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to the family of the Carabaides; these animals busy themselves with removing globules an inch in thickness from the excrements of the cows, on the roads, at which work two are invariably engaged, one of which, leaning on its fore feet, pushes the load with its hind feet, whilst the other climbs the front part of the globule, and draws it down by its weight. After depositing their eggs in these globules, these ingenious animals bury them on a place where the ground can be easily scratched up. The prairie teems with grasshoppers and crickets, and many a dwelling is pestered with mill-moths (Blatta). The most remarkable species of the Orthopteræ is the “wandering leaf," (Mantis Carolina), here called “devil's horse," because of its adventurous figure. Of the Heteropteræ, an insect of the class of the Nepides, nearly three inches long, known as the Belostoma grandis, which livos in the water, subsisting on small fishes and frogs, deserves to be mentioned, as also a small but terrible insect, immense dumbers of which are found in the beds, the Acanthia lectularia, or bed-bug; of the Homopteræ, many Cercopedes, and the improperly so-called locust (Cicada septemdecim). The mate of this noxious hardy insect, which at first sight resembles a great hornet, and attains the length of one and a half inches, deposits her eggs in the fresh twigs of trees, after having perforated their bark with her feeling saw. The twig soon withers, so that the tops of the trees of entire forests often appear as if desolated by fire. Within 52 days, the larva creeps out, falls down to the ground, and bores its way through the same to the roots, whose sap it greedily sucks, causing new damage even then. After this it changes into a chrysalis, that, toward the end of May, leaves the earth, so that the empty cases can be seen everywhere on trees and fences. In many seasons thousands of this plump animal can be seen flirting about, and clinging to the wheat-grains, which it bites öff, thus destroying on many a corn-field, the crop which the farmer was all along 80 anxiously expecting. Another sworn enemy of the crops, fortunately not very frequent here, is the so-called “ Hessian fly,” a Cecidomyia, of the family of the Tipulidæ (class Diptera). To these and the Culcides, the various species of the notorious musquitoes belong, which, if we are to assume that everything has been created on account of man, must have been created to teaze and torment bim; but only the female is the real tormentor; the male, whom you may easily tell by his feathery feelers, is harmless, and never stings. High, airy dwellings, are little frequented by these terrible guests, which usually visit those which are low, or situated in the vicinity of waters. They harass people generally only at night, commissioning the house-fly to vex him in day-time.

On walls and underneath roofs, cells may be frequently seen, constructed of mud, in the same fashion in which bees use to build their own-a wasp-like insect, marked black and yellow, flies to and fro, fearless and undisturbed, for it fetches forward the building materials it wants without molesting men any further. The posterior part of the body is connected by a very long isthmus of muscles with the breast; the name of this industrious little animal is Pelopæus flavipes; it belongs to the Sphegides (class: Hymenoptera), as also the genera of Ammophila and Pompilus, whose species may often be seen bearing the former company. Xylocopa victima, which belongs to the bees, is another domestic resident; she selects wooden buildings, whose framewalls she perforates to deposit her eggs therein ; the honey-bee, however, builds her mellifluous cells in hollow trees, to the great joy of the raccoon. The nests of the paper-wasps, which belong to the Polistes fuscata, can be often seen on bushes. The greater, hornet-like wasp (Vespa maculata), frequently enters houses to hunt after flies. Of the ants, the large yellow ones enslave the smaller, black ones, so that we can ouly wonder why the human slave-holders have not yet adduced this fact in proof and evidence of slavery being instituted by nature herself.

Among the Neuropteras, numerous Libellas, part of which are of very vivid colors, a light green Hemerobide, and the ephemerides claim our attention. In summer, millions of the latter appear suddenly, especially in the vicinity of rivers; on houses, hedges and everywhere, the first dress can be seen hanging, which they cast off in the first night. They float about in so dense swarms as to resemble a shower of snow, whenever their glassy wings gleam in the sun. Eight or ten days after their first appearance they all vanish again.

