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its ancestor. The medieval heraldry was growing up in England during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and it made an extensive use of conventionalized heads of familiar animals, not merely lions, wolves, and bulls, but many kinds of bird and fish, as well as such imaginary creatures as dragons, griffins, and cockatrices. For example, Lucy is the heraldic name for pike, and the shield of the De Lucy family bears on a field gules three lucies or. From this emblem the family surname is likely to have arisen, just as Geoffrey Plantagenet was so called from the sprig of broom or genesta plant worn in his helmet. The familiar name of Pike, as well as that of the Puritan magistrate, Sir Thomas Lucy, who arrested Shakespeare for poaching, has probably come from the heraldic use of pikes or lucies.
The explanation which serves for one of this class of animal surnames might perhaps serve for all; but there is another point to be considered. Heraldic devices were used not only upon banners and coat-of-arms, but also upon signboards, not merely of inns but of other places of business. In days when reading and writing were not common accomplishments, such devices were in general use, and they survived down to a recent time. For tavern signs they are not yet extinct. In old times, as often at the present day in Europe, the shop and the homestead were usually contained in the same building. Thus in the seventeenth century the father of John Milton, who was a solicitor, notary public, and law-stationer, had his office and his home in a certain house known as the Spread Eagle, in Bread Street, Cheapside. Over the front door was the figure of an eagle with outstretched wings. For four or five centuries before Milton's time, in going through any town, you would have passed by a succession of such signs of hawks, cranes, dolphins, salmon, lambs, and bulls, thus finding your way to the particular shop and homestead of which you were in quest. The principle upon which the signs were chosen is not always obvious. Sometimes a family name may have suggested the sign, as if a man named Crow were to paint a black crow over his door; but in early times the sign undoubtedly preceded and suggested the name. The family which dwelt at the sign of the crow came to be called Crow, in the same way that a family which dwelt at a country house called Greenough or Greenhalge (green field) came to be called by the name of the house."
THE EARLY FORESTERS.
Below, will be found the English and Flemish ancestors of Reginald Foster and undoubtedly of all the other emigrants to Massachusetts in an early day, and in fact every one now bearing this name in the world. The first of the name was:
I. ANACHER GREAT FORESTER of Flanders died in 837, had son.
2. BALDWIN I, OF FLANDERS (Anacher Great Forester), the Forester called "Iron Arm" on account of his great strength, some say on account of his being constantly in armor. He married the Princess Judith, daughter of Charles, the Bald,† King of Aguitenia and Neustria, or in other words the greater part of modern France. He built castles at Bruges and Ghent to defend the country against the Normans. He died at Arras in 877, and was succeeded by his son.
3. BALDWIN II, OF FLANDERS (Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). the Forester, married the Princess Alfrith, daughter of Alfred the Great, King of England. He made war against Endes, Count of Paris, who usurped the French crown and defeated him. He died in 919 and was succeeded by his son, Arnulf of Flanders, the Forester, who was succeeded in 988 by his son.
4. BALDWIN III, OF FLANDERS (Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester), the Forester, called "of the handsome beard," married the daughter of
* See Galway, Ireland, "Vindicator" of Oct. 20, 1866, for genealogical chart of the Blake Forester branch.
† Charles II, the Bald, King of France, was son of Louis I, the Pious, King of France, who was son of Charlemagne, Emperor of the West, who was son of Pepin le Bref, King of France, who was son of Charles I, King of France.
the Count of Luxemborg. He was a great warrior and defended his country against the united forces of the Emperor Henry, King Robert of France and the Duke of Normandy. He died in 1034 and was succeeded by his son.
5. BALDWIN IV (Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester), the Forester called "Le Debonaire," ma ried the Princess Adela, daughter of Robert, King of France, by whom he had issue.
BALDWIN V, the Forester.
ROBERT FORESTER, surnamed "the Frislander," from his having conquered the Principality of Frisland.
