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APPENDIX WW-BRIDGING NAVIGABLE WATERS.
I bare referred the matter to our engineers, and they have returned to me a tra ciug* showing the location of the piers at our Tennessee River bridge, which tracing I inclose to you herewith. They report that there are clear draw-spans on each side of the round pier of 123 feet each, which is ample for larger boats than are run on the Tennessee River.
The bridge-piers are placed so nearly parallel with the current, that there can be no reasonable objection on that score. The rest-piers, bowever, being at rigbt angles to the line of the bridge, might be objected to as being in a measure in the way of entering the draw-spans with the current. The lower rest-pier has fallen down, and I do not think it is in the way; but if it is, what is left of it can be removed. The upper rest-pier is a very good thing to havé, though not a necessity; and if the Gov. ernment insists upon it, this pier can be taken down; and with these two piers out of the way no reasonable objection can be found to this bridge by the river interests.
My understanding is that this bridge was approved, at the time of its erection, by the Government, and I think that the cost of any change which they may now insist upon should be paid by the Government; but I really think when Colonel Barlow comes to look into the matter further he will be satistied that no cbango is necessary. Yours, very truly,
Joux ECHOLS, Third Vice-President.
REPORT OF MAJOR AMOS STICKNEY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Louisville, Ky., February 8, 1887. GENERAL: I have the honor to submit herewith the reports of my assistant, Mr. O. L. Petitdidier, upon the bridges across the navigable portions of the Wabash River and White River, Indiana, and concur in his recommendations. Of the twenty-two bridges across the Wabash, all but three are more or less obstructions to the free and safe navigation of the river at certain stages of the water. In the present condition of the navigation interests, however, these obstructions are not of so much importance as they might become after a thorough improvement of the river. On the White River two bridges are obstructions, and the one near Hazleton should certainly be changed, if the improvement of the river is to be continued, as it absolutely stops the passage of boats.
There are no other known obstructions, caused by the erection of structures, in the district in my charge. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major of Engincers. The CHIEF OF ENGINEERS, U. S. A.
REPORT OF MR. O. L. PETITDIDIER, ASSISTANT ENGINEER.
LOUISVILLE, Ky., February 8, 1887. MAJOR: I have the honor to submit my report on the examination of Wabash River bridges, made between January 12 and January 21, 1887.
The total number of bridges between Lafayette and the mouth of the river is 22, of which 8 have no draw and are total obstructions at the highest stages of river, except for very small boats; 11 are provided with a draw but no guiding-dikes, and are only partial obstructions; and 3 are provided with both draws and dikes, and are no obstructions.
The two bridges on White River above referred to mere reported to the Senate, and report printed in Senate Ex. Doc. No. 12, Forty-ninth Congrese, tirst session, The bridges Lavirg ro draw ard which are total obstructions at high stages, are as follows:
NOTE.—Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 reported to the Senate and report printed in Senate Ex. Doc. No. 12, Forty aidth Congress, first seasion, page 33.
The clearance or clear space under bridges, as shown in the above table, was obtained when the stage of water was lower than at previous examinations, and it is believed to be very nearly.correct. The two sets of figures in the column of clearance, refer, the 1 pper one to the clearance at low water, the lower one to the clearance at highest water; the difference in height between highest and low water having been asHuned, the same as at Terre Haute, viz, 26 feet. Major Miller, in his report of September 30, 1884, in regard to the bridges, writes as follows:
"These bridges require, to render them no obstruction to free navigation, to be eupplied with åraw-spans placed over the channel, having a width in the clear of at least 60 feet, arranged to be maneuvered with facility and rapidity with proper guide dikes or guard piers."
The radical modifications to all these bridges which Major Miller recommends, seem to me to be beyond the requirements of present or futura navigation on the river between Lafayette and Terre Haute, and I would recommend that it might be made optional with the various bridge owners as to whether a draw and guard pier should be built, or their bridges raised high enough to obtain a clearance between bottom of lower chord and highest water mark of not less than 20 feet or more. In my opinion, high bridges, with such a clearance as just described, would be much less objectionable tban bridges provided with draws, which are generally too narrow to be passed through without some danger and which always occasion some loss of time.
