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The fee of land taken for railroad tracks, without consent of the owners thereof, shall remain in such owners, subject to the use for which it is taken.

§ 14. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privilege or immunities, shall be passed.

§. 15. The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.

$ 16. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war except in the manner prescribed by law.

§ 17. The people have the right to assemble in a peaceable manner to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives, and to apply for redress of grievances.

§ 18. All elections shall be free and equal.

§ 19. Every person ought to find a certain remedy in the laws for all injuries and wrongs which he may receive in his person, property or reputation; he ought to obtain by law, right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay.

$ 20. A frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of civil government is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

ARTICLE III-DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS The powers of the government of this State are divided into three distinct departments—the Legislative, Executive and Judicial; and no person, or collection of persons, being one of these departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except as hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

ARTICLE VII-SUFFRAGE § 1. Every person having resided in this State one year, in the county ninety days and in the election district thirty days next preceding any election therein ; who was an elector in this State on the first day of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, or obtained a certificate of naturalization, before any court of record in this State, prior to the first day of January, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy, or who shall be a male citizen of the United States, above the age of 21 years, shall be entitled to vote at such election.

§ 2. All votes shall be by ballot.

§ 3. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections and in going to and returning from the same. And no elector shall be required to do military duty on the days of election, except in time of war or public danger.

§ 4. No elector shall be deemed to have lost his residence in this State by reason of his absence on business of the United States or of this State, or in the military or naval service of the United States.

§ 5. No soldier, seaman or marine in the army or navy of the United States shall be deemed a resident of this State in consequence of being stationed therein.

§ 6. No person shall be elected or appointed to any office in this State, civil or military, who is not a citizen of the United States, and who shall not have resided in this State one year next preceding the election or appointment.

§ 7. The General Assembly shall pass laws excluding from the right of suffrage persons convicted of infamous crimes.

ARTICLE VIII-EDUCATION § 1. The General Assembly shall provide a thorough and efficient system of free schools whereby all children of this State may receive a good common school education.

§ 2. All lands, moneys, or other property, donated, granted or received for school, college, seminary or university purposes, and the proceeds thereof shall be faithfully applied to the objects for which such gifts or grants were made.

§ 3. Neither the General Assembly nor any county, city, town, township, school district or other public corporation shall ever make any appropriation, or pay from any public fund whatever, anything in aid of any church or sectarian purpose, or to help support or sustain any school, academy, seminary, college, university or other literary or scientific institution, controlled by any church or sectarian denomination whatever ; nor shall any grant or donation of land, money or other personal property ever be made by the State or any such public corporation to any church or for any sectarian purpose.

§ 4. No teacher, State, county, township or district school officer shall be interested in the sale, proceeds or profits of any book, apparatus or furniture, used or to be used in any school in this State, with which such officer or teacher may be connected, under such penalties as may be provided by the General Assembly.

§ 5. There may be a county superintendent of schools in each county, whose qualifications, powers, duties, compensation and time and manner of election and term of office shall be prescribed by law.

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ARTICLE XII-MILITIA $1. The militia of the State of Illinois shall consist of all ablebodied male persons, resident in the State, between the ages of 18 and 45, except such persons as now are or hereafter may be exempted by the laws of the United States or of this State.

$ 2. The General Assembly, in providing for the organization, equipment and discipline of the militia, shall conform as nearly as

practicable to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United States.

§ 3. All militia officers shall be commissioned by the Governor, and may hold their commissions for such time as the General Assembly may provide.

§ 4. The militia shall, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at musters and elections, and in going to and returning from the same.

$ 5. The military records, banners and relics of the State shall be preserved as an enduring memorial of the patriotism and valor of Illinois, and it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by law for the safe-keeping of the same.

§ 6. No persons having conscientious scruples against bearing arms shall be compelled to do militia duty in the time of peace: Provided, such person shall pay an equivalent for such exemption.

INDEX.

(References are to consecutive page numbers of the bulletins, with
the bulletin number noted immediately following each reference.)

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BANKS constitutional provisions

CITIES AND VILLAGES consolidation with counties

416-418, Bul. 6

940-979, Bul. 11 government in Illinois

382-398, Bul. 6

1032, 1033, Bul. 12 government of Chicago

905-954, Bul. 11

CITY COURTS

752, 756, 767-768, 776, 810, 893, Bul. 10

CITY PLANNING

478-487, Bul. 7 CIVIL ADMINISTRATIVE CODE budget provisions

268-287, Bul. 4 departments not under

667, Bul. 9 departments under

650, Bul. 9 enactment

626, Bul. 9

CIVIL SERVICE commission

669, Bul. 9 constitutional provisions

705, Bul. 9 in Illinois

626, Bul. 9 preference to soldiers

1148, 1153, Bul. 14 CLASSIFICATION FOR TAXATION

250-251, Bul. 4

CLAIMS AGAINST THE STATE

864-874, Bul. 10

CLAYTON ACT

1164-1168, Bul. 14

UNIFORM LAWS

668, Bul. 9

COMMITTEES constitutional convention

24-30, Bul. 1 legislative

562-565, Bul. 8

COMPENSATION OF OFFICERS

1179, Bul. 14 farm loans

1089-1122, Bul. 13

BIBLE READING

1199, Bul. 15

BILL OF RIGHTS

1196, 1210, Bul. 15

BILLBOARDS

485, Bul. 7

1136, Bul. 14 BONUS, SOLDIERS

1147-1154, Bul. 14

BOUNDARIES

1209, 1210, Bul. 15

BUDGET

268-287, Bul. 4
572, Bul. 8
636, 653, 681, Bul. 9

CANALS

1180, Bul. 14

CANVASS OF VOTES general assembly

573, Bul. 8 state canvassing board

674, Bul. 9

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

1200, Bul. 15

CENTENNIAL BUILDING COMMIS

SION
676, Bul. 9

CHICAGO
courts

773-784, 793, Bul. 10 government

905-954, Bul. 11 maps

insert before 911, Bul. 11 representation

548-554, Bul. 8

CHILDREN
hours and conditions of labor

1131, Bul. 14

18, Bul. 1

CIRCUIT COURTS

746-749, 768-771, 781-784, Bul. 10

COMPULSORY VOTING

39, Bul. 1

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