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NUMBER AND PER CENT OF GRIEVANCES OF EACH SPECIFIED NATURE FILED BY UNIONS AND BY EMPLOYERS FROM OCT. 1, 1903, TO DEC. 31, 1909.
WAGE RATES AND UNION MEMBERSHIP.
No data are obtainable to present accurately information as to wages and membership in unions prior to 1906. A few unions have complete records of membership, but on account of the many independent or dual unions that have been connected with the general arbitration plan it is impossible to show the precise increase in membership of a large number of unions. Again, it must be understood that the question of jurisdiction and amalgamation has had a very marked influence on membership.
It is for just this reason that it is impossible to show the number of men receiving increased compensation, but in considering the skilled crafts as a whole the increase in 1913 over that paid in 1906 was approximately 6.5 per cent, while the unskilled occupations show an increase of about 5.5 per cent.
In the skilled occupations the greatest increase in wage rates for 1913 over 1906 was received by the boiler makers, $1.50 per day, or from $3.50 to $5 per day. The smallest increase was 20 cents, received by the carpenters and structural and ornamental iron workers, or from $4.80 to $5. The house shorers, considered a semiskilled occupation, though fast becoming a skilled occupation, received. an increase of only 18 cents during the same period.
Among the unskilled occupations the plasterers' laborers were obliged to accept a reduction in wages from $3.50 per day to $3.25 per day, but the general increase in the other unskilled occupations amounted approximately to 25 cents per day on the average.
The table following shows the minimum daily rates of wages in the building trades since 1906. The rates are those reported as prevailing throughout the greater part of each year shown.
MINIMUM DAILY RATES OF WAGES IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN THE BOROUGHS OF MANHATTAN AND THE BRONX, NEW YORK, BY TRADES AND YEARS. [The rates are those reported as prevailing throughout the greater part of the year in each case. Eight hours constitute a day's work in all trades; 4 hours are worked on Saturday (44 hours per week).]
1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915
Asbestos workers and insulators... $4.50 $4.50 $4.50 $4.50 $4.50 $4.50 $4.65 $4. 75 34. 75
3.00 3.00 3.00
3.50 3.50 3.50 3.68 3.68 3.68
5.00 5.00 5.00 5.30 $5.50
2.75 3.00 3.00
4.00 4.00 4.00
Rock drillers and tool sharpeners.
4.75 4.75 5.00 5.00
5.50 5.50 5.50 5.50
Marble bed rubbers...
Marble cutters and setters..
Marble cutters and setters' helpers
Slate and tile roofers..
Steam and hot-water fitters.
helpers.... Stonecutters, carvers, and setters.. Stonemasons
Structural and ornamental iron workers...
Structural and ornamental iron
1 Framers are employed in the building of forms to be used in connection with reenforced concrete or cement structures.
Data relative to rates per hour and per day are shown for each occupation in separate groups in the following table. This table also shows the number of skilled and unskilled in subdivided groups, with the per cent in each group:
NUMBER IN EACH OCCUPATION, MINIMUM HOURLY AND DAILY WAGE RATES, AND PER CENT OF TOTAL MEN EMPLOYED AT EACH RATE.
[Eight hours constitute a day's work in all occupations; 4 hours are worked on Saturday (44 hours per week).]
NUMBER IN EACH OCCUPATION, MINIMUM HOURLY AND DAILY WAGE RATES, AND PER CENT OF TOTAL MEN EMPLOYED AT EACH RATE-Concluded.
Of those receiving the rates from $4 to $4.75 per day 10,814, or 16.16 per cent, earned 50 cents per hour; 295, or 0.44 per cent, earned 53.13 cents per hour; 5,851, or 8.75 per cent, earned 56.25 cents per hour; 1,005, or 1.50 per cent, earned 57.5 cents per hour; and 401, or 0.60 per cent, earned 59.38 cents per hour. Thus 18,366, or 27.4 per cent, received from 50 cents to 59.38 cents per hour.
Taking into consideration all the occupations in the building industry, it is important to note that 75.1 per cent of the 89,045 men included in the inquiry were skilled craftsmen. The remaining 22,141, or 24.9 per cent, were of the class of unskilled workmen. Of this latter class it is estimated that more than 50 per cent are in the process of training as recruits for the skilled occupations, while a very large proportion of the remaining unskilled workmen will continue as building laborers.
For the purposes of a summary of the wage rates of the skilled craftsmen three divisions have been made, those receiving $5 and not more than $6 per day, those receiving $4 and not more than $4.75 per day, and those receiving $3 and not over $3.68 per day.
Of the total of 66,904 skilled craftsmen, 25,323, or 37.85 per cent, earned 62.5 cents per hour; 400, or 0.60 per cent, earned 66 cents per hour; 10,226, or 15.28 per cent, earned 68.75 cents per hour; 7,675, or 11.47 per cent, earned 70 cents per hour; 1,780, or 2.66 per cent, earned 75 cents per hour. Thus 45,404, or 67.86 per cent of the skilled craftsmen, received from 62.5 cents to 75 cents per hour, or from $5 to $6 per day.
Of the remaining 3,134 skilled men, 504, or 0.75 per cent, earned 37.5 cents per hour; 200, or 0.30 per cent, earned 43.75 cents per hour; and 2,430, or 3.63 per cent, earned 46 cents per hour. These include the rates per day from $3 to $3.68.
Taking those employed in unskilled occupations, four divisions are made, those receiving $2.20 and not over $2.75 per day, those receiving $3 per day, those receiving $3.25 per day, and those receiving $3.50 per day.
In the first group, 1,500, or 6.77 per cent, earned 27.5 cents per hour; 1,345, or 6.07 per cent, earned 31.25 cents per hour; 60, or 0.27 per cent, earned 33.13 cents per hour; and 50, or 0.23 per cent, earned 34.38 cents per hour, making a total of 2,955, or 13.35 per cent of the unskilled men earning less than $3.
The largest group, 15,268, or 68.96 per cent, earned 37.5 cents per hour. The next group, 3,125, or 14.11 per cent, earned 40.63 cents per hour, and 793, or 3.58 per cent, earned 43.75 cents per hour.
SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS of typical grievances filed by UNIONS.
The table on page 25 shows that there were collectively 16 different classes of grievances, not including a miscellaneous class, filed with the General Arbitration Board. Other than the miscellaneous class the unions filed 11 kinds of grievances, while the employers filed only 6 different kinds.
EMPLOYMENT OF NONUNION MEN.
The most important complaints, from a numerical standpoint, were those filed by the unions against employers for employing nonunion workmen. The greater portion of these cases were against subcontractors to whom work had been sublet by employers. They were, therefore, in reality against employers who were not in the first instance participants in the plan of arbitration, but who were later compelled to comply with the provisions of the plan. Of the 1,563 complaints of this nature filed, 1,058, or 67.7 per cent, were decided in favor of the unions and 353, or 22.6 per cent, were decided adversely. One was compromised, 22 referred to trade boards, and 129 withdrawn.
APPLICATION FOR REMOVAL OF PLAN.
The next largest number of complaints submitted by the unions, and probably more important than any other kind of complaint filed except that of jurisdiction, was for permission to remove the protection of the plan from a job or shop where the conditions established by the arbitration plan were not maintained. Section 31 of the plan is as follows: "When the conditions established by this arbitration