O. L. PETITDIDIER.
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.
REPORT OF MAJOR JAMES C. POST, CORPS OF ENGINEERS.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Cincinnati, December 20, 1886. GENERAL: In compliance with General Orders No. 7, Headquarters Corps of Engineers, United States Army, Washington, D. O., November 30, 1886, I bave the honor to submit the following report upon the bridges and other structures, now erected or in the process of erection, that do or will interfere with free and safe navigation upon the rivers in the district of which I have charge.
In my previous report upon this subject, dated February 3, 1885, and printed in Senate Ex. Doc. No. 12, Forty-ninth Congress, first session, a complete list of the obstructions, of the nature referred to, then in existence was given.
The recommendations beretofore made are renewed.
The only bridge constructed since my former report is over the Lit. tle Kanawha River, at Parkersburg, between the Wood County Bridge and the mouth of the river, about 300 feet from the latter. The proposed construction of this bridge was mentioned in the report referred to, and it was recommended that on account of the importance of the mouth of this river as an ice-harbor and landing for the Ohio River steamers, that its dimensions be required to conform to the law regulating the construction of bridges across the Ohio River in that vicinity.
Under date of May 25, 1886, another report upon the effect of the con. struction of this bridge as then proposed upon the commerce of the Ohio and Little Kanawha rivers, was submitted to the Chief of Engineers. The piers of the bridge having at that time been commenced, it was suggested that the Ohio Valley Construction Company, engaged in building it, be enjoined from continuing the work until the subject could be more fully considered.
This report was forwarded to the Attorney-General by the Secretary of War. No further action being taken, the construction of the bridge was continued, and it has since been nearly completed. The distance between the center of the piers of the channel-span as they stand is 300 feet. This, diminished by the thickness of the piers, gives a distance between them of 284 feet 6 inches at a 10-foot stage. They are placed oblique to the thread of the current, which further diminishes this distance about 3 feet, making the navigable width between the piers,or that measured in a direction perpendicular to the river, 281 feet, or more than 10 feet less than the distance between the abutments of the Wood County Bridge, also reported as an obstruction to navigation. The clear height of the new bridge above the water at a 10-foot stage is 50 feet 4 inches. The principal objections to this bridge are that it destroys a former landing of Ohio River steamers, and prevents the use of the mouth of the Little Kanawhia River as an ice-harbor. The need of places along the Ohio River where steamers can remain protected from the running ice is so seriously felt that at several points artificial iceharbors have been built by the Government, and the construction of others is conteinplated.
It is believed changes in the plan of this bridge could have been made that would have caused it to be much less of an obstruction to commerce than at present, and have added but a small additional amount to the cost of building it. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAS. C. Post, Brig. Gen. JAMES C. DUANE,
Major of Engineers. Chief of Engineers, U. S. A.
REPORT OF CAPTAIN CHARLES E. L. B. DAVIS, CORPS OF ENGINEERS.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Milwaukee, Wis., December 13, 18so. Sir: In accordance withi General Orders No. 7, Headquarters Corps of Engineers, United States Army, Washington, D. C., November 30, 1886, I have the honor to submit the following report upon bridges, causeways, or structures, now erected or in process of erection, that do or will interfere with free and safe navigation within the district of river and harbor works under my charge.
The county of Door, State of Wisconsin, granted Leatbam and Smith, of Sturgeon Bay, Wis., a charter to build a wagon bridge across Stur. geon Bay, upon plans to be approved by the Secretary of War.
These plans were submitted to the Secretary of War, but as the Sturgeon Bay Caval was owned by a private corporation, the Secretary decided he had no jurisdiction, and declined to take any action or to authorize the officers of the Corps of Engineers to take any action in the case.
Messrs. Leatham and Smith, I am informed, then found out unofficially the usual rules governing the bridging of'navigable streams in the United States, changed their drawings to correspond, and bave already commenced the building of the bridge. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
CIAS. E. L. B. DAVIS,
Captain of Engineers. The Chief OF ENGINEERS, U. S. A.
