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c. There should be no movement between the tie plate and the

tie. The effect of any looseness is to make a "track which
rattles," causing damage to the plate bearing area of the tie
and enlargement of the spike holes. This close connection
between tie plate and tie can best be accomplished by the use
of separate fastenings which do not touch the rail and whose .
only function is holding down the plate. The ordinary means
is to provide projections on the bottom of the tie plate; these
should be deep enough to provide the required bond and to
do their part in strengthening the tie plate, but so shaped and
of a depth to do as little damage as possible to the tie, and it
is believed that the depth of such projections should not exceed
16-inch, and be so shaped as not to cut the fiber of the
wood. When screw spikes are used, a rest shoulder should
be provided on which the screw spike bears when driven home,
leaving a freeway between the rail base and the under side of
the spike head; this aids in making the bond between tie
plate and tie. The freeway between the underside of the spike
head and the rail base is of great importance and should be
from t-inch to -inch, depending on character of the sub-

grade.
Spike Effect of Design.

Safe and good track can be obtained by use of either screw spikes or different forms of cut spikes, and the choice between these is purely a question of which is more economical, all things considered; there is no evidence at this time that the screw spike in itself prolongs the life of the tie. The early installations of screw spikes in this country were defective as regards the design of the spike and its application, but this has been corrected in later work and in a few years there should be more accurate information on this question. Spikes should be in accordance with the standards of this Association. (Cut spike— Vol. 22, p. 653. Screw spike-Bulletin 197, p. 32.) The design of the screw spike is of great importance in its effect on the tie. The thread on the spike must be accurate in dimension and pitch (made to fit gages as recommended by the Association Standard), and so made in conjunction with a leader that the spike can be easily started in the hole in the tie by a light tap from a hammer. These features are provided for in the Association Standard, and failure to observe them results in destruction of the screw threads in the wood either in the initial application of the spike or in replacing spikes when renewing rail. The necessary freeway between the screw spike head and the base of the rail should be secured through the design of the tie plate. Method of Application.

The surface of the tie should have an accurate bearing surface to receive the tie plate; this is best accomplished by machine adzing. There is considerable advantage in prolonging the life of the tie by boring holes to receive the spikes; this is, of course, necessary to the application of screw spikes. If cut spikes are used the expense of boring untreated ties is not warranted, but all treated ties should be bored for spikes if the maximum life of the timber is to be secured. Such holes should preferably be bored entirely through the tie to ensure adequate depth when the tie plate has settled into the tie.

When treated ties are used all adzing and boring should be done before treatment. In case it becomes necessary to bore any holes in treated ties in the field, as in the case of switch ties, or to use tie plugs, the holes should receive an application of preservative before the spike or plug is applied. All tie plugs used in treated ties should be treated.

Attention is called to the danger of over-spiking. When the number of spikes is sufficient to hold the rail and gage properly, any additional spiking unnecessarily injures the tie at the most critical point. Additional spikes may be driven when actually required.

LOCOMOTIVE TERMINALS

F. E. Morrow, Chairman;
C. N. BAINBRIDGE,
LELAND CLAPPER,
GEORGE H. GILBERT,
E. M. HAAS,
G. W. HARRIS,
L. P. KIMBALL,
M. A. LONG,
J. W. PFAU,
John ScHOFIELD,
A. M. ZABRISKIE,

A. T. Hawk, Vice-Chairman;
G. W. BURPEE,
W. H. COOKMAN,
WALTER GOLDSTRAW,
R. J. HAMMOND,
E. A. HARRISON,
W. T. KRAUSCH,
J. B. MADDOCK,
L. K. Sillcox,
I., L. TALLYN,

Committee.

To the American Railway Engineering Association:

(1) Revision of Manual: The proposed changes and additions to the Manual are given in Appendix A, report on Ash Pits, and Appendix B, report on Engine Houses,

(2) Ash Pits: The report and recommendations of the Committee are given in Appendix A.

(3) Engine House and Power Plants and Shop Extension-Collaborating with Division V_Mechanical.

In collaborating with Division V-Mechanical, this subject has been divided into several parts. The report and recommendation of the Committee with respect to Engine Houses are given in Appendix B.

The Committee reports progress with respect to Engine Terminal Layouts, as shown in Appendix C.

(4) Car Shops: The work of the Committee this year has been confined to Passenger Car Shops, and the Committee reports progress as shown in Appendix D.

(5) Coaling Stations: Committee reports progress.

(6) Typical Layouts for Storage and Distribution of Fuel Oil: Committee reports progress.

(7) Storehouses: Committee reports progress.

(8) Outline of Work for Ensuing Year: Committee recommends the re-assignment of all subjects except Subject No. 2-Ash Pits.

CONCLUSIONS Your Committee recommends that the findings and conclusions of the Sub-Committee on Subject No. 2—Ash Pits, as embraced in the summary of Appendix A, be adopted and placed in the Manual in lieu of the material now appearing in the Manual under this subject.

