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The Chicago Branch crosses the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana

Railroad east of Junction; and north of Richton, the Joliet and Northern Indiana Railroad. South of Manteno, it will be crossed by the Wabash Valley Railroad; south of Bourbonnais, by the Fort Wayne, Lacon, and Platte Valley Railroad; north of Onarga, by the Logansport and Pacific Railroad. At Tolono, it crosses the Great Western Railroad, and south of Pesotum, it will be crossed by the Indiana and Illinois Central Railroad. At Mattoon, it crosses the Terrehaute and Alton Railroad ; at Effingham, it will be crossed by the Atlantic and Mississippi Railroad, and at Tonti, by the Massac and Sangamon Railroad; at Odin, it crosses the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, and then terminates in the main line at Centralia.

By means of its great number of junctions and crossings, the Ilinois Central Railroad has the advantage of being in the closest connection with all parts of the State, and while it traverses the same from Chicago to Cairo, from iro to Dunleith, it connects the South with the Northeast and Northwest.

The construction of this railroad was rendered possible by a grant of two and a half millions of acres of land. It was commenced on Christmas, in the year 1851, and on the 27th of September, 1856, the last rail was inid; so that, through excellent management, this great work was accomplished in the comparatively short space of four years and nine months. While we look upon the marvellous manner in which this road has been constructed as something unique and unsurpassed in the history of railroad building, and consider of what inestimable value it is to the State of Illinois, we must likewise, looking upon it as a mere individual speculation, undoubtedly, give it the highest rank among similar enterprises. The receipts of the Company from passengers and for the transportation of goods increase from month to month; its stocks always command a high price; and there is no doubt but that the sales of the land belonging to the Company will soon enable it to liquidate its entire debt, after which there will still be enough land left to enable the Company to make a dividend of fifty per cent. on the capital stock. Hence, in every respect, the Illinois Central Railroad maintains a position which makes it worthy to be ranked among the greatest enterprises of the present

century. The Illinois Cool Company Railroad

Connects Caseyville with Brooklyn. It is, as indicated by its name, only

coal road, but it also does a passenger and freight business. The Illinois River Railroad

Is expected to run from Naples to Pekin, or to some other spot on the eastern shore of the Illinois river, opposite Peoria. The counties which this road will traverse, have already made large subscriptions for the

construction of it. The Indiana and Illinois Central Railroad

Will be constructed from Indianapolis, Indiana, to Decatur. It will cross the Wabash Valley Railroad north of Bloomfield, and the main line of the Illinois , Central Railroad between Pesotum and Okaw, and then

join the Great Western Railroad at Decatur. Length, 1494 miles. The Joliet and Athens Railroad

Runs from Joliet, in a northerly direction, to Athens. The Joliet and Northern Indiana Railroad

Runs from Joliet to Lake, where it meets the Michigan Central Railroad. It crosses the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad

north of Richton. Length, 45 miles. The Logansport and Pacific Railroad

Running in a straight line from Logansport, Indiana, towards the West, will cross the Wabash Valley Railroad at Middleport, the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad north of Onarga, the Alton and Chicago Railroad at Peoria Junction, and the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad south of Panola; then, pursuing a southwestern direction, ter

minate on the Illinois river, opposite Peoria. The Lockport Junction Railroad

Is intended to run from Lockport, in a northwestern direction, to Junction, via Naperville, after previously crossing the Chicago and Oswego Railroad, and at Junction joining the several roads which ter

minate there. The Massac and Sangamon Railroad

Is intended to run from Massac, on the Ohio river, via Marion, Frankfort, and Mt. Vernon, crossing the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad at Salem, the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad at Tonti, the main lino of the latter at Vandalia, and the Terrehaute and Alton Railroad at

Hillsboro, to Springfield. The Michigan Central Railroad

Runs from Calumet, on the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, in a southwestern direction, through the northern part of the State of Indiana, and into the State of Michigan, to Detroit. The whole length of this road is 282 miles, of which, however, only a few miles are within

the State of Illinois. The Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad

Runs from Chicago to Monroe, Michigan. It commences at Junction, on the Rock Island and Chicago Railroad, crosses the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, and turns to the southeast, traversing Northern Indiana, and penetrating into Michigan. Its whole length is 245 miles, of which but a few miles are within the State of Illinois.

