUA. Bales, farms are paid for, churches, colleges and public improvements supported, luxuries both for body and mind

DICKINSON, UNITED STATES MINISTER, diffused, --even the inevitable hardships of war cheerfully sustained, and doubtless turned eventually to good ac- EDITORS COUNTRY GENTLEMAN-How little man knows count. That short crops and bigher bread, have been of a country from its written bistory! A bare mention prolific of riot and revolution,-sometimes dethroning of its locatior., mountains, rivers, lakes, minerals, chief tyrants, sometimes stifling liberties, often converting the towns, form of government, the number and complexion hunger for food into the thirst for blood, reducing humani- of its inhabitants, and the most prominent incidents in its ty to the level of the prowling beast of prey, and neatly annals—and the subject is considered as exhausted, while quenching the faith of man in man, or in his Maker. the true charactet of its people, animals and vegetables,

Who, then, can compute, in any calculation of dollars and the peculiar qualities of its soil are entirely overand cents, of guineas and shillings, of francs and cen- looked. times, the results, present and remote, that hang upon the The history of a country which describes it in sach a prevalence of fine weather or frosts, of rains or drouths, manner that an observing man, if dropped into it blindof carelessness or skill, of short-sighted improvidence or folded, without a knowledge of his route, could not, on far-seeing discretion in the management of the Soil,-in a emerging to the light, detect his location from its written particular time at a particular place ? That we have the sure history, is worse than useless, because it only serves to promise, that "seed-time and harvest shall never fail,” confuse and mislead where it is intended to be a teacher is indeed true; but is it not accompanied with the warn- and a guide. That history. which gives but the meagre ing that he shall not reap, who does no more than watch outlines of a country, though true as far as it goes, is the seasons in their progress—that he shall not eat, whose nevertheless as much a libel upon its subject as the careindustry and energy are found unequal to those emergencies ful painting of a human skeleton with all its truthful hideinto which at any time he may be plunged? Let us bear ousness, would be upon the living, breathing beauty of the in mind the fundamental position which Agriculture oc- human form. Wben nature is fully and truthfully porcupies—not as a thing to be lightly spoken of with the trayed, and all the gaps filled up, we behold at once a smile of self-satisfaction, or in the flowery rhymes of the symmetry and harmony, and fitness of everything which school-boy,—but as involving us in a trust the responsi- goes to make up one grand and majestic wbole, which we bility of which is incalculably great, -as rendering us, not utterly fail to see when half of her parts are left out. the almoners of God's charity to the world, but the agents As no two things are exactly alike, and as soil and eli. of His beneficent provision—a provision which, like the mate bave so much to do with the fashioning of man, ani. talents of the parable, is susceptible of ten-fold improve mals and plants, one would suppose that the picture of a ment, if we embrace every means of accomplishing it country could as easily be taken with pen and pencil as which He places within our reach!

the likeness of Washington or Jackson, which a common - The time seems to us an appropriate one for u sin- school boy with a little practice can draw on a board with gle word of caution. The London Mark Lane Express a coal, with sufficient accuracy for any observing Union man has repeatedly urged during the course of the past sea- to recognize. son, that our power of producing rplus of grain for I do not propose to give at this time such a history as I foreign markets, is now—as some other English journals recommend, but briefly to call the attention of the readers have ranked our government-quite at an end; and, as of the Country GENTLEMAN to the recently as the number for Sept. 30th, a correspondent of DIMINUTITE SIZE OF THE CATTLE OF NICARAGUA, that journal dating from New-York, decided, entirely we And, I might add, of Central and South America, so far as presume to his own satisfaction, that “this is likely to be my observation has extended. The cattle in these localithe last year that England may expect any shipments of ties are about one-half the size of those of the eastern, breadstuffs to a large amount," from the United States ! Whether such predictions are to be falsified, rests entirely middle and western States of North America. I have with the Farmers of the Country; if, discouraged by pri- never seen a bullock slaughtered here that would weigh ces which ill reward their labor, they neglect the extra ef. 300 pounds in the beef, nor bare I ever heard of one that fort that ought to be put forth-in view of the large num- weighed 800 pounds. The average nett weight of cattle ber who have left farming for fighting, - to ensure the here does not exceed 300 pounds, while in the Northern timely performance of spring operations, in the best man. ner and on a scale as large as possible, we may find the States it is as high as 600, and I have seen whole droves country suddenly carried next year from an extreme of of cattle in the New-York market that would average 800 plenty to a condition of comparative scarcity, and our im- pounds each in the beef. Indeed it is no uncommon thing portations of foreign goods resumed, without our having for several to be slanghtered during the holidays weighproduce of any kind with which to pay for them. We confess that we anticipate no such result. But it is wise ing in the neighborhood of 1,500 pounds cach. The nett to avoid all risk, and to err, if error there be, on the side of weight of “Washington,” the heaviest bullock which I plenty.