MATILDA or Maud, m. William I, surnamed the Conqueror of England. William, Duke of Normandy, was born in 1024. He was surnamed the Conqueror, from his triumph over Harold at Hastings, on the 14th of October, 1066, and was crowned King of England by Aldred, Archbishop of York, at Westminster Abbey on the 29th of December in the same year. His children were: I. Robert, surnamed Courthouse, successor to the Duchy of Normandy, d. at Cardiff Castle, Feb. 10, 1134. 2. Richard, killed by a stag in the New Forest, and d. a youth. 3. William Rufus, successor to the crown of England, known as William II, d. Aug. 2, 1100. 4. Henry, successor to the crown of England, after his brother, known as Henry I. He d. from eating too freely of lampreys Dec. 2, 1135. 5. Cicelie, who took the veil at the monastery of Fescamp, and was afterward abbess to the Holy Trinity at Caen, where she d. in 1126. 6. Constantia, m. Alan Fergant, Earl of Brittany, and d. Sept. in 1126. 7. Alice, contracted to Harold. 8. Adela, m. Stephen, Earl of Blois, and had 5 ch. 9. Agatha, d. unm., but betrothed to Alphonzo, King of Galicia. Gundred, m. William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, and d. May 27, 1085. 9. iv. SIR RICHARD FORESTER, called in those days by his Latinized name of Forestarius. Sir Richard and his father, Baldwin IV, passed over to England with his brother-in-law, William the Conqueror, and received the honor of knighthood after the decisive battle of Hastings, being then in his sixteenth year, from whom sprung the Foresters of Etherston and Bamborough Castle in Northumberland, and the Blake Foresters of Ashfield and Knockmoy Abbey, County of Galway and Inchorey Castle, County of Clare.
The Forester family were the principal chieftains in Northumberland and allied by marriage with all the eminent northern families, viz., the Fetherstones, Grays of Chillingham, the Fenwicks, the Lord Barons of Hilton, the Mitfords. Barons of Mitford, from whom the Earl of Redesdale, the Collingswoods of Dislington, the Radcliffes, Earls of Derwentwater, the Haggerstons of Haggerston; the Russels from whom the Duke of Bedford, and others too numerous to mention. Many of the family were distinguished for their deeds of chivalry and warlike actions, and at; the siege of Acre, A. D. 1191, a party of Saracens, having sallied forth and surrounded King Richard, he would have been overpowered and made prisoner had not Sir John Forster, who seeing from a distance the danger in which the King was placed, pushed forward with couched lance followed by his retainers shouting, "To the rescue! a Forester! a Forester!" The King then cut down the Saracen leader whose troops retreated before Sir John, who for his bravery and timely assistance received from King Richard a grant to bear a Chevron vert on his shield. There is a monument to his memory in Bamborough Abbey bearing his effigy in full armor. In a song on the battle of Otherbowine, in 1238, the Foresters are placed first of the clans mentioned:
"The Forster, Fenwick, Collingwood, the heroes of Renown,
The Forsters of Bamborough Castle were Lords of Blanchland in Northumberland, and for several generations they were Knights Bannerets, Lords Warden of the Middle Marches, High Sheriff's of Northumberland and hereditary Governors of Bamborough Castle from the reign of James I to that of George I. The Forsters of Etherston-the head of this house-from whom those of Bamborough
descended, won their honors on the field of battle; and their descendants, of Huntdon (Hunsdon), by their profound skill in legal knowledge. Sir Richard Forester, the son of Baldwin IV,,was succeeded by his son.
IO. SIR HUGO FORESTURIOUS OR FORSTER (Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester), who marched against Magnus, King of Norway, when he invaded England A. D. 1101. In the battle that ensued King Magnus was slain and his troops routed. Sir Hugo d. in 1121, leaving issue.
II. i. SIR REGINALD. He was knighted by King Stephen for his valiant conduct at the battle of the Standard, fought Aug. 22, 1138. He died in 1156, leaving a son and successor.
ii. SIR HUGO, a person of great eminence during the reign of King Stephen, who appointed him Chief Guard of the Royal Forests of England. In 1152 he witnessed a deed in Northumberland in which he is styled Foresturious (the Latinized name of Forster). He bore for arms a shield argant, three bugles or stringed gules.
13. SIR WILLIAM FORSTER (Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He took an active part in suppressing two formidable insurrections that broke out in Wales A. D. 1163 and again in 1165. In 1166 he took his departure for France, the people of Brittany having rebelled against their Duke Conan, but the insurrection was quelled by Henry II with his usual promptitude, and afforded him a pretext for taking the government into his own hands. Sir William was then about returning to England, but Henry becoming involved in hostilities with Louis VII he remained and took part in all the engagements; but the war terminating by the peace concluded at Montmirail, Jan. 6, 1169, he returned to England and d. in 1176. He was succeeded by his son Sir John.