Your Committee recommends that the findings and conclusions of the Sub-Committee on Engine Houses, as shown in Appendix B under recommended changes in Manual, be adopted and placed in the Manual.

Your Committee recommends that the reports on Engine House Layouts and Car Shops, as shown in Appendices C and D, be accepted as information only and incorporated in the Proceedings.

Respectfully submitted,
COMMITTEE ON SHOPS AND LOCOMOTIVE TERMINALS.

F. E. MORROW, Chairman.

А

ASH PITS

G. H. GILBERT, Chairman;

R. J. HAMMOND, C. N. BAINBRIDGE,

F. E. MORROW, LELAND CLAPPER,

Sub-Committee. General

When a railroad engine terminal fails to turn serviceable power promptly and economically, much of the trouble is often due to delay in handling engines over the ash pit. This has created a popular impression that there is something radically wrong with ash pit design. Upon being assigned the subject of ash pits, your Committee undertook the study without prejudice and with open minds, hoping to conclusively establish 'such facts as would discredit poor designs and lead to definite conclusions and recommendations. After two years' investigation and consideration of a great deal of data generously furnished by the railroads of the country, your Committee is led to believe that most of the dissatisfaction with ash pits is not due to the types of pits in use, but to the way in which they are operated or to the fact that many of them are entirely outgrown and inadequate to meet changed operating conditions and increase in size of locomotives. The real underlying cause of dissatisfaction seems to be that ash pit layouts and size of operating force are so often fixed by normal demands rather than allowing for abnormal, unusual or extreme demands. In other words, dissatisfaction with ash pit operation will continue to exist until railroad managements recognize the economic importance of first-class ash pit service under all the varied operating conditions as related to the economic use and movement of engines and traffic as a whole.

Nearly every type of ash pit in common use is favorably recommended by the officials of some roads and shows low operating cost under certain conditions, while adversely commented upon by other officials and showing high operating cost under other conditions. This reflects the different demands of engine terminals varying as they do from those handling a few engines per day to those handling several hundred per day and also shows a deal of difference in the personal equation.

From the submitted data it is evident that the selection of a proper ash pit for any certain terminal should be determined almost wholly by conditions peculiar to the railroad and to that terminal. This makes it impossible for your Committee to present a condensed set of conclusions or recommendations for adoption and printing in the Manual, but there is offered a summarized statement of all essential information which has been developed, a brief discussion of various features essential to all designs, and such general recommendations as it is thought can be properly supported, especially recommendations indicating the size of terminals for which any certain type of pit seems most suited. This "Summary" is recommended for adoption and printing in the Manual. Some subject matter contained in it has been omitted from the main body of this report to avoid needless repetition.

Practically all railroads of the United States and Canada were requested to furnish the following information regarding ash pits: 1. Essential description of principal types used with blue prints

showing cross-section, length and track layout. 2. Statement regarding number of locomotives handled over such

pits per day and per rush period of two hours, together with statement regarding normal forces employed day and night

with rates of pay. 3. Approximate estimates of cost of construction at 1919 prices

and average cost of maintenance per annum. 4. Statement of advantages and disadvantages of each type with

recommendations as to its use in new construction. The replies received from the railroads failed to develop a deal of information sought by the Committee, but the essential facts of such data as was received is shown in tabular form in the Proceedings, Volume 22, pages 622 to 647, inclusive. Types of Ash Pits

Considering the subject of ash disposal in its broadest aspects, including all handling of ashes from locomotive ash pans, methods of disposal and ash pits actually in use may be conveniently considered and discussed in classes or groups as given below:

1. Ashes are discharged directly onto ordinary track and thence removed by hand. This is done at some places where only a few engines are handled and where ashes can be wasted by widening fills, but it mainly occurs with engines on line of road between terminals. In some parts of the country where freight runs are long, fires are cleaned two or more times between terminals and even passenger engines under unusual conditions clean fires on line of road. Such cleaning is generally done near water stations, or passing tracks.

While the cleaning of fires on line of road is an operating necessity, it nevertheless involves some risk to traffic unless the practice is properly regulated. Accumulation of packed ashes at planked road crossings and at switches have caused derailments. Such cleaning should be permitted only at designated locations between marked limits and where ashes can receive proper attention. Canadian law prohibits dumping of "fire, live coals or ashes" on "tracks or right-of-way unless they are extinguished immediately."

Where ashes can be wasted over a nearby bank, such removal is economical, provided there is plenty of other work to keep the force busy. Where a depressed loading track can be built at almost no cost for grading and drainage and where old bridge lumber can be used for a low retaining wall, ashes can often be loaded into cars at little extra cost. Such temporary arrangements are to be recommended at some places to take care of helper engines or a few engines at junction points of unimportant branch lines.

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