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RAILROADS.

The present position of Illinois as regards the natural and artificial elements that make a great and prosperous State, is mainly attributable to the construction of her railroads, by which the State, in all its length and breadth, is traversed, and every possible facility afforded for an unlimited domestic and foreign trade and intercourse; and this, considering her immense territory and the enterprising character of her population, must, for all future time, necessarily secure to her an equal position with the bighest in this great confederation of sister States.

Up to the year 1850, Illinois had only one railroad, running a distance of fifty-five miles. At the beginning of the year 1855, there were already 1892 miles; at the beginning of 1856, 2215 miles, and at its close, there were over 2600 miles, nearly all completed, while several new roads were either being projected, or even already in progress of construction.

Among the States of the Union, New York and Ohio have the greatest share of railroads : the former having 2795, and the latter 2725 miles. Illinois, indeed, is now but little behind them, and no doubt in a very brief time will surpass both, and possess more miles of railroad than any other State.

By means of the railroads, Illinois is in immediate communication with the East and the West, with the South and the North. The State itself is traversed by railroads in all directions — within one year's time, there will hardly be a single spot in it, from which one of the railroads cannot be reached within one day's travel.

The number of railroads that either pass entirely through the State, or, coming from adjacent States, merely traverse it in some parts, is no less than forty-eight, which are nearly all completed and in successful operation. They are all enumerated in the subjoined alphabetical list, in which are also stated, the points of commencement and termination of each road, the points at which it is crossed or intersected by other roads, together with the number of miles, &c., as far as we were able to ascertain.

The Alton and Illinoistown Railroad

Connects Alton and Illinoistown, and is 25 miles long. The Atlantic and Mississippi Railroad

Will run from Illinoistown, northeasterly, to Terre Haute, Indiana, and cross the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad at Vandalia, the Chicago branch of the same at Effingham, and the Wabash Valley Railroad

about ten miles from the frontier of Indiana. The Belleville and Illinoistown Railroad

Connects Belleville and Illinoistown, and is 15 miles long.
The Belleville and Mount Vernon Railroad -

Will, in coming from Belleville, cross the main line of the Illinois Central
Railroad south of Richview, and terminate at Mount Vernon, Jefferson

county, by an intersection with the Massac and Sangamon Railroad. The Belleville and Murphysboro Railroad

Will run southeast of Belleville, cross the Kaskaskia river near Athens, then cross the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad at Carbondale,

and touch the Ohio river at Brooklyn, Massac county. The Beloit Branch of the Galena Railroad

Runs, in a northwestern direction, from Belvidere, Boone county, to Be

loit, Wisconsin. Length, 20 miles. The Bureau Valley Railroad

Joins the Rock Island Railroad at Bureau Junction, Bureau county, and follows, in a southern direction, the Illinois river; at Lacon, crossing the Fort Wayne, Lacon, and Platte Valley Railroad, and terminating at

Peoria. Length, 47 miles.
The Cairo and Vincennes Railroad-

Is intended to run south, from Vincennes, and, crossing the Massac and
Sangamon and the Belleville and Murphysboro railroads, to have its ter

minus at Cairo.
The Central Military Tract Railroad -

Forms a portion of the Burlington and Quincy Railroad, from Mendota,
La Salle county, up to Galesburg, Knox county; in Bureau county, it
crosses the Rock Island Railroad, and at Galvy, Knox county, the Fort
Wayne, Lacon, and Platte Valley Railroad. Length, 80 miles.

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The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad

Runs via Joliet, at which place it crosses the Illinois river. At La Salle it crosses the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad, and the Burlington and Quincy Railroad between Wyanet and Princeton, and then goes

westward to Rock Island. Length, 182 miles. The Chicago, St. Charles, and Mississippi Railroad

Will run, via Junction and St. Charles, as far as Savannah, Carroll county, on the Mississippi river. On its way, it will cross the Rockford and Central Railroad, the main line of the Illinois Central Railroad, and the Dixon and Galena Railroad. It is now completed as far as St. Charles.

The Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond du Lac Railroad

Formerly called the Illinois and Wisconsin Railroad, runs from Chicago, via Janesville, Wisconsin, through Wisconsin, crossi the Fox River Valley Railroad at Crystal Lake. Its whole length will be about 300 miles, of which about 60 miles are within the limits of Illinois. It is finished as far as Janesville,

The Dixon and Galena Air Line Railroad

Will run, in a straight line, from Dixon, in a northwestern direction, and, after crossing the Chicago, St. Charles, and Mississippi Railroad, lead directly on to Galena.

The Fort Wayne, Lacon, and Platte Valley Railroad

Is intended to form a connection, in a straight line, between Fort Wayne, Indiana, and the Mississippi river; south of Bourbonnais, it will cross the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad; the Alton and Chicago Railroad south of Dwight; the main line of the Illinois Central Railrond north of Wenona; the Bureau Valley Railroad near Lacon; the Chicago and Burlington Railroad near Galvy, and terminate about ten miles below Muscatine, near the Mississippi.

The Fox River Valley Railroad

Commences at Elgin, and runs through the Valley of the Fox river up into Wisconsin. Near Crystal Lake, it crosses the Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond du Lac Railroad. It is finished to the State boundary line

Length, 34 miles.
The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad -

Runs from Chicago, via Junction and Elgin, as far as Freeport.
Near Belvidere, terminates, north, the Beloit Branch Railroad, and at
Rockford, south of it, will terminate the Rockford and Central Railroad
Length, 121 miles.

The Great Western Railroad

Runs from Lafayette, Indiana, via Danville, Vermillion county, as far as Naples, on the Illinois river; it touches the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad between Urbana and Tolono; crosses the main line of the last-mentioned railroad near Decatur, and the Alton and Chicago Railroad near Springfield, Its length, from Naples to the Indiana State-line, is 1741 miles.

That portion of this railroad which connects Springfield with Naples, was the first railway constructed within the State of Illinois (in the year 1837), but it soon fell into dilapidation, and continued so up to the year 1847, when it was purchased from the State by several capitalists, under whose direction it was reëstablished, and the construction of it gradually

continued, until it was ready as far as the Indiana State-line. The Jacksonville and Alton Railroad

Will form a connection between Jacksonville and Alton. The subscrip

tions for it were started in October, 1856. The Illinois Central Railroad

Being 704 miles long, is the longest railroad in the State - one of the
longest in the Union. To its construction and use, the State of Illionois
is unquestionably indebted for the great progress that has been made
during the last few years.
This railroad may be subdivided into three sections, viz.:

1. The Main Line, from Cairo to La Salle - 308 miles.
2. The Galena Branch, from La Salle to Dunleith — 146 miles.

3. The Chicago Branch, from Chicago to Centralia - 250 miles.
The Main Line will be crossed at Carbondale by the Belleville and Mur-
physboro Railroad. It crosses the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad at San-
doval. At Vandalia it will be crossed by the Atlantic and Mississippi, and
by the Massac and Sangamon railroads. At Panola it will be crossed by the
Terrehaute and Alton Railroad; at Decatur, by the Great Western Railroad,
also touching, at the latter place, the Indiana and Illinois Central Rail-
road. At Bloomington it crosses the Alton and Chicago Railroad, and it
will also be crossed, at the same place, by the railroad which it is in con-
templation to construct from Peoria to Danville. South of Panola it will
be crossed by the Logansport and Pacific Railroad; and, north of Wenona,
by the Fort Wayne, Lacon, and Platte Valley Railroad; while at La Salle
it is crossed by the Rock Island and Chicago Railroad.

The Galena Branch crosses the Burlington and Quincy Railroad at Mendota ; at Dixon, the Chicago, Fulton, and Iowa Central Railroad; and it will be crossed, south of Foreston, by the Chicago, St. Charles, and Mississippi Railroad, while it joins the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad at Freeport, and thence runs as far as Dunleith.

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