Labor in Europe: Letter from the Secretary of State Reviewing Reports from the Consuls of the United States in Relation to the State of Labor in Europe

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1885 - Labor and laboring classes - 193 pages
 

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Page 2 - Labor, who is directed to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with labor, in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially upon its relation to capital; the hours of labor; the earnings of laboring men and women; and the means of promoting their material, social, intellectual, and moral prosperity.
Page 1 - A synopsis of so much of the information which may have been communicated to him by diplomatic and consular officers during the preceding year as he may deem valuable for public information; specifying the names of any consuls or commercial agents who may have been remiss in transmitting commercial information.
Page 15 - An important factor in the labor of Germany is not inquired of in the circular, viz.: the labor of dogs. I have heard it estimated that women and dogs harnessed together do more hauling than the railroads and all other modes of conveyance of goods united. Hundreds of small wagons can be seen every day on all the roads leading to and from Dresden, each having a dog for the "near horse...
Page 80 - The food of the working classes is simple and homely, consisting of, it is understood, for breakfast porridge made with half a pound of oatmeal and supped with half a pint of milk, or tea, or coffee, and bread and butter, with perhaps either an egg, a bit of bacon, or a herring.
Page 110 - They are generally the cashiers aud book-keepers iu shops, cafe's, restaurants, and many wholesale establishments. Female labor and female control exert a very salutary influence upon the credit and prosperity of the district. Many of the most successful business establishments in France are under the direction of the widows of the former proprietors. Saving is one of the leading principles of the work-people, and all — men, women, boys and girls— are taught the economy of helping to swell the...
Page 99 - The political land agitation to which this country has been subject for the past five years has resulted in various acts of Parliament toward remedying the evils complained of by the tenant farmers of Ireland, yet though there has been a general reduction in the rents paid to landlords of 30 per cent., still the small and poor farmer will choose to emigrate. The landlords have suffered great losses during these five years, but the country — as we learn from the addresses of judges at the different...
Page 186 - It would be a legitimate field of inquiry to ascertain what are the conditions which enable England to manufacture machinery and other products at less prices than similar goods can be manufactured in France, and at prices equal to those in Germany, while the rates of wages paid to the workmen engaged in those manufactories in England are on the whole higher than those paid for similar labor in France and, as the foregoing table shows, more than double those paid In Germany.
Page 26 - ... manure into the fields in baskets strapped to their backs. They also do the haying, including the. mowing and the pitching; likewise the harvesting ; after which they thresh much of the grain with the old-fashioned hand flail. They accompany the coal carts through the city and put the coal in the cellars, while the male driver sits upon his seat. They carry on nearly all the dairy business, and draw the milk into town in a hand cart — a woman and a dog usually constituting the team. " I have...
Page 147 - In cotton mills women predominate in the same ratio. In the straw trade 80 women are employed to every 20 men. In regard to the general health of the working classes in Tuscany it can be said to be good. However, certain trades produce certain diseases, just as in the United States or elsewhere, and here in the cities and towns a lack of proper nourishment may add to the tendency to disease. Drunkenness prevails but to a slight extent among the working classes. The prevailing vice is gambling. Gambling...
Page 99 - CAUSES OF EMIGRATION — SELECTION OF NEW HOMES. The farming class emigrates in consequence of the severity and irregularity of the laws appertaining to land, non-security of tenure to the tenant at will, and the facility afforded speculators in purchasing over the heads of others ; and again because of the nonsubdivision of the land into small holdings. Seventy per cent. of the farming class who emigrate go to the United States — that country being the easiest and cheapest to reach. Then some...

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