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has been accepted and Committee III is continuing to represent the
Association and expects to present the specifications approved by our
Association as a basis for unified specifications.
IV-Rail

During the year, the Rail Committee has endeavored to harmonize differences with the rail manufacturers on the standard specification for Open-Hearth Steel Rail, but so far without success. However, it is expected to have another meeting in January and at that time some progress may be made, which will be reported to the next Convention. V-Track

During the past year, the Committee on Track has prepared plans for a number of track tools, railroad crossings, etc., which will be presented this year to the Association for adoption as recommended practice, and tentatively for standardization.

The Committee is glad to report that the manufacture of frogs and switches, previously adopted by the Association, is rapidly increasing and that the use of the Association's accepted designs for cut and screw spikes is being promoted as much as possible. Members of the Committee have been active toward securing adoption of these items on their railroads as standards, but have not made any extensive campaign toward standardization. It is the intention to start a campaign in the near future in behalf of the standardization of committee plans and specifications. VIII–Masonry

The Committee on Masonry recommends that the Specifications and Tests for Portland Cement, adopted as recommended practice by the American Railway Engineering Association at the Convention in 1917, be accepted for standardization, except that paragraph 36 be omitted, which paragraph reads as follows:

"Paragraph 36: A permissible variation of 1 will be allowed, and all results in excess of this specified limit but within this permissible variation shall be reported as 22 per cent."

The reason for this change is that this allowable variation has been omitted in general by those using the specifications. IX-Signs, Fences and Crossings

The Committee on Signs, Fences and Crossings reports progress on the standardization work assigned it for this year. X-Signals and Interlocking

The Committee recommends that the following drawings showing oil burning railway lamps and detail parts, RSA, 1100-1101, and ARA Signal Section Drawings 1430, 1440-1441-1442-1443-1445-14459-1460-1461-1470-14801496-1497-1498-1499, be submitted to the American Engineering Standards Committee for standardization.

XIII-Water Service

In July, a letter was received from Mr. C. R. Knowles, member of the Water Service Committee, advising that that Committee recommends the standardizing of the American Water Works Association's standards for cast iron pipe, hydrants, and valves. This was submitted to your Committee by letter-ballot and on September 23 the Board of Direction was advised that your Committee approves and recommends that these articles be adopted as standard. XVII-Wood Preservation

The Committee on Wood Preservation has developed a situation whereby it would appear the present American Railway Engineering Association specifications for creosote oils tend to exclude what seem to be genuine coal tar creosote oils, and it is expected that there will have to be a change in our creosote oil specification before the next annual meeting.

A survey of the situation covering the creosote oil used by forty-two different railroads in the United States indicates that only a very small amount of oil now used comes up to our present specifications. XVIII-Electricity

From the subjects submitted, the Committee on Electricity selected Friction and Rubber Tape, and will present to the Convention for approval a specification for Commercial Adhesive Tape for electrical purposes, and a specification for Rubber Insulating Tape. If approved by the Convention, these specifications will be presented to the American Engineering Standards Committee for standardization. Next year, the Committee will report on Insulators, or knife and snap switches.

CONCLUSIONS The Committee recommends that the following subjects be submitted to the American Engineering Standards Committee by a representative of the American Railway Association before that Committee as a basis for standardization: 1. American Water Works Association standards for cast iron

pipe, hydrants and valves, as approved by the Water Service

Committee, and recommended by this Committee. 2. Tamping bars, tamping picks and ballast forks, pages 102-103

104, Volume 22, of the A.R.E.A. Proceedings, as reported by

the Committee on Ballast and adopted at the last Convention. 3. Specifications as prepared by the Tie Committee of the

A.R.E.A. and presented to the American Engineering

Standards Committee by the Board of Direction. 4. Railway Lamps, as developed by the Committee on Signals

and Interlocking, to be presented by that Committee at the next

Convention. 5. Commercial Adhesive Tape and Rubber Insulating Tape, as

specified by the Committee on Electricity, to be reported to the Convention this year.

