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Upon the completion of the plant at Queenston, the development on the Canadian side will be as follows:


Capacity Location

H.P. Toronto Power Company.

.125,000 Ontario Power Company.

.200,000 Queenston Plant

.450,000 Total for Canadian Use.....

.775,000 Canadian Niagara Power Co.

.112,500 Total in Canada.....

.887,500 For the above installations there are available under the present treaty 36,000 cubic feet of water per second, which is insufficient to operate the entire development at capacity. It is, therefore, reasonable to suppose that the Canadians either anticipate an increase in the permits under the treaty rights or otherwise will delay the installation of units at the Queenston Plant, for which the water requirements would exceed the amount allowed; or, place in reserve the Ontario Power Company's plant.

Niagara Falls Junior This scheme suggests a dam across the Niagara River below the lower rapids a little more than a mile below the Whirlpool where there is low land on the Canadian side between the river and the bluff called Foster Flats. It is claimed by the promoters that the dam will produce a head of 100 feet and utilize all of the water that goes over the cataract together with that returned to the Maid-of-the-Mist Pool from plants adjacent thereto. This would amount to about 180,000 cubic feet of water per second, assuming the treaty to be modified as suggested by Government Engineers, and would produce approximately 1,800,000 potential horse-power.

The method proposed in the construction of the dam is to first build that portion to be located on the Flats at the Canadian side, with openings near the base through which to divert the river's flow while the portion to be located in the river's basin is being built.

The dam proposed has a base about 650 feet wide and gradually tapers to a crowned summit over which ice foes are expected to slide to the waters below the discharge from the plant. It is said it will create a mill pond in the gorge reaching back to the discharge points from plants adjacent to the cataract, the waters from which could all be used except during the periods when ice must be carried over the dam; at such times sufficient water must pass over the dam as is required to keep moving such ice as is taken over the falls by the river.

The mill pond if thus created would destroy the scenic effect now produced by the rapids and therefore must have the sanction of both the Governments of Canada and the United States.

If constructed, it would naturally become an international plant, the current from which should be divided between the two countries.

This Committee is not in a position to express any opinion as to the engineering and economic feasibility of the scheme.

(II) The St. Lawrence Waterway In the fall of 1919 the Canadian Government accepted the invitation of the United States Government to undertake a joint investigation of the improvement to the St. Lawrence River for deep draft vessels, in the interest of both countries, and for the most beneficial use of the waters. To the International Joint Commission were referred the questions as to the economic advantages to be derived from the improvement, as to the traffic that is likely to be carried upon the proposed route, as to the apportionment of capital cost, of cost of operation and maintenance of the improvements, and as to the best method of improvement, including the draft of water and the development of power. It is expected that the report of the Commission will be submitted to the two Governments during the fall of 1921.

To facilitate the work of the Commission each Government appointed an engineer for the purpose of acquiring data and to prepare complete outline plans for an estimate of the cost of the improvement. W. A. Bowden, Chief Engineer, Department of Railways and Canals, was named by the Dominion of Canada, and Colonel W. P. Wooten, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, was designated by the United States Government. The joint report of the engineers was submitted to the Commission on July 1, 1921.

An abstract prepared by Harrison G. Roby, Principal Assistant to the American Government Engineer, Detroit, Michigan, and published in "Engineering News-Record” September 8, 1921, furnishes the following information,

The total length of the St. Lawrence between Montreal and Lake Ontario is about 182 miles and the difference in elevation is 224 feet. The work of improving the river made feasible because of three important advantageous conditions. The first is that obstructions to navigation are concentrated in comparatively short stretches. The second favorable to the construction of proposed works is the location of rock ledge within reasonable depths at all sites of necessary structures and at the same time below grades of the proposed canals for a large part of their total length. The third is the large amount of water power made available by the proposed work due to the large and remarkably eyen flow of the river.

For the purpose of discussing the treatment to be accorded the St. Lawrence it is divided into five divisions as follows:

1. Montreal Harbor to deep water in Lake St. Louis. ,
2. Deep water in Lake St. Louis to end of breakwater at Lake

St. Francis terminus of proposed ship canal between

Lake St. Louis and Lake St. Francis.
3. End of breakwater to lower end of St. Regis Island.
4. Lower end of St. Regis Island to Chimney Point.
5. Chimney Point to Lake Ontario.


Of these divisions, the first three lie wholly within Canadian territory. The international boundary line follows the river throughout the fourth and fifth divisions.

The decisions reached as to the improvement to be made in each division to obtain the necessary depth for navigation and to obtain the greatest beneficial use of these waters, are summarized in the following conclusions.

Summary of the Government Engineers' Conclusions and Recommendations: The physical conditions are favorable for improvements for navigation which will be permanent and will have very low upkeep cost. For the project as recommended in the report, the total cost of improvement from Montreal to Lake Ontario is $252,728,000. This is an estimate based on present-day prices (considered to be about 80 per cent above pre-war prices) for a 25-foot depth with such provisions that a 30-foot depth may be secured later without interfering with the use of the waterway. It also includes the cost, to the switchboard, of developing 1,464,000 H.P. The total annual cost of operation, maintenance and depreciation of these works is $2,562,000. Of this sum $1,457,000 is properly chargeable to the operation, maintenance and depreciation of power plants. The estimated cost of increasing the navigable depth throughout the entire stretch to 30-foot at a later date is $17,986,000.

