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thus preventing the withered leaves from accumulating. A much trodden road around the fences is of the highest importance, presenting, as it does, the best security against danger of fire; for the flames penetrating in even the smallest possible strip to the fence, the dry wood of the latter, kindled by the withered weeds, and the burning, whirling leaves, ignites with the most astonishing rapidity, firing, especially at night, the bouses along the fields, ere their thoughtlessly slumbering inhabitants become aware of the extent of the danger, or even imagine it to be at hand.

The farmer, who, by the adoption of the above mentioned measures, has secured himself against ordinary fires, is also able to protect bimself against very extensive conflagrations of the prairies or woods, by carefully sweeping away in the direction of the fire, all leaves that may happen to lie on the road, the grass and foliage on the other side of which he will ignite, fully convinced, that the blaze burning away from his hedges, will much less endanger them, than will that sea of flames waving from afar. Should the fences, nevertheless, be endangered, they must be torn down as quickly as possible, the fire being thus almost wholly prevented from spreading any farther. Should there be no road or ditch along the fence, and the soil be fit for the use of the plough, it would be advisable before firing, to plough seve. ral times along the enclosures, thus covering the dry grass with the largest possible clods of earth. When a large conflagration cannot be kept off by burning back, and there be no time to tear down all the fences exposed to the fire, acquiescing in what the hand of man proves too feeble to avoid, one should only break down that part of them nearest to the fire, in order to save the buildings, and stores of corn and provisions. Thus, a cautious, circumspect farmer, with the aid of his family, or men, can put a stop to a conflagration, that without much resolute action on their part, would have consumed and destroyed everything for an extent of several miles, as, we are sorry to say, bappens here and there every year. Conflagrations of forests, during which the trees themselves stand in full blaze, only occur in forests of pine, fir, or other oily trees, and can only be stopped by large rivers, or heavy showers of rain, or be suppressed by the united exertions of the inbabitants of entire regions. Conflagrations of woods, during which the flames consume the dry foliage lying on the ground, may be more easily extinguished. It is, nevertheless, often quite a tedious, toilsome job, on account of the clouds of smoke and sparks, which roll far in advance of the fire. With shovels, spades, and brooms hastily made out of brushwood, the farmers, almost suffocated with the smoke, and singed by the flying sparks and blaze, exert themselves to approach the burning line, and by quickly beating out the fire, to conquer in the very line of operation of the enemy; a position whence, in all directions, the fire may be beaten out with the above instru

When the wind is moderate, the fire is usually extinguished by the united efforts of the neighboring farmers. It occurring, however, not unfrequently, that flames apparently beaten out, are kindled anew by the wind, it is necessary to run several times in the most rapid course along the extinguished lines, promptly to despatch the fire which starts afresh.

Should the conflagration, however, in spite of all efforts, visibly gain ground, extending for so great a distance that there could be no reasonable hope of extinguishing it, in the manner above described, without wasting time or strength in fruitless efforts, one should rather resort to the safer method, used in protecting the fences, of burning back-even if a part of the best timber, which at any rate more or less suffers from such fires, should be exposed thereby. The “nil desperandum” applying to nothing better than danger by fire, the superhuman efforts which are frequently made to avert with little or no aid, the most imminent danger by fires, can scarcely be imagined. Language cannot convey, words cannot express, the faintest idea of the splendor and grandeur of such a conflagration of forest or prairie, during the night; one would think that the pale queen of night, disdaining to take her accustomed place in the heavens, had despatched a myriad of messengers to light their torches at the altar of the setting sun, and that now they were speeding on the wings of the wind to their appropriate stations. If you know that the conflagration can cause no damage, you do not cease to gaze with admiration upon the magnificent spectacle, but the news of its approach to the vicinity of a farm, rouses the gazers as would an electric shock, impelling those present who are able to work, instantaneously to rise and rush to the threatened places, indicated from afar by volumes of smoke and flame. Should the fire be seen in the day-time, or at an early hour in the evening, the neighbors residing so close together as to be able to succor each other, then it is advisable, that one or two persons should plough along the fences, however distant the danger may be, whilst the others should immediately commence extinguishing the flames, so that, should the danger be increased by a storm suddenly springing up, the expedient of burning back might yet safely and successfully be resorted to.