Recommendations for Future Work The need of standardization was never so great as at the present time. There is a useless diversity of types, and a considerable share of this waste is borne directly by the railroads. Indirectly, the roads, of course, bear their share of the burden. The outlook for standardization beneficial to the roads is improving, other associations are making good progress along similar lines, and your Committee feels that every effort should be made to follow up in detail the various possibilities that the subject offers. It believes the reward of success will be great and will result in economies which, especially at present, are greatly needed.

Respectfully submitted,

THE COMMITTEE ON STANDARDIZATION,

E. A. FRINK, Chairman.

LOCKING W. J. Eck, Chairman;

W. M. VANDERSLUIS, Vice-Chairman; AZEL AMES,

H. K. Lowry, H. S. BAILIET,

С. Моск, A. M. BURT,

F. P. PATENALL, C. E. DENNEY,

J. A. PEABODY, F. L. DODGSON,

A. H. RUDD, W. H. ELLIOTT,

A. G. SHAVER, G. E. ELLIS,

T. S. STEVENS, J. G. M. LEISENRING,

E. E. WORTHING,

Committee.

To the American Railway Engineering Association:

The subjects assigned to the Committee on Signals and Interlocking for study and report are shown on pages 13 and 14 of Bulletin No. 236, June, 1921.

(1) Revision of the Manual Sub-Committee assigned to this work has furnished the Secretary information regarding the eliminations and additions required to bring the Manual up to date. The list of findings, conclusions, specifications and standard drawings has been reindexed for the purpose of easier identification.

(2) Report on Colors for Signals Report on this subject will be found in the Proceedings of the American Railway Association, Signal Section, pages A-399 to A-409, July, 1920.

(5) Report on Light Signals Requisites for light signals will be found in the Proceedings of the American Railway Association, Signal Section, pages 273 and 508, June, 1921.

(7) Requisites for Signal Locations Report on this subject will be found in the Proceedings of the American Railway Association, Signal Section, on pages 510 to 531, June, 1921.

(8) Report on Automatic Train Control This subject is now being handled by the Joint Committee on Automatic Train Control, members of which were appointed by the American Railway Association and the Interstate Commerce Commission. (9) Aspect Indicating Train Must Take Siding at Non-Interlocked

Switch Report on this subject will be found in the Proceedings of the American Railway Association, Signal Section, pages 299 and 537, June, 1921.

(11) Effect of Electric Locomotive Headlights on Signals

But little difficulty has actually been experienced due to the effect of locomotive headlights and this has been largely eliminated with the abandonment of the arc light and the use of incandescent lamps in the headlights, with the consequent reduction in candlepower as well as the difference in characteristics of the two lights. The difficulties remaining are of three types :

(1) The preventing of a locomotive engineer on one train reading the signals which govern him on account of the headlight on a train in the opposing direction blinding him.

(2) Account of headlight on a train in the opposite direction showing through the colored glass on a dwarf signal other than the one in front of the lamp and so giving a wrong indication.

(3) Account of light from locomotive headlight on a train being reflected back from a signal and so giving a wrong indication.

The first of these difficulties has been obviated where they occur, which was mostly on multiple track territory, by having the enginemen dim the headlights when approaching trains running in the opposite direction.

The second difficulty has been obviated by arranging a shield on dwarf signals behind the colored glass of spectacles which are not in front of the lamp. The third difficulty has been obviated by either :

(a) Adjustment of signal.

(b) Use of convex roundels. The use of such roundels will obviate the trouble should signal not be in proper adjustment. Recommendation.

The Committee recommends : (1) That shields be installed on dwarf signals behind the colored

roundels not in front of the lamp. (2) That convex roundels be used on all new work and renewals.

(15) Outline of Work for Ensuing Year 1. Study the Manual and submit proposed revisions thereof.

2. Study the Manual and the work of the Committee and recommend matter that should be submitted as a basis for standardization.

3. Confer with other Committees on subjects affecting Signal Systems, viz: Committee on Ballast on Standard Ballast Section. Committee on Ties on Methods of Preservative Treatment. Committee on Track on Switches and Track Details. Committee on Masonry on Concrete. Committee on Signs on Signs for Highway Grade Crossings. Committee on Rules and Organization on Rules for Conduct of Signal

Work and Guidance of Signal Employees. Committee on Yards and Terminals on Signaling and Switching for

Classification Yards.

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