REPORT OF MAJOR TIIOMAS II. IIANDBURY, CORPS OF ENGINEERS.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Chicago, Il., February 4, 1887. GENERAL: In reply to your telegram, received yesterday p. m., in regard to the reports on bridges required by General Orders No. 7, Headquarters Corps of Engineers, November 30, 1886, I have the honor to state that soon after assuming charge of this office I took steps to col. lect the data necessary to comply with this order. It was my intention to submit drawings of all bridges not yet reported upon over streams in my charge, similar to those that accompanied my report upon the same subject, dated January 6, 1885, at the time I was temporarily in charge of this office.
The data for these are usually furnished through the courtesy of the owners or operators of the bridges. In those cases where I have made application the information desired has been very slow coming in, which accounts for my present delay in this matter.
There are but two streams in my charge that are crossed by bridges that come within the requirements of section 4, river and harbor act, ap. proved August 5, 1886—the Calumet River in Illinois and Indiana, and the Illinois River.
Since thedate of the last report on these above mentioned, there has been added to the Calumet River the reach extending from the “Forks to onehalf mile east of Hammond.” In this distance the river is crossed by five bridges-three finished, and two in the process of construction. The situation between the mouth of the river and the Forks is substantially the same as given in report above mentioned.
Of the five bridges, the first met with in ascending the stream is at Burnham. It is being built by the Pennsylvania Company, and will con- , form to the river in its improved condition. The pivot pier and abutments are in place, and the superstructure is being erected. The first are stone resting upon pile foundations; the second is iron. The clear opening for the passage of boats will be about 70 feet. This bridge is reasonably well located, and wben finished will offer the least practicable obstruction to navigation. About 2 miles above this in the city of Hammond, Ind., three railroad bridges are located within a space of about 350 feet.
(1) The Louisville, New Albany and Chicago, with a clear opening for the passage of vessels of about 50 feet.
(2) The New York, Chicago and Saint Louis, with about the same opening.
(3) The Chicago and Atlantic, with two clear openings of about 60 feet each.
The first and second of these bridges materially obstruct navigation by reason of their narrow draw openings and the obliquity of their axes. to the direction of the channel. The last, however, is well located with reference to the direction of the channel and has draw.openings that will admit of the easy passage of ordinary vessels. After passing the last of these railroad bridges about 700 or 800 feet, we come to a wagon bridge belonging to the city of Hammond. The old wooden structure that occupied this site for some years is at present being replaced by a dew iron one.
The location is good with reference to the direction of the channel, but the draw openings provided being only 39 feet, it will be a great obstruction to navigation.
As soon as the river traffic in this locality increases to any considerable extent, as it is certain to do at an early date, it will be found that all of these bridges are much too low. As they are now, for every tug that passes, the draws must be opened.
We have the data on hand for making the drawings of four of these bridges, and hope soon to obtain that for the fifth.
They are now well under way and will be forwarded with a more detailed report as soon as completed.
With regard to the bridges over that portion of the Illinois River (from Copperas Creek to the mouth) on which the United States Gov. ernment is carrying on works of improvement, their status is essentially the same as when reported upon January 6, 1885.
The Chicago and Alton Railway Company have constructed aids to navigation at their bridge at Grand Pass, which are in accordance with the suggestions of the steamboat men, and are deemed to be sufficient for the present needs of the river commerce.
Some correspondence has taken place with the owners and controllers of the other bridges over this reach of the river with regard to aids re. quired in order to facilitate the passage of river crafts through their draw openings, and it is believed that these will be constructed in time to benefit commerce during the coming season.
From Copperas Creek to the junction of the the Illinois and Michigan Canai at La Salle the slackwater improvements on the Illinois River are owned and controlled by the State of Illinois. Over this reach of the river there are four railroad bridges, including one at Lacon, pro. posed, and four wagon bridges. These have not yet been reported upon.
Under date of March 31, 1856, I was instructesl by the Chief of Engineers to prepare and trausmit to his ollice at an early day a map of