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nessee, 49,508 from Kentucky, 64,219 from Ohio, 2158 from Michigan, 30,953 from Indiana, 7288 from Missouri, 1511 from Iowa, 1095 from Wisconsin, 3 from California, 16 from the Territories, and 343,618 were natives of Illinois.

Of those born in foreign countries, 18,628 were natives of England, 27,786 of Ireland, 4661 of Scotland, 572 of Wales, 38,511 of Germany, inclusive of Austria, 3396 of France, 70 of Spain, 42 of Portugal, 33 of Belgium, 220 of Holland, 43 of Italy, 1635 of Switzer. land, 27 of Russia, 93 of Denmark, 2415 of Norway, 1123 of Sweden, 4 of Greece, 3 of Asia, 11 of Africa, 10,699 of British America, 30 of Mexico, 12 of South America, 75 of the West Indies, 9 of the Sandwich Islands, and 495 from various other countries.

Farming lands. - In the year 1850, Illinois had 76,208 farms, containing 12,037,412 acres, making an average of 158 acres to each farm, 5,039,545 of which were improved, and 6,997,867 still uncultivated. The value of these 76,208 farms was estimated at $96,133,290; hence the average value of each farm was $1261. The value of the agricultural implements amounted to $6,405,561.

The live stock, of cattle, was estimated at $24,209,258; of horses, $267,653 ; of asses and mules, $10,573 : making an aggregate of $278,226, against $199,235 in 1840; of milk cows, $294,671; of oxen, $76,156; of bulls, heifers, and cattle fit for slaughter, $541,209; peat cattle in the aggregate, $912,036, against $626,274 in 1810; of sheep, $894,043, against $395,672 in 1810; of hogs, $1,915,907, against $1,495,254 in 1810. The value of the slaughtered cattle in the year 1850, amounted to $1,972,286; and the value of the live stock of cattle in 1850, to $30,000,000.

The following were the crops in 1850: -9,414,575 bushels of wheat, against 3,335,393 in the year 1840; 83,364 bushels of rye, against 88,197 in 1840; 10,087,241 bushels of oats, against 4,988,008 in 1840; 57,646,984 bushels of Indian corn, against 22,634,211 in 1840; 2,514,861 bushels of Irish, and 157,433 bushels of sweet potatoes — making an aggregate of 2,672,294 bushels of potatoes, against 2,025,520 bushels in 1840; 110,795 bushels of barley, against 82,251 in 1840; 184,504 bushels of buckwheat, against 57,884 in 1840; 601,952 tons of hay, against 164,932 in 1840. Hence it follows, that of the produce of the fields, rye alone has de

creased, all the other species of corn having increased, and that wheat and Indian corn have advanced by the highest ratio.

The harvest of 1855 is roughly estimated at 20,000,000 bushels of wheat, 20,000,000 bushels of oats, 130,000,000 bushels of Indian corn, and 1,000,000 tons of hay.

Other farm produces in the year 1850, were :- 3551 lbs. of hops, against 17,742* in 1840; 3427 lbs. of cloverseed; 14,380 lbs. of seeds of other species of grass; 12,526,543 lbs. of butter; 1,278,225 lbs. of cheese - making an aggregate of 13,804,768 lbs., against 428,175 lbs. in 1840; 82,814 bushels of peas and beans. The value of the produce of the market-gardens amounted to $127,494 ; fruitery, etc., $1,146,049, against $126,756 in 1840; wax and honey, to 869,444 lbs., against 29,173 in 1840; articles of produce for domestie use, to $1,155,902; flaxseed, to 10,787 bushels; flax, to 160,063 lbs.; maple sugars, to 248,904 lbs.; molasses, to 8,354 gallons; tobacco, to 841,394 lbs., versus 564,326 in 1840; wool, to 2,150,113 lbs., versus 650,007 in 1840; silk cocoons, to 47 lbs., versus 1150 in 1840; wine, to 2997 gallons, versus 474 in 1840.

Of manufactories, Illinois, in the year 1850, had 3164 establishments, doing business with a capital of $6,385,387, consuming $8,915,173 worth of raw materials, employing 11,632 men and 433 women, paying wages to the amount of $3,286,249, and manufacturing goods to the value of $17,236,073.

of manufactories of woollen articles, Illinois, in the year 1850, had 16, operating with a capital of $154,500, consuming of raw materials 396,964 lbs. of wool and 987 tons of coal, valued in the aggregate at $115,367; employing 124 men and 54 women, and manufacturing goods to the value of $206,572.

Of manufactories of pig iron, there were but two, having a capital of $65,000. These consumed 5500 tons of ore, estimated at $15,500, and while employing 150 laborers, manufactured 2700 tons of pig iron, valued at $70,200.


* This statement, though, like all the preceding, taken from the United States census, appears to us erroneous; for as, during the last few years, a remarkable increase has taken place, both in the brewing and consumption of beer, it seems scarcely credible, that the cultivation of hops should have so considerably fallen off.

Of iron foundries, there were 29, doing business with a capital of $260,400. These expended $172,330 for 4818 tons of pig iron, 50 tons of old iron, besides fuel, &c.; employing 332 laborers, and manu. facturing goods to the value of $141,185.