recollect of being killed for beef in the States, was, if I

remember rightly, over 2,100 pounds. les We are much pleased with samples of the “Wood

I have been thus particular with regard to weight for ruff Patent Portable Barometer," advertised in another column by CHARLES WILDER of Peterboro, N. H., and the reason that Mr. Squier, with some other historians, sent us by the Advertiser. The contrivance for securing represents the cattle of this country to be quite equal to ready portability, as described in his advertisement, is those of the United States. It is possible, however, that equally simple and effective; the workmanship of his In- they mean the cattle of the Southern States, which, like struments appears to be all that can be desired, and the those of all hot clima'es, are inferior in size to those of prices are certainly not extravagant. Samples of the styles retailing respectively at $12 and $8, may be seen at

more northern latitudes. this office.

I know full well how deceptive the cattle of this coun

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try are, with their long, large horns carried high in the climates. His average weight in this country would fall .air, and yet there is no excuse for writers who make such below 130 pounds, whereas in Maine, New-Hampshire and gross mistakes, even on subjects with which they are not Vermont it would be 160 pounds, and in New-York and familiar. There are millions of hides exported from these the Western States 160 pounds. countries, thousands of which annually reach the New

THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM-TREES-LUXURIANCE OF THE York market, whose average dry weight falls below 22

SOIL-TREATMENT OF MANURES. pounds each. The average weight of green bides in NewYork being about 80 pounds, and the bides of two cattle With the vegetable kingdom the difference is still weighing but 300 pounds each being always heavier than greater, and in favor of this country. It is difficult to the hide of one whose weight is equal to both of them, draw a comparison, however, as I have never seen but and assuming the weight of green hides to be twice the two plants growing wild here, which are of natural growth weight of dry ones of the same dimensions, which is not in the northern States, unless the “cedar” here is the far from being correct-and it is not difficult, even from black walnut there, which is quite probable, though it is the hides alone, to draw a pretty strong comparison in much larger and heavier here than there, and different in favor of the cattle of the United States.

many other respects. All timber here contains more than The difference in size and weight is not greater than Indeed everything in this country is highly charged with

double the ash that the same amount does in that country, in shape. With limbs as well formed as those of Flora alkali. The soil is made from the out-pourings of vol. Temple, and their hind feet well set under them, they are ready every time to walk, trot or run, and can kick about canoes, and has for ages been enriched with the ashes of as sharp as a deer, to which they bear as close a resem. like all others that it has withstood the worst cultivation

burning mountains, which has made this country so unblance in form and carriage as they do to our cattle at home. While the heavier bodied cattle of New-York all live in cities or villages, and bring everything from the

ever devised by man to exhaust a soil. . The inhabitants possess twice the strength and drafting power of these, farm to the place of residence to be consumed, without the latter possess equal advantages over the former in the least particle ever being returned to renovate the soil ; speed and endurance on the road. It is no uncommon and not satisfied with this system, that would in time ex: thing for them to travel with their accustomed load 30 or haust any other soil, they sow their corn for fodder, and 40 miles per day, and I have heard of their being driven 60 miles per day with the thermometer at 85 deg., which pull that and the grass up by the roots, with much of the I have no reason to doubt. The ox here does all the team rain for the animals, which are kept in the towns, the water

light soil sticking to them, so that when brought in the work, both on the farm and road, yet I have never seen that runs from the cart loads looks as black as tar water. his tongue out in the hottest of the weather. The horns And this course has been pursued for the last 300 years, of a three year old bull are frequently as slim and delicate with two and sometimes three crops of corn per year, or as a heifer's, but they thicken with age, and do not show a wrinkle for each year, nor diminish in size near the head an alternate crop of corn and tobacco. They are now in extreme age, as they do in our country.