14. SIR JOHN FORSTER (Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin, III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). accompanied Richard I to Palestine, where he received the honor of knighthood for his valor. He was one of those who compelled John to sign the Magna Charta in 1215. He d. in 1220 and was succeeded by his son.
15. SIR RANDOLPH FORSTER (Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He accompanied Prince Richard, brother of Henry III, to France in 1225, the Prince being sent by the King for the purpose of regaining his French provinces. After a year's fighting an armistice was agreed upon, but the French King dying before its expiration, the hostilities were again renewed, but ended in very little result. He d. in 1256 and was succeeded by his son.
16. SIR ALFRED FORSTER (Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He assisted Prince Edward after his escape from the rebel barons in raising an army for the purpose of releasing his father, Henry III and Prince Richard from their confinement, and was appointed one of the King's officers. Having collected his army Prince Edward fought the battle of Eversham Aug. 4, 1265, in which he was victorious. Sir Alfred received the honor of knighthood on the battlefield. He d. in 1284 and was succeeded by his son.
17. SIR REGINALD FORSTER (Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He fought at Bannockburn in 1314, and d. in 1328 and was succeeded by his son. His descendants were great chieftains, many being_knighted, and being closely allied to the Royalty in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and England. Sixty-one (61) of this family held the offices of mayors or sheriffs of the town of Galway. Frances Blake Forster left five (5) children, two (2) sons and three daughters, who still survived and one of whom, Capt. Blake Forster, J. P. of Forster Street House in this city (Galway) and Bally Keale, County Clare, is the present (1866) head of this (Blake Forster) family. There is a monument to the memory of Sir John Forster (of the time 1190) in Bamborough Abbey, being his effigy in full armor. Sir Reginald's son was:
18. SIR RICHARD FORSTER (Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He fought at Cricy Aug. 25, 1346, and at Poitiers Sept. 19, 1356. He was knighted for his valor. He d. in 1371 leaving a son.
19. SIR WILLIAM FORSTER (Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forster). He took an active part against the French for Henry V, by whom he was knighted He was succeeded by his son.
20. SIR THOMAS FORSTER (Sir William, Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He was of Etherston Castle, Knight, b. 1397, married Joan Elwerden, co-heiress to the Earldom of Angus, which is now in abeyance. He was succeeded by his son. SIR THOMAS FOSTER (Sir Thomas, Sir William, Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He was knighted, and married the daughter of Fetherstonbaugh, of Stanhope Hall, Durham, Chief of the Fetherston clan. This family is of Saxon origin, and was seated at Fetherston, in Northumberland, before the Conquest; that part of the country having been allotted to its progenitor, a Saxon officer, for his gallant conduct against the Britons. The house in which the family resided was formerly upon a hill, where were two stones-called fether stones. The house was destroyed and a new edifice erected under the hill, which valley was locally denominated a haugh, hence the name Fetherstonehaugh. Sir Thomas' children were:
22. i. SIR THOMAS. He was knighted, was of Etherston, and married the daughter of Lord Baron Hilton, of Hilton Castle. His children
I. SIR THOMAS, m. Dorothy Ogle.
23. 1 SIR ROGER.
24. SIR THOMAS FORSTER (Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir William, Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He was of Etherston, Knight, who was High Sheriff of Northumberland in 1564, and also in 1572 married Dorothy, dau. of Ralph, Lord Ogle of Ogle,* and Baron of Bothall of Bothall Castle by Mary his wife, daughter of William Gastroigne of Lawthrop, Knight in Yorkshire. children were:
SIR THOMAS FORSTER, m. Feorina Wharton.
SIR JOHN FORSTER, Knight of Bamborough Castle.
vi. 34. vii.
35. vii DOROTHY, who m. Henry Neville, b. of Sir John Neville of Levassy. 28. SIR THOMAS FORSTER (Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir William, Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin, III, Baldwin II. Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester). He was a Knight of Etherston, married Feorina, dau. of Thomas, Lord Wharton of Wharton. was of Adderstone, High Sheriff of Northumberland. Will dated April 4, 1589, and had children.
ROLLAND, who left only a daughter.
ROBERT, ancestor of the family of Forsters of York, Baronets.
SIR THOMAS FORSTER.
ii. CUTHBERT FORSTER, m. Elizabeth Bradford.
37. CUTHBERT FORSTER (Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir William, Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester), m. Elizabeth Bradford. Will dated 1589. His children were:
SIR MATTHEW FORSTER, knighted April 24, 1617.
39. ii. THOMAS FORSTER of Brunton Esquire, who m. Margaret Forster, dau. of Richard of Zungwell Hall, Esquire, and had one dau., Elizabeth: he married
*The Ogle family is of very great antiquity in the county of Northumberland in England. Sir Robert Ogle, Knight of Ogle, was the eighth in lineal descent from Humphrey Ogle who settled at Ogle at the Conquest; his wife was the daughter of Lord Bothall.
2nd. Elizabeth Carr, dau. of William Carr of Ford, Esquire, and will dated June 19, 1648, and had issue.
40. I. EPHRAIM FORSTER.
2. JOHN FORSTER.
42. 3. REGINALD FORSTER m. Judith-and Mrs. Sarah Martin.
REGINALD FORSTER (Thomas, Cuthbert, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir Thomas, Sir William, Sir Richard, Sir Reginald, Sir Alfred, Sir Randolph, Sir John, Sir William, Sir Reginald, Sir Hugo, Sir Richard, Baldwin IV, Baldwin III, Baldwin II, Baldwin I, Anacher Great Forester), b at Brunton, England, about 1595, came to America with wife, Judith, and seven children. P.110
THE FORSTERS OF BAMBOROUGH AND ETHERSTON.
Sir Walter Besant, the celebrated English novelist, has written an intensely interesting novel entitled "Dorothy Forster." Of the family history in his second chapter he has this to say:
There are in Northumberland (one may thank heaven for it) as many Forsters as there are Fenwick's, and more. First it hath been said (but irreverently) the Lord made Adam and Eve; and then he made the Forsters. They are, indeed, as ancient a family as any in the county, as ancient in the county as the Percys, who belong also to Sussex, or the Radcliffes, who came from Cumberland. The ancient and original seat of the Forsters from time immemorial has been at Etherston, which is being interpreted, the Adder's Stone. An old ring of the family, now in possession of John Forster, Esquire, of Etherston, commemorates the origin of the name, being shaped like a twisted viper with tail in mouth, and set with a precious stone. There is a snake or dragon connected with many old and illustrious families. The legend of the Forsters' adder is lost. Mr. Hilyard once made for me a ballad or a song about it, but so full of knights, shepherds, nymphs, and cool grots (of which there are not many in our part of the county), that I thought it fantastical, although ingenious: The shield of the Forsters is: argent: a chevron vert between three bugle horns stringed gules, and for crest a bent arm and a hand bearing a broken lance. The Etherston quartering is also argent: on a bend cottised sable three martlets. The motto is "Si fractus fortis;" but, like the Fenwicks, we have our family legend, namely,
Let us dearlie then holde
To mynde ther worthines
There are branches of the Forsters everywhere; at Bamborough, at Stokesly in Yorkshire, at East Bolton, at Tuggall Hall, at Aldermarston, in Berwick, in Jamaica, descended from Claudius, nephew of Sir Claudius Forster, in London, and I know not where else. With these branches we have nothing here to do, save to mention them with respect as flourishing offshoots of a brave old stock. Especially however to be considered is the noble branch of Bamborough, founded by Sir John Forster, the valiant and trusty Warden of the March, under good Queen Elizabeth for twenty-seven years, and Governor of Bamborough Castle. It was to his son, Sir Claudius, that King James made a grant of the castle and manor. This made him a man of greater importance than his first cousin, Mr. Forster, of Etherston. Yet it is a proud thing to be the head of the house, which will ever be the happiness of the Forster who holds Etherston.
They have always been, like most Northumbrian families, blessed with numerous progeny. One of them had twenty-one sons and a daughter; being unsurpassed in this respect, even in Northumberland, except by Sir William Swinburne's father, who, to be sure, had thirty children. How great a happiness to bring up so many valiant sons to fight England's enemies and maintain the glory of the country! By marriage, especially before the Reformation, into which many noble Houses of the North would never enter, the Forsters were connected with nearly every family of gentle birth in the North; videlicet, Lords Crewe, Wharton, Hilton, and Ogle; the Radcliffes, Shaftoes, Swinburnes, Chaytors, Selbys, Herons, Carnabys, Crasters, Ridleys, Fenwicks, Salkelds, Greys, of Chillingham and of Howick; Coles of Brancepeth, and Ordes. By marriage with a Radcliffe, the Forsters of Bamborough acquired the Manor of Blanchland; and by marriage with a