Power Pos bilities: Improvement of the entire reach from Montreal to Lake Ontario for navigation alone is feasible, and the development of nearly all the potential power in the river, amounting to 4,100,000 H.P., can be made as co-ordinate parts of schemes for the improvement of navigation when conditions warrant.

The simultaneous development of such a vast quantity of power is not a sound economic procedure, as a market to take this output is not now in existence, and cannot be expected to spring into being at once. The sound method of procedure is to improve for navigation alone those reaches where side canals and locks can most economically be used and where the development of the power at some future time is not interfered with by the proposed improvement, and, in that part of the river where the construction of locks and dams offers the most feasible means of improving navigation, to provide for the development of the incidental power obtainable as a result of the heads created by the dams.

If the improvements are carried on simultaneously it will be possible to complete them in eight years from the time the work is begun, if funds are made available as fast as needed.

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(III) Shawinigan Falls, Province of Quebec Shawinigan Falls are located on the St. Maurice River about fifteen miles due north of that part of the St. Lawrence River known as Lake Saint Peter. The St. Maurice, one of the largest rivers in Canada, has its source at the divide between the valley of the St. Lawrence and the valley of the Hudson Bay, at a point about three hundred miles northwest of Shawinigan Falls. Practically all of its drainage


area is now forest and most of the country, not being suitable for agriculture, is likely to remain timbered for many years. The whole area is thickly interspersed with lakes, so that the flow of the stream is naturally more constant than that of most rivers of its size. The river flows in a general southeasterly direction and enters the St. Lawrence River at Three Rivers, Quebec, about one-half way between Montreal and the City of Quebec.

Also on the St. Maurice River are falls at Grand 'Mere about six miles above Shawinigan Falls and at Gres Falls about six miles beiow Shawinigan Falls.

The La Loutre Dam is located at the headwaters of the St. Maurice, nearly two hundred miles north of Shawinigan Falls. · It is 1,300 feet long, 70 feet high and forms a lake 360 square miles in area, impounding many times as much water as the Assouan Dam in Egypt. When full this reservoir contains enough water to generate one billion kilowatt hours in the power plants at Grand 'Mere, Shawinigan Falls and Gres Falls. It will thus be seen that a very large amount of the power which can be developed at the low water stages of the river is obtained by means of this dam.

Three regulating dams have also been constructed on the Manouan River, a large tributary of the St. Maurice. This tributary enters the main river about 120 miles above Shawinigan Falls.

These dams impound about 600 square mile feet of water which is sufficient to generate ninety million kilowatt hours when utilized in the power plants of the Company at Shawinigan Falls, Grand 'Mere and Gres Falls.

The Shawinigan Water Power Company has indisputable rights on the St. Maurice River at Shawinigan Falls and at Gres Falls, and further, controls the power from the development at Grand 'Mere owned by the Laurentide Power Company.

At present the combined generating capacity of this development is 300,000 H.P. With the flow of the St. Maurice River, regulated by the La Loutre Dam great storage basin, which has been constructed by the Quebec Government, the generating capacity at Grand 'Mere and Shawinigan Falls will be about 480,000 H.P. and a future development at Gres Falls will raise this to over 600,000 H.P.

These three power plants, located within eighteen miles of each other on the St. Maurice River, controlled and operated by one company, form a very strong power center. From these plants power is now supplied northeasterly to the City of Quebec, southwesterly to the City of Montreal and southeasterly to Sherbrooke and Black Lake, all of which points are about 75 miles from the Falls.

Summarizing, the installed capacity in electric generating equipment owned or controlled by the Shawinigan Company at these three falls is as follows:

Location Shawinigan Falls Plant No. 1. Shawinigan Falls Plant No. 2. Laurentide


58,500 .100,000


Total electric capacity.....

.241,000 In addition, the Shawinigan Company supplies hydraulic power to the amount of 50,000 H.P. at Shawinigan Falls, thus giving a total power development of 291,000 H.P.

The Shawinigan Falls development was started in 1900.

Plant No. 1 has six units of various makes and designs of 10,000 H.P. each.

Plant No. 2 was completed in 1915 and has five units of modern machinery of 20,000 H.P. each.

Plant No. 2 Extension is under construction and will have, when completed, one unit of 40,000 H.P.

(IV) Water Power Resources of Canada During the years of 1919 and 1920, the Department of the Interior, Dominion Water Power Branch, made a careful re-analysis and computation of Canada's water power resources. All existing stream flow and water power data, available from Dominion or Provincial sources, has been systematically collated, analyzed and co-ordinated with a view to preparing on a uniform basis from coast to coast, revised estimate of the power available. While the resources have been exhaustively analyzed in so far as the information will permit, only very meager data is at hand in many districts and for many rivers.

Basis of Computation: The figures found below are based upon rapids, falls and power sites, of which the actual existent drop or head possible with concentration is definitely known or at least well established. Innumerable rapids and falls of greater or lesser capacity are scattered on rivers and streams from coast to coast which are not yet recorded and which will only become available for development

more detail survey work is undertaken and completed. This is particularly true in the more unexploreci northern districts. Nor is any consideration given to the power concentrations which are feasible in rivers and streams of gradual gradient where economic heads may be created by the construction of power dams, excepting only at such points as definite studies have been carried out and the results made matters of record.

In brief, the figures hereunder are based on definite rapids, falls and power sites, and may be said to represent the minimum water power possibilities of the Dominion. The power estimates have been calculated on the basis of 24-hour power at 80 per cent efficiency on the basis of "Ordinary Minimum Flow” and “Estimated Flow for Maximum Development."

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