We conclude with the Papilios, the most beautiful and most admired of all insects. Among the Bombicides there is a magnificent Saturnia; among the “Spanners," a light-green Acæna. The genus Papilio here has many different species and varieties, among which is the Papilio turnus, very similar to his European brother. Of swallow-tails, there are a great many varieties; the yellow color of the one is almost entirely superseded by black. Many European species are indigenous here, among other, many Vanessa species, the admiral (V. Atalanta), the morio (V. Antiopa), the great and small brownish-red Papilio (V. polychlorus and V. urticæ), and the C. bird (V. C. album). Very frequent is the painted lady (V. Cardui), which rocks on flowers in all parts of the globe.

The view of such a Papilio flying from flower to flower, and parading in the most magnificent colors, reconciles us with many of its troublesome fellow-creatures. An image of the fickleness of beauty and a symbol of transitoriness, he inculcates high wisdom, and while exhorting us, during the short span of our mortal life, to enjoy what God's beautiful world proffers us, he admonishes us that the end of our earthly career is not very far off.



WHEN people in the Eastern States speak admiringly of the extraordinary fertility of the soil of Illinois, they will often add some remark, expressing their fears in regard to the fever and ague said to prevail there, just as though the state of health in Illinois was so miserable as to counterbalance all the great advantages that a residence in the State offers to the industrious settler. Were this really the condition of things, how could the population of the State increase at such an enormous rate as it does now, and would not many of the families, after a residence of a few years in Illinois, leave the State in order to select a more healthy residence ? Just the contrary is the case, as will at once appear from the fact, that the tide of immigration from the Eastern States to Illinois, swells enormously every year, and but very few families residing in the State are known to remove beyond its limits.

Everybody knows that of all diseases the ague occurs most frequently in Illinois, but they will know also, that while new ground is annually subjugated to culture, the disease is confined to more and more narrow limits; and further, that it depends very much

upon particular plan of abode, and manner of living, whether the fever is to visit a family or not. Whosoever resides in the bottoms, or close by swamps, or in districts where the water—owing to the ground being rather too level, cannot rapidly flow off, will be more exposed to the fever, than one who resides on the high, rolling prairie. Moreover it is perfectly safe to presume that one-half of those who are down with this fever, have to ascribe this to nothing but their own imprudence, and the use of improper food.

To the latter cause must be added, drinking of stagnant water, or a too immoderate use of fruits, lard, eggs, or fish; and, further, nobody should needlessly expose himself to the night air, but live in substantially-built dwellings and sleep in well-ventilated rooms; wearing by


day thin clothing, and in the evening, when exposed to the night air, warm, thick clothing, and making a fire in the grate, whenever, even in the midst of summer, a change of temperature should occur, especially when it begins to rain. But few of those strictly following these rules, will ever be visited by the fever.

Mankind would undoubtedly be happy, were there no graver diseases than fever and ague, which, though disagreeable, are certainly not deleterious, much less dangerous. Deaths in consequence of fever and ague are nowhere reported, however closely the long lists and bills published by the newspapers, of the mortality prevailing in the various, most widely separated, cities may be examined. And where would the ague not be met with? the ague, which more or less occurs on newly-broken land, or meadows, or lands with a very rich humus, from wbich the golden fruits are gathered that fill the farmers' barns. The fever exists as well on the eastern seaboard, and in Europe, as in the Western States. Nobody will ever venture to call Hoboken, a pretty little city situated opposite New York, a place infected with fevers; though many cases of fever occur in those parts of it touching on meadowy ground, few of those residing in the vicinity of which, along the Hackensack River, having yet escaped being visited by this unwelcome guest, the ague. And on the other side of the ocean, in. Europe, you will find the ague in the rich low lands of the Vistula, the great granary of Prussia, on the marshes of the Oder, and in the rich marshy lands of East Frieseland.

Should this book be doomed to reach the hands of none but those residing in Illinois, it would hardly be necessary to say anything concerning the sanitary condition of the State; every inhabitant being from his own experience sufficiently acquainted with it; but as it is designed to furnish information of a reliable character to such as intend to seek their homes in Illinois, the state of health of that country cannot be passed over in silence. The importance of the question as to the salubrity of a country, for those wishing to settle in it, being selfevident, we have felt it incumbent upon us to gather the opinions of men long resident in the State, and we now submit to the reader, the results arrived at by private gentlemen and doctors residing within its limits, from many years personal experience; to which is added the testimony of a gentleman from Massachusetts, who travelled through

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