If any State of the Union is adapted for agriculture, and the other branches of rural economy relating thereto, such as the raising of cattle, and the culture of fruit trees, it is pre-eminently Illinois, whose extremely fertile prairies recompense the farmer at less trouble than he would be obliged to incur elsewhere, in order to attain the same results. Her virgin soil, adapted by nature for immediate culture, only awaits the plough and the seed, in order to mature within a few months golden ears of the most beautiful Indian corn, the heaviest wheat, and such other species of corn as are indigenous in the temperate zones. Here the husbandman is not obliged for whole years to squander his best strength in clearing the primitive forest, hewing down gigantic trees, and rooting out stumps and weeds, in order to gain after each and every year of toilsome labor, in the sweat of his brow, another patch of arable ground; but the soil only wants common tilling; here the farmer is not obliged to gather the stones from his acres, so that the halms may have a large scope for development, for the soil is so little encumbered with them, that, if you should require a proprietor of some twenty acres of prairie land to collect from them a cart-load of stones, in return for which he was to receive a cartload of the purest gold, he would be compelled to decline accepting this handsome offer. Here no manure is wanted to fertilize the soil; it consists here of a rich black mould, several feet deep, that wants no dung, but is almost inexhaustibly fertile, and capable of producing the richest fruit, year after year, for entire generations. The Illinoisian farmer who cares not to improve the land, or enhance its fertility, as he should, has nothing to do but to plough, sow, and reap: less labor is here required than at other places where the usual demands of agriculture must first be satisfied. Hence a man of small means can more rapidly acquire wealth in this State, than at places where 25



he must waste his best time and strength in occupations not required here.

The vegetable products of Illinois are especially - Indian corn, which is the staple commodity; wheat, which thrives well in all parts of the State; and also oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, potatoes, sweet potatoes, flax, hemp, peas, clover, cabbage, rapes, and the ordinary pot-herbs, tobacco, and the bean from which the castor oil (ol. ricini) is obtained, are cultivated here; of the latter enough is raised for home use.

The culture of fruit-trees, though securing a handsome profit to the farmer, is chiefly confined to that of apples and peaches, most excel. lent varieties of which are grown here; besides these there are already several vineyards yielding a very good wine. The culture of fruittrees and of the vine will be treated of in a special chapter, whilst in this present chapter we shall speak of agriculture particularly.

The amount of bushels raised per acre, first claims our attention, for the comparatively smaller or greater amount reaped by the farmer, in connection with the market prices of the produce, will naturally exercise a great influence in diminishing or increasing his revenue, and thus impair or enhance bis prosperity.

As already mentioned in the preface of this book, we have received from a number of gentlemen, for many years resident in Illinois, among whom are also many practical farmers, information concerning all matters, so that the statements subjoined here may be relied upon as the results of a practical experience for many years. We quote here the testimony of several in regard to the amount of the various products per acre.

F. A. Arenz, Esq., of Beardstown, Cass Co., states the amount of produce, as follows: Indian corn, 50-70 bushels per acre; wheat, 1825; rye, 35–40; oats, 40-45; potatoes, 150–200.

James G. Loulard, Esq., of Maple Lawn, Jo Daviess Co.; Indian corn, 30-100 bushels, per average 60; wheat, 15-40, per average, 22; oats, per average, 45; barley, 25-60, per average, 35; rye, 2050, per average, 30; potatoes, 100-300, per average, 150.

Heinr. Funk, Esq., of Stout's Grove, McLean Co.; winter wheat, 20-30; spring wheat, 20-28; oats, 40-50; Indian corn, 45-70.

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