nozzling up their cornfields with erooked sticks drawn by

oxen, to plant tobacco, and that which has been set 15 or ABOUT BULL FIGHTING—THE COWS AND HOW TO MILK THEM. 20 days looks better, darker colored, and more thrifty

Bull fighting, which at home is one of the things we than any other I ever saw in my life, not excepting that read of, and in countries adjacent to this is occasionally which I have seen growing on the bed of a coal pit. All talked of, means something here, and only becomes in the manure that accumulates here is hauled off and thrown teresting when they have succeeded in killing one or two into the rivers, holes or ravines. They never think of of the sportsmen, or crippled them for life. When an ex- spreading it on to their farms or gardens. No one seems pert sets out with a lasso fastened to a well trained horse, to know whether it would do good or harm, as I have never and captures one of these cleau-heeled, slim-horned gen- seen the first man that has tried it on either farm or gar. tlemen, then when the animal makes bis defiant bow, and den. And yet with all this destruction of soil, if one of turns his wicked horns upon his captor, good-bye to horse the farmers bas the calentura, or from any other cause and rider, unless he has a sure companion at hand to lasso does not plant bis land every year, it will in the course and hold the animal from the other side; and then if man of one season be covered over with a heavy growth or horse is killed, as frequently happens, it only increases of vegetation, ten, fifteen or twenty feet high, as thick as the sport, and they never stop to wink, but another dashes the hair on a dog. I have seen one tree that I was crediin to fill his place.

bly informed was sixteen months old, which was 25 feet The cows of this country generally give about as much high, and 34 inches in diameter, and I have seen the leaf milk as a goat, say from two to three quarts per day. Be- of a plantain put out and grow in one week to the fore they milk the cow they always tie the calf to her fore enormous size of 31 feet in width, and ten feet in length. leg. Then they carefully crawl up behind the calf

, and There is nothing in the whole vegetable kingdom to which the cow is clieated out of what little milk she has, under I can compare the plantain tree as it stands in the full the supposition that she is giving it to her calf. "To at- beauty of its wide spreading leaves, looking so green and tempt to milk the cow without having the calf tied to her fresh and luxuriant, as though it must have sprung into fore leg would be considered by the natives as simply pre

life but yesterday. posterous. Besides being “kicked into the middle of next A WONDERFUL TREE, WHICH GROWS BOTH WAYS." week,” they would fail to get a single drop of her milk, But the most remarkable tree of all others, and one I which she wouldn't think of giving down to anybody but never heard of until I saw it, (and yet there are thousands her calf.

of them on the Polvon and the other rivers that run into On the cattle estates the milk is manufactured into the bay of Punta Icaco,) is one which commences in the cheese, resembling what is known in the United States as middle and grows both ways. That is to say, the body of pot-cheese, with the exception that this is pressed. It is the tree commences—according to size-ten, twenty, Targely used by the inhabitants, and brings from 10 to 12 thirty or forty feet from the ground, with a hundred or a cents per pound in the market. One hundred cows in this thousand branches running thence to the ground, and country will make no more, however, than twenty-five in spreading in the shape of an inverted tunnel, and if the the northern States, as the former do not give more than tree is five feet in diameter, none of the branches being one-fourth the quantity of milk which the latter do, and more than two inches through, yet so close together that even that not half so rich. Butter is, as it were, unknown a bird could not fly through between them. The branches here, though it can be made of an inferior quality with shooting upward are very numerous but larger, and the great pains. Good butter can be brought here, however, tree looks as though it did not make the least differenco from the Northern States, if well made and properly pack which end it stood on. Cut the lower branches all off and ed for a hot climate, which in time will be done to a great | turn it bottom end upwards, and stick the top in the mud, extent, to the mutual advantage of both countries. and it grows, they say, just as well. And as though not

The size of man is also less here than in temperate content with growing either end up, it would seem as