The Naples Hannibal Railroad

Is intended to form a continuation of the Great Western Railroad, and to traverse the region between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, so as to

connect Naples and Hannibal. The Northern Cross Railroad

Runs from Galesburg to Quincy. Length, 100 miles. The Northern Cross Branch Railroad

Will run from Morgan City, on the Great Western Railroad, to Camp Point, on the Northern Cross Railroad, and traverse, near Mount Sterling, the Peoria and Hannibal Railroad.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad

Runs from Vincennes, Indiana, to Illinoistown, thus traversing the southern part of the State in its entire bread h. It will be crossed, near Salem, by the Massac and Sangamon Railroad. At Odin, it crosses the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, and at Sandoval, the main line of said road. Length, 145 miles.

The Peoria and Hannibal Railroad

(Also called the Bureau Valley Extension Railroad) will be opened at Peoria, and run in a southwestern direction, crossing the Northern Cross Branch Railroad near Mt. Sterling, and terminate at Hannibal. Its length

will be about 120 miles. The Peoria and Oquawka Railroad

Runs, in a northwestern direction, from Peoria to Galesburg, where it joins the Chicago and Burlington Railroad. Also the eastern branch of this road is already under construction; at Bloomington it will cross the Alton and Chicago Railroad, and the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad; at Urbana, the Chicago branch of the latter road, and join the

Indiana roads at Danville.
The Peoria and Rock Island Railroad

Will bring Peoria and Rock Island into immediate connection. It will
cross the Chicago and Burlington, and the Fort Wayne, Lacon, and Platte

Valley railroads. Length, 82 miles.
The Rockford Central Railroad-

Will run from Rockford, in a southern direction, crossing the Chicago,
St. Charles, and Mississippi Railroad, and the Chicago, Fulton, and lowa
Central Railroad, and join the Illinois Central Railroad at Mendota.

The Terrehaute, Allon, and St. Louis Railroad

Soon after passing the Indiana frontier, will be crossed, near Paris, by the Lake Erie, Wabash, and St. Louis Railroad. It crosses the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad at Mattoon, the main line of said road at Pana, and then runs, in a southwestern direction, to Alton. At Hillsboro, it will be crossed by the Massac and Sangamon Railroad.

Length, 173 miles.
The Vincennes and Paducah Railroad -

Will run, almost in a southern direction, from Vincennes, to Brooklyn,

Massac county, opposite Paducah, in Kentucky. The Wabash Valley Railroad

Will run from Joliet, in a southern direction, to Vincennes; it will cross, south of Manteno, the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, then the Fort Wayne, Lacon, and Platte Valley Railroad; then the Logansport and Pacific Railroad at Middleport; the Great Western Railroad at Danville; then the Indiana and Illinois Central Railroad; the Terrehaute and Alton Railroad at Paris; and, finally, the Atlantic and Missis

sippi Railroad. The Warsaw and Rockford Railroad

Will run from Warsaw, Hancock county, to Port Byron, Rock Island county, and have a length of 62 miles.

PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

THE ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY, at Springfield, was established by an act of the Legislature, in the year 1855. Although the main object of its establishment was to diffuse useful knowledge, science, and art, in general, yet there have been established principally 1. A department for the education of teachers of the common

schools. 2. An agricultural department, for the education and accom

plishment of farmers; and 3. A mechanical department, for instruction in the mechanical

sciences. The management of the University is entrusted to the care and supervision of a president and twelve trustees, wbile a number of professors impart instruction in the various branches.

The number of students is about 130.

The Northern Illinois University, at Henry, Marshall county, was likewise established in the year 1855, and is placed under the patronage of four Methodist conferences.

The Illinois College, at Jacksonville, was established in the year 1829. It has from seven to eight professors, and about 140 alumni and students.

The Shurtleff College, at Upper Alton, under the superintendency of the Baptists, and in connection with a theological seminary, was established in the year 1835. It has seven professors, and about 70 alumni and students.

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