Of breweries and distilleries, there were 52, having a business capital of $303,400, consuming 98,000 bushels of barley, 48,700 bushels of rye, and 703,500 bushels of Indian corn, occupying 274 bands, and furnishing a supply of 27,925 barrels of beer, &c., and 2,315,000 gallons of whiskey, and various other spirits.

Lastly, Illinois possesses a salt manufactory, operating with a capi. tal of $2500, consuming $2000 worth of raw material, employing 3 hands, and producing 20,000 bushels of salt, estimated at $6000.

Of churches, there are 1223 in the State, having 486,576 members, and appertaining to the various denominations, as follows: The Baptists have 282 churches, with 94,130 members; the Christians, 69 churches, with 30,864 members; the Congregationalists, 46 churches, with 15,626 members; Dutch Reformed, 2 churches, with 875 members; Episcopalians, 27 churches, with 14,000 members; Free, 2 churches, with 750 members; Friends, 6 churches, with 1550 members; German Reformed, 3 churches, with 280 members; Lutherans, 42 churches, with 16,640 members; Methodists, 405 churches, with 178,452 members; Moravians, 2 churches, with 400 members; Presbyterians, 206 churches, with 83,129 members; Roman Catholics, 59 churches, with 29,100 members; Swedenborgians, 2 churches, with 140 members; Tunkers, 4 churches, with 1225 members; Unionists, 30 churches, with 8625 members; Unitarians, 4 churches, with 1050 members; Universalists, 2 churches, with 2000 members; various other small sects, 25 churches, with 7740 members. Thwhole church property amounted to $1,482,182.

Of places for education there were :— 4052 public schools, with 4248 teachers, 125,725 pupils, and a yearly revenue of $319,712; 83 academies and private schools, with 160 teachers, 4244 scholars, and a yearly income of $10,488; 4 colleges, with 29 professors, and 223 students. Whole amount of lands appropriated by the Federal Government for educational purposes, up to 1st of January, 1854: for schools, 978,755 acres; for universities, 23,040 acres; making an aggregate of 1,001,795 acres.

According to the army register for 1851, the militia of Illinois aumbered 170,359, in all the departments, 4168 of whom were commissioned officers, the residue (165,741) being non-commissioned officers, privates, and musicians. Among the commissioned officers there were 30 general officers, 79 general staff officers, 1297 field officers, and 3192 company

officers. Of libraries, Illinois, in 1850, possessed 152, with 62,486 volumes, 33 of which, with 35,982 volumes, were public libraries; 29 school libraries, with 5875 volumes; 86 Sunday-school libraries, with 12,829 volumes; 4 college libraries, with 7800 volumes.

In the year 1828, 4 newspapers were edited; in 1840, 52; in the year 1850, 107; among which were 7 monthly and 1 quarterly periodical. These 107 newspapers, &c., issued, in the year 1850, 5,102,276 numbers, and may be classified as follows: literary and miscellaneous, 22; neutral, 1; political, 73; religious, 8; scientific, 3.

In 1850, 797 paupers were in the State, who were either wholly or to some extent provided for and relieved.

Of criminals, 316 were condemned during the year expiring June 1st, 1850; on that day the number of those imprisoned for crime, &c., amounted to 252.

Of the 851,470 inhabitants of the State in 1850, 41,283 were unable to read or write; 35,336 of these were born in the United States, and 5947 in foreign countries; 40,054 of them were wbites, to wit: 16,633 males and 23,421 females; and 1229 were colored people, to wit: 605 males and 624 females.



Upon looking at the map of the Upper Mississippi, we have before us that very extensive net of streams and rivers which is bounded in the west, below the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi, by the Ozark Mountains, through which the Arkansas and Red Rivers have forced their passage; and in the east, by the projecting ridge of the Alleghany Mountains. High lands, elevated 2000 feet above the level of the sea, divide this district in the north from the Arctic river-district, together with which it was undoubtedly covered by a vast sheet of water, at an early period of the formation of the earth ; the hills separating it from Lake Superior, which is situated 600 feet above the level of the sea, do not rise more than 1000 feet above it, and the boundary line dividing it from the river-district of the St. Lawrence, runs along the shores of the other great lakes. No chain of moun

* Dr. Fred. Brendel, of Peoria, to whom we are indebted for many valuable contributions to this chapter, has for several years pursued with great zeal the study of the natural history of Illinois, and would be very happy, could be meet with fellow-laborers in this work; for which reason we take the liberty of calling the attention of those of our readers, who take an interest in Natural Sciences, to the following lines :

“A thorough examination of such an extensive State as Illinois, with respect to all the various branches of natural science, is a difficult undertaking for a single man, but might be easily accomplished by a number of scientific men, co-operating in the different parts of the country. Meteorological observations, catalogues of the plants, animals, and petrifactions found in the various districts, it would be advisable to publish in one annual collective report; specimens contributed from every district would form a State Museum; and naturalists, residing at distances from each other, would much more enhance and accelerate the advancement of knowledge by mutual correspondence, than by pursuing separate studies, each one for himself. Any person who is willing thus to promote the interests of science, will find me ready to assist him."

FREDERICK BRENDEL, M. D., Peoria, Illinois.

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