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though nature had given it a monopoly of the surrou

rounding points, for docility, for quiet and peaceable disposition, soil by furnishing it with a seed about two feet long, shaped and for aptitude to fatten well, and to return the greatest like a round steel-pointed arrow, with a slight bulb near number of pounds of pork and lard from a given nu, ber the pointed end, which makes it so much the heaviest that of bushels of grain, I think there is no other breed of it invariably strikes point downward as it falls froin the swine in the world that we can set down as superior to tree, and sticks straight up in the ground, however hard the Berkshires, providing one is satisfied with hogs of a it may be, or if it falls in the water, it is sufficiently dense small size. This is the only objection that can possibly to reach the bottom, where it commences growing at once. have any influence when the merits and demerits of the

If this letter was not already quite too long, I would various breeds are compared with each other. When a give you my reasons at length why plants bave so much man has a lot of Berkshire pigs he can stand up before the advantage over animals in this country. In short the the world and defy them to produce anything that will Boil and climate are so favorable to vegetable growth, that compete with them for beauty or nice pork. There can the plants get the start to such a degree that they absorb be no valid objection urged against them, only that they the ammonia, and draw so largely upon the vitality of the are a little too small for making pork for market. atmosphere that they starve the whole animal creation out Every map who bas bad much experience in fattening of one of the essential elements of growth, not even ex. swine knows very well that large and beavy hogs will alcepting the dogs, tigers and lions, which are the most ways command from 50 cents to $1 more per 100 pounds miserable, poverty-stricken creatures that ever were in pork markets than those logs which will weigh only thought of in a country where cattle, mules and horses from 200 to 300 pounds when dressed. Many farmers are so abundant in the forests, and easily killed by beasts adhere to the Berkshires in preference to all other breeds, of prey.

because they have sueh small bones, and make most I have not forgotten my promise to write and send you superior meat, not only hams, shoulders and bacon, but some portions of my last year's agricultural address, which mess and prime pork. Still all must acknowledge an inI should have done ere this had I not left my memoran- feriority of size. Nevertheless many contend that what is da, which, however, I have written for and expect soon lost in size is most abundantly made up in quality of to receive.

meat; and for home consumption I am quite inclined to With my best respects to our agricultural co-laborers, I concur in this opinion. remain your friend and obedient servant,

THE RED RUSSIANS.—Many farmers in this county, Leon, Nicaragua, Oct. 14, 1861.


contend that the Red Russians cannot be beat, wlien the

object is to fatten swine for market; because they are of (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

a larger size, and if they are a little coarser than the Agricultural Notes in Monroe Co., N. Y.--No. IV. Berkshires, or Chester Whites, and do not assimilate as

much fat, nor as readily as some other breed, which many Swine---Different Breeds.

good farmers contend they do not, they will return as In passing through many portions of Monroe Co. one is much net profit in the end as any other breed, because impressed with a great many features in the agriculture of they are larger, and therefore, will command á greater

price per hundred pounds. the county, which may be looked upon as worthy of more These are some of the arguments, pro universal adoption, and which may properly be considered Mr. Isaac Bower, North Chili, who has had much exas the true basis of progressive agriculture, while he meets perience in raising swine of various breeds, thinks that with a still greater number of circumstances, systems of a cross between the Red Russian and Berkshire produces management and farm practices, which may be set down a very superior kind of swine, not only for market but

for liome consumption. He showed me some fine sloats as tending to deterioration, or retrogressive agriculture.

of this cross, which approximate the nearest to a perfect It will not be my design in this place to say much, ex- breed of swine of anything that I have ever met with. cept in regard to the practices of guod farmers.

They possess, in addition to all the good points of the One very prominent characteristic in the agriculture of Berkshires, greater length, quite as much or greater Monroe county is the rearing and fattening of swine for breadth, and larger frames, and are as docile and quiet,

and apt to fatten as any other breed. market. I think I never have been in any locality in the Mr. Bela Dunbar had recently received by express, a Empire State where so many good swine are reared as pair of Chester Wbites, which were very nice indeed; there are raised in many portions of this county. It is no but when they were compared with Mr. Bower's shoats of uncommon thing to see on a single farm from twenty to about the same age,—the product of the Red Russian fifty swine, and sometimes as many as seventy, of a very the best.

and Berkshire-I was compelled to think Mr. B.'s pigs choice breed.

We called at the residence of Mr. Wm. Gridley, who There is quite a variety of different breeds, and are all owns a small farm, and has some very good cattle of graờe considered good, although when compared with each other | Durhams, and a good herd of Berksi swine. there is a marked superiority of some over others. In

On making inquiry for his good improvements in agrisome instances we meet with the full-blooded Berkshires, culture, we met with none worthy of recording, excepting and the Suffolks, the Chester Whites, and the Red Rus- bis rat and mouse-proof corn house, beneath which was a sians; and then there are crosses, at pleasure, between hog-sty. The floor of the corn house is about four feet any two breeds which are desirable. Of course nearly from the surface of the ground, and the outside was proevery breed appears to possess some superior points of vided with a system of movable slats, which could be excellence over those of some other breed. One man who drawn along in stormy weather, over the spaces between has the full-blooded Berkshires is sure that they have no the main slats, which are nailed to the timbers of the equal ; while another, who has received a pair of pigs by building. express from some one of the eastern States, at a great

This arrangement subserves a two-fold purpose. One price, is sure that the Chester Whites are the ne plus ultra is, to exclude the rain and snow in stormy weather, which of the genus Sus; while another thinks there is nothing is liable to find its way between the timbers, or into the equal to the red Russians.

joints, thus hastening their decay; and another object isIn comparing the merits of the various breeds it has ap- fair weather, for the admission of a good supply of air, to

and a very important one too-to open large spaces in peared to my mind that it is proper to be influenced more or less by circumstances, and after hearing the “hog cure and dry corn in the ear. stories ” of a great many men in favor of their own particu

Raising Field Peas lar breed, I will simply write what I think about the mat- | Is another prominent feature in the agriculture of this ter, whether it pleases Mr. A. or displeases Mr. B. county. In almost every locality where I passed through,

THE BERKSHIRES.-For form and symmetry, good and on almost every farm, there would be a field of peas, and on some farms there would be a very large field of instances they are fed to sheep during the foddering season, them. It was no uncommon occurrence to see fields con- and small shoats, and swine of all kinds, are wintered on tuining some fifteen, some twenty, and even in some in- them, and they thrive well. stances, forty acres of peas.

When peas are ground into meal for horses and neat The kind of peas which are most commonly raised, are cattle, they are usually mingled with an equal amount of what they call the Canada field pea. The fruit is rather oats and Indian corn, as the meal of peas is quite apt to small, although the yield per acre is good; and so far as operate as a laxative when fed to horses or neat cattle. I was able to learn by inquiring of those who were point- Ground peas and Indian corn and oats, or wheat bran, in ed out to me as most successful and thorough farmers, the equal quantities, which is fed to stock of almost all kinds, I pea crop is about as profitable a crop as any other that can testify is most excellent feed for calves during the fodthey are accustomed to raise.

dering season, and good also for cows that give milk, for inThose who are accustomed to raise much peas, usually creasing not only the quantity but the quality of it

. Let aim to have a good lot of shoats in a thrifty condition, as a good cow have good cornstalks and good hay daily, and soon as the peas are matured enough to feed, when they be slopped with the meal of peas and Indian corn and commence feeding them in vines, three times, daily, as wheat bran, and there will be no complaint about poor many as they will eat without wasting any. Sometimes and thin milk and white, sickly looking butter. the vines are fed in the pens, and sometimes they are fed in the fields. Those farmers who appreciate the value of

Peas before Wheat. good manure, make a vast amount of it when their swine As peas usually take possession of the soil when it is in are being fatted, while those who do not value it as highly a good state of cultivation, the crop is considered to be a as they should, feed their peas in the highway, or in any good one to precede a crop of winter wheat, as the soil is other convenient place, where they will not be troubled left remarkably clean, and in good tilth, with only once with the labor and expense of hauling it, and spread it plowing and harrowing for the reception of the seed. In on the fields. Many farmers commence feeding the peas some localities, however, where there is a preponderance in the vines, while many of them are qnite green; and of clay in the soil the ground is plowed in autuinn after in this way they can be fed for a long time before they the pea crop has been removed ; and the next spring, become so hard that it would be more profitable to grind after being plowed, spring barley or wheat is sowed or them, than to feed them whole.

drilled in, when a very remunerative crop is obtained, proThe quantity of seed per acre varies from two and a viding the soil is not too wet for a good crop to grow. Şo half to three and a half bushels; and the yield per acre far as I made inquiry, both among good farmers and bad varies according to the fertility of the soil, and the man- ones, they prefer to raise a crop of peas before sowing ner of cultivating it. Some farmers receive not more winter wheat to allowing the soil to remain in summer than ten bushels per acre, while many who make and ap- fallow, unless the soil is so overrun with noxious weeds as ply a good burden of barnyard manure, obtain over thirty to need summer-fallowing to subdue and eradicate them. bushels per acre, in many instances, although that amount

I saw a great many fields from which a crop of peas is a very large yield, and much more than the average had just been harvested, which were almost as clean as a number of bushels throughout the county.

summer fallow, which las been well taken care of—and Modes of Harvesting Peas.

much cleaner than many fallows which were in so good

tilth, that a man could excavate a hole with bis boot, I visited several farms where the peas were being har down to the subsoil, with very little exertion. vested, and it was truly surprising to see what a laborious and expensive job some farmers would make by the man

Peas an Exhausting Crop. ner of harvesting them.

Many good farmers with whom I conversed on this In many instarces tney gathered them into heaps about subject, contend, that a crop of peas will exhaust the soil the size of a good forkfull, by rolling them, as it is term- less than any one crop of real grain. They contend, that ed. This is done with a grass scythe, by running the by their broad system of large and porous leaves, they obscythe into the uncut peas, and then by continuing to step tain far more nutriment from the atinosphere, than those backwards, rolling them over and over, cutting off some plants which are supplied with very thin and small leaves; and pulling up others, until a bunch 'is collected large and that they stifle the growth of noxious weeds, which enough for a forkfull. But this is a very slow way of exhaust the soil. This coincides quite favorably with the harvesting them.

theory of some vegetable physiologists, that leguminous Another way is to rake them with the old fashioned plants exhaust far less than cereals. But, I am inclined horse rake, or with a revolving rake while the vines are to believe, that this depends in a good degree on circunawet with dew or rain, so that they will not waste by shell- stances. Peas and beans also, are leguminous plants, and ing. When they are gathered in this way, there will be I am well satisfied that they exhaust the soil much more vines beneath the winrows, which the rake does not pull than we are willing to admit. It is not denied that leguup or sever from the roots. In such instances, the win-minous plants draw a good supply of nourishment from rows are thrown into bunches with forks, when those that the atmosphere until fructification commences; and could have not been loosened with the horse rake, must be they be removed from the soil before the fruit begins to pulled up or broken off with the fork, which makes much form, they would exhaust but little, providing they could unnecessary labor.

be consumed on the farm, and the manure returned to The best and most expeditious manner of harvesting the soil. But, when plants are allowed to stand until all them, and which was adopted in some instances, is to rein the seed has come to maturity, a large quantity of the the horse away from the unraked peas as soon as the rake nutritive matter of the soil is sucked up in forming that was filled, and empty it on the ground where the peas had seed, which, of course, exhausts the soil. been raked. According to this plan of harvesting them As a very small proportion of the nutritive matter the horse and rake must be turned around every time the taken from the soil to produce the wheat crop, is ever rerake is emptied. But this is a much more expeditions turned to the soil in the form of manure, wheat is conand easier way than either of the others to which allusion sidered a very exhausting crop. It not only exhausts has been made.

the soil where it grows, but it impoverishes the farm, as I observed that the best farmers did not allow their no other field is improved in fertility, while another may peas to become dead ripe before they were harvested, but be somewhat impoverished. But as peas are about all that many of the pods would be quite green when they consumed on the farm where they are produced, when were raking them. When they are allowed to become the system of farm management is as good as it should quite ripe many of the pods will be so ripe that a great be, in order to render farming a paying, and at the same many will be lost by shelling.

time a progressive system of agriculture, they may be set When a farmer has a large field of peas, as they are down as much less exhaustive to the soil than either of very bulky, it is not practicable to house them, therefore the cereals, unless they were consumed in the same manthey are put usually into very large stacks, and in some ner. A crop of peas when properly